Kuasa lunak

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Kuasa lunak atau kuasa lembut (soft power) difahamkan sebagai keupayaan mempengaruhi serta membentuk tanggapan ramai terhadap sesebuah entiti negara tanpa paksaan menggunakan nilai tertentu seperti budaya, fahaman politik dan dasar luar negara. Konsep ini mula diungkapkan pada lewat dekad 1980-an oleh Joseph Nye, seorang saintis politik Universiti Harvard lagi-lagi dalam buku dikarangnya bertajuk Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power (1990) yang menjelaskan ia sebagai kuasa dimiliki sesebuah negara untuk "mendorong negara-negara lain sekeinginan dengannya" jika dibandingkan dengan kuasa keras yang mendorong pengarahan atau penyuruhan negara-negara ini melakukan sebarang apa yang dimahukan negara tersebut".[1]

Setakat mana berjayanya pelaksanaan kuasa jenis ini bergantung kuat kepada reputasi negara pelaksana dalam dalam medan antarabangsa serta aliran maklumat antara kedua-dua pihak yang memberi dan menerima dalam penjalinan ini. Budaya popular dan media massa sering dikenalpasti sebagai sumber kuasa lembut[2] melalui penyebaran unsur-unsur budaya (misalnya bahasa kebangsaan atau norma masyarakat) yang lazim wujud di negara penyasar; sebuah negara yang mempunyai kuasa lembut besar dengan kebaikan yang menjadikan ia boleh memberi inspirasi kepada orang lain untuk membudayakan, tanpa perlunya membelanjakan mahal terhadap kuasa keras. Berita antarabangsa khususnya didapati berperanan penting dalam membentuk imej dan reputasi negara asing; liputan berita positif dikaitkan dengan pandangan antarabangsa yang positif, begitu juga kesan yang sebaliknya dengan adanya liputan berita negatif. [3]

Penilaian kuasa lunak[sunting | sunting sumber]

Banyak kelompok menilai sebilangan negara tertentu yang dikaji kemampuan menjana kuasa ini serta memangkat berdasarkan tahap dan kesan yang diberikan:

Peringkat dunia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Portland's
The Soft Power 30 Report 2018
[4]
Monocle's
Soft Power Survey 2018/19
[5]
Portland's
The Soft Power 30 2015
[6]
Elcano's
Global Presence Report 2017
Soft presence
[7]
Rank Negara
1 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom
2  Perancis
3  Jerman
4  Amerika Syarikat
5  Jepun
6  Kanada
7  Switzerland
8  Sweden
9  Belanda
10  Australia
11  Denmark
12  Itali
13 Flag of Norway.svg Norway
14  Sepanyol
15  Finland
Rank Negara
1  Perancis
2  Jerman
3  Jepun
4  Kanada
5  Switzerland
6 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom
7  Sweden
8  Australia
9  Amerika Syarikat
10  Portugal
11  New Zealand
12  Itali
13  Sepanyol
14  Denmark
15 Flag of South Korea.svg Korea Selatan
Rank Negara
1  Jerman
2 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom
3  Amerika Syarikat
4  Perancis
5  Kanada
6  Australia
7  Switzerland
8  Jepun
9  Sweden
10  Belanda
11  Denmark
12  Itali
13  Austria
14  Sepanyol
15  Finland
Rank Negara
0  Kesatuan Eropah
1  Amerika Syarikat
2  China
3  Jerman
4 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom
5  Perancis
6  Jepun
7  Kanada
8 Flag of Russia.svg Rusia
9  Sepanyol
10  Itali
11 Flag of South Korea.svg Korea Selatan
12  Australia
13  Belanda
14 Flag of Turkey.svg Turki
15  Arab Saudi

Peringkat Asia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Portland's
The Asia Soft Power 10 Report 2018
[4]
Rank Negara
1
 Jepun
2
 Korea Selatan
3
 Singapura
4
 China
5
 Republik China
6
 Thailand
7
 Malaysia
8
 India
9
 Indonesia
10
 Filipina

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Nye, Joseph (1990). Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power. London: Basic Books. ...when one country gets other countries to want what it wants might be called co-optive or soft power in contrast with the hard or command power of ordering others to do what it wants.
  2. ^ "Economic warfare on the silver screen". FRANCE 24. 28 Jun 2011. Diarkib daripada yang asal pada 19 Januari 2012. Dicapai pada 28 Januari 2012.
  3. ^ Segev, Elad (2016). International News Online: Global Views with Local Perspectives. New York: Peter Lang. halaman 139–153. ISBN 9781433129841. Diarkib daripada yang asal pada 2016-06-11.
  4. ^ a b "The Soft Power 30 - Ranking" (PDF). Portland.
  5. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan monocle.com tidak disediakan
  6. ^ "The Soft Power 30 - Ranking". Portland. Diarkib daripada yang asal pada 16 Juli 2015. Dicapai pada 1 April 2019. Parameter |deadurl= yang tidak diketahui diendahkan (bantuan); Periksa date values in: |archivedate= (bantuan)
  7. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan ElcanoEU tidak disediakan

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Giulio Gallarotti, Cosmopolitan Power in International Relations: A Synthesis of Realism, Neoliberalism, and Constructivism, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2010, how hard and soft power can be combined to optimize national power
  • Giulio Gallarotti, The Power Curse: Influence and Illusion in World Politics, Boulder, CO.: Lynne Rienner Press, 2010, an analysis of how the over reliance on hard power can diminish the influence of nations.
  • Giulio Gallarotti. "Soft Power: What it is, Why It's Important, and the Conditions Under Which it Can Be Effectively Used" Journal of Political Power (2011), works.bepress.com.
  • Soft Power and US Foreign Policy: Theoretical, Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, ed. Inderjeet Parmar and Michael Cox, Routledge, 2010.
  • Steven Lukes, "Power and the battle for hearts and minds: on the bluntness of soft power," in Felix Berenskoetter and M.J. Williams, eds. Power in World Politics, Routledge, 2007.
  • Janice Bially Mattern, "Why Soft Power Isn't So Soft," in Berenskoetter and Williams.
  • J.S. Nye, "Notes for a soft power research agenda," in Berenskoetter and Williams.
  • Young Nam Cho and Jong Ho Jeong, "China's Soft Power," Asia Survey 48, 3, pp. 453–72.
  • Yashushi Watanabe and David McConnell, eds, Soft Power Superpowers: Cultural and National Assets of Japan and the United States, London, M E Sharpe, 2008.
  • Ingrid d'Hooghe, "Into High Gear: China's Public Diplomacy", The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, No. 3 (2008), pp. 37–61.
  • Ingrid d'Hooghe, "The Rise of China's Public Diplomacy", Clingendael Diplomacy Paper No. 12, The Hague, Clingendael Institute, July 2007, ISBN 978-90-5031-117-5, 36 pp.
  • "Playing soft or hard cop," The Economist, January 19, 2006.
  • Y. Fan, (2008) "Soft power: the power of attraction or confusion", Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4:2, available at bura.brunel.ac.uk.
  • Bruce Jentleson, "Principles: The Coming of a Democratic Century?" from American Foreign Policy: The Dynamics of Choice in the 21st Century.
  • Jan Melissen, "Wielding Soft Power," Clingendael Diplomacy Papers, No 2, Clingendael, Netherlands, 2005.
  • Chicago Council on Global Affairs, "Soft Power in East Asia" June 2008.
  • Joseph Nye, The Powers to Lead, NY Oxford University Press, 2008.
  • Nye, Joseph, Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics.
  • Joshua Kurlantzick, Charm Offensive: How China's Soft Power is Transforming the World (Yale University Press, 2007). Analysis of China's use of soft power to gain influence in the world's political arena.
  • John McCormick The European Superpower (Palgrave Macmillan, 2006). Argues that the European Union has used soft power effectively to emerge as an alternative and as a competitor to the heavy reliance of the US on hard power.
  • Ian Manners, Normative Power Europe: A Contradiction in Terms?, princeton.edu
  • Matthew Fraser, Weapons of Mass Distraction: Soft Power and American Empire (St. Martin's Press, 2005). Analysis is focused on the pop culture aspect of soft power, such as movies, television, pop music, Disneyland, and American fast-food brands including Coca-Cola and McDonald's.
  • Middle East Policy Journal: Talking With a Region, mepc.org
  • Salvador Santino Regilme, The Chimera of Europe's Normative Power in East Asia: A Constructivist Analysis Regilme, Salvador Santino Jr. (March 2011). "The Chimera of Europe's Normative Power in East Asia: A Constructivist Analysis" (PDF). Central European Journal of International and Security Studies. 5 (1): 69–90. Diarkib daripada yang asal (PDF) pada 2012-03-12.
  • Paul Michael Brannagan and Richard Giulianotti (2018), The Soft Power-Soft Disempowerment Nexus: the case of Qatar, International Affairs, 94(5), pp. 1139-1157, for an analysis on the ways through which states' attempts at soft power can backfire, leading to instances of 'soft disempowerment'.