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Sumber-sumber bantuan: Pusat Rujukan Persuratan Melayu.
London Greenpeace adalah sebuah kolektif aktivis pencinta alam sekitar anarki yang wujud di antara 1971 dan 2001. Mereka berpangkalan di London, dan menjadi terkenal di peringkat antarabangsa apabila dua aktivis mereka enggan menyerah kepada McDonalds dalam kes libel penting yang dikenali sebagai "McLibel".
Asal-usul[sunting | sunting sumber]
Pada 1970 sekumpulan aktivis terlibat dengan War Resisters' International dan Peace News membentuk suatu kumpulan baru committed dengan kepersekitaranan dan Anarkisme. pada 1972 mereka menggunakan nama "Greenpeace". Mereka memulakan keaktifan politik mereka dengan berkempen terhadap menguji senjata nuklear Perancis di Pasifik.
London Greenpeace tidak bergabung dengan Greenpeace. Greenpeace was formed out of a rough coalition of various environmentalist groups in 1971, many of whom were already using the name "Greenpeace". London Greenpeace emphatically wanted to remain independent of this new and larger Greenpeace, which they saw as being too "centralized and mainstream for their tastes".
Hubungan politik[sunting | sunting sumber]
London Greenpeace's politics have primarily been informed by Anarchism. They have been linked, ideologically and in their activism with radical environmentalism, green anarchism and pacifism. They have been officially affiliated with War Resisters' International, the National Peace Council, and the Animal Liberation movement. In the 1980s they were involved with the Stop the City campaigns, whilst the 1990s saw them helping to initiate the London-wide Reclaim The Streets Network. They are viewed as one of the first Anarchist groups to promote a specifically environmentalist message.
During the second half of the 1970s the group pioneered the campaign against nuclear power, and worked with a number of anti-nuclear alliances such as Stop Urenco, the Torness Alliance, and the Nuclear Information network.[petikan diperlukan] London Greenpeace was also involved in the opposition to the Falkland War, and co-founded the Anti-Falkland War Support network.[petikan diperlukan]
McLibel[sunting | sunting sumber]
In 1990 McDonalds issued proceedings against five London Greenpeace supporters, Paul Gravett, Andrew Clarke and Jonathan O'Farrell, Helen Steel and David Morris, for libel. The company offered to withdraw actions against each individual in return for an apology and an undertaking not to repeat the claims. The activists had been distributing a pamphlet throughout London containing allegations regarding starvation in the Third World, destruction of rainforest, the use of recycled paper, links between the company's food and heart disease & breast/bowel cancer, false advertising, the rearing and slaughter of animals, food poisoning, and employment practices. Of the five defendants, Gravett, Clarke and O'Farrell apologised to McDonalds, while Steel and Morris (often referred to as "The McLibel Two") refused.
Almost all of London Greenpeace's resources and efforts went to helping the pair over the years the case was heard, but in 1997 both defendants lost and were ordered to pay McDonalds £60,000. However, the extended court battle was a public relations failure for McDonalds; the company decided not to pursue the two defendants for the money.