Louis Mountbatten

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"Louis Mountbatten" dilencongkan ke sini. Untuk bapanya, 1st Marquess of Milford Haven, sila lihat Putera Louis of Battenberg.
Yang Teramat Mulia Laksamana Armada
Earl Mountbatten of Burma
Ralat Lua: expandTemplate: template "post-nominals/GBR" does not exist.
Lord Mountbatten Naval in colour Allan Warren.jpg
Earl Mountbatten of Burma, 1976
Fotograf oleh Allan Warren
First Sea Lord
Dalam jawatan
18 April 1955 – 19 Oktober 1959
Perdana Menteri Anthony Eden
Harold Macmillan
Didahului oleh Rhoderick McGrigor
Digantikan oleh Charles Lambe
Gabenor Jeneral India
Dalam jawatan
15 Ogos 1947 – 21 Jun 1948
Raja George VI
Perdana Menteri Jawaharlal Nehru
Didahului oleh Diri sendiri (Wizurai India)
Digantikan oleh Chakravarti Rajagopalachari
Wizurai India
Dalam jawatan
12 Februari 1947 – 15 Ogos 1947
Raja George VI
Didahului oleh The Viscount Wavell
Digantikan oleh Diri sendiri (Gabenor Jeneral India)
Butiran peribadi
Lahir Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas
(1900-06-25)25 Jun 1900
Frogmore House, Windsor, Berkshire, England
Meninggal dunia 27 Ogos 1979(1979-08-27) (umur 79)
Mullaghmore, County Sligo, Ireland
Pasangan Edwina Ashley
(k. 1922; m. 1960)
Anak-anak
Ibu bapa
Alma mater Christ's College, Cambridge
Profesion Pegawai tentera laut
Perkhidmatan ketenteraan
Perkhidmatan/
cawangan
Royal Navy
Tahun perkhidmatan 1913–65
Pangkat Laksamana Armada
Perkhidmatan Ketua Turus Pertahanan (1959–65)
First Sea Lord (1955–59)
Armada Mediterranean (1952–54)
Fourth Sea Lord (1950–52)
Pemerintah Bersekutu Tertinggi, Markas Asia Tenggara (1943–46)
Ketua Operasi Gabungan (1941–43)
HMS Illustrious (1941)
HMS Kelly (1939–41)
HMS Wishart (1934–36)
HMS Daring (1934)
Pertempuran Perang Dunia I
Perang Dunia II
Anugerah Knight of the Garter
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Member of the Order of Merit
Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India
Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire
Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
Distinguished Service Order
Dipuji Dalam Perutusan

Laksamana Armada Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, Earl Mountbatten Pertama Burma, Ralat Lua: expandTemplate: template "post-nominals/GBR" does not exist.[1] (lahir Putera Louis dari Battenberg; 25 Jun 1900 – 27 Ogos 1979) adalah seorang pegawai tentera laut British dan negarawan, pak cik kepada Putera Philip, Duke Edinburgh, dan sepupu kedua Elizabeth II. Semasa Perang Dunia II, beliau adalah Pemerintah Bersekutu Tertinggi, Markas Asia Tenggara (1943–46). Beliau merupakan Wizurai India (1947) yang terakhir dan Gabenor Jeneral pertama India merdeka (1947–48).

Dari tahun 1954 hingga 1959 beliau menjadi First Sea Lord, iaitu jawatan yang telah disandang oleh bapanya, Putera Louis Battenberg, empat puluh tahun yang lalu. Selepas itu beliau berkhidmat sebagai Ketua Turus Pertahanan sehingga tahun 1965, menjadikannya ketua profesional paling lama berkhidmat dalam Angkatan Tentera British setakat ini. Semasa tempoh itu Mountbatten juga berkhidmat sebagai Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Ketenteraan NATO selama setahun.

Pada tahun 1979, Mountbatten dan cucunya Nicholas, serta dua yang lain telah dibunuh oleh Tentera Republikan Sementara Ireland (IRA), yang telah meletakkan bom didalam bot memancingnya, Shadow V, di Mullaghmore, County Sligo, Ireland.

Anugerah kebesaran[sunting | sunting sumber]

Reben Nama Tarikh kurniaan
Order of the Garter UK ribbon.png Knight of the Garter (KG) 1946[2]
Order of the Bath UK ribbon.png Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) 1955
Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) 1945[3]
Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) 1943
Order of Merit (Commonwealth realms) ribbon.png Member of the Order of Merit (Military Division) (OM) 1965[4]
Ord.Stella.India.jpg Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India (GCSI) 1947
Order of the Indian Empire Ribbon.svg Knight Grand Commander of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE) 1947
Royal Victorian Order UK ribbon.png Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO) 1937[5]
Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (KCVO) 1922[6]
Member of the Royal Victorian Order (MVO) 1920[7]
Dso-ribbon.png Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) 1941[8]
Order of St John (UK) ribbon -vector.svg Knight of Justice of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (KStJ) 1940[9]
Commander of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (CStJ) 1929[10]
British War Medal BAR.svg British War Medal
World War I Victory Medal ribbon.svg Victory Medal
39-45 Star BAR.svg 1939–45 Star
Atlantic Star BAR.svg Atlantic Star
Africa Star BAR.svg Africa Star
Burma Star BAR.svg Burma Star
Italy Star BAR.svg Italy Star
Defence Medal BAR.svg Defence Medal
War Medal 39-45 BAR.svg War Medal 1939–1945
Naval General Service Medal 1915 BAR.svg Naval General Service Medal
King George V Coronation Medal ribbon.png King George V Coronation Medal 1911
GeorgeVSilverJubileum-ribbon.png King George V Silver Jubilee Medal 1935
GeorgeVICoronationRibbon.png King George VI Coronation Medal 1937
UK Queen EII Coronation Medal ribbon.svg Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal 1952
Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal ribbon.png Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal 1977
Indian Independence medal 1947.svg Indian Independence Medal 1949
ESP Isabella Catholic Order GC.svg Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic (Kingdom of Spain) – 1922[11]
EGY Order of the Nile - Officer BAR.png Order of the Nile, Fourth Class Templat:Country data Kingdom of Egypt (Kingdom of Egypt)  – 1922[11]
Ro1ocr.gif Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown (Romania) – 1924[11]
Star of Romania Ribbon.PNG Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Star of Romania (Romania) – 1937[11]
Greek War Cross 1940 3rd class ribbon.png War Cross (Kingdom of Greece) – 1941[12]
US Legion of Merit Chief Commander ribbon.png Chief Commander of the Legion of Merit (United States) – 1943[13]
Order of the Cloud and Banner 1st.gif Special Grand Cordon of the Order of the Cloud and Banner (Republic of China) – 1945[14]
U.S. Army Distinguished Service Medal ribbon.svg Distinguished Service Medal (United States) – 1945[15]
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal ribbon.svg Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal (United States) – 1945
Legion Honneur GC ribbon.svg Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour (France) – 1946[16]
Croix de Guerre 1939-1945 ribbon.svg 1939–1945 War Cross (France) – 1946
Most Refulgent Order of the Star of Nepal.PNG Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of Nepal (Kingdom of Nepal) – 1946[16]
King Birendra Investiture Medal 1975.png King Birendra Coronation Medal (Kingdom of Nepal) – 24 February 1975
Order of the White Elephant - 1st Class (Thailand) ribbon.png Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the White Elephant (Kingdom of Thailand) – 1946[16]
GRE Order of George I - Member or Silver Cross BAR.png Knight Grand Cross of the Order of George I (Kingdom of Greece) – 1946[17]
Ord.Neth.Lion.jpg Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion (Kingdom of the Netherlands) – 1948[18]
PRT Military Order of Aviz - Grand Cross BAR.png Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Aviz (Portuguese Republic) – 1951[11]
Seraphimerorden ribbon.svg Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim (Kingdom of Sweden) – 1952[19]
Decoration without ribbon - en.svg Grand Commander of the Order of Thiri Thudhamma (Union of Burma) – 1956[13]
DNK Order of Danebrog Grand Cross BAR.png Grand Cross of the Order of the Dannebrog (Kingdom of Denmark) – 1962[11]
ETH Order of Solomon BAR.png Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Seal of Solomon Templat:Country data Ethiopian Empire (Ethiopian Empire) – 1965[11]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Templat:Harvp.
  2. ^ "No. 37807". The London Gazette (Supplement). 3 December 1946. m/s. 5945.  KG
  3. ^ "No. 37023". The London Gazette (Supplement). 6 April 1945. m/s. 1893.  KCB
  4. ^ "No. 43713". The London Gazette. 16 July 1965. m/s. 6729.  OM
  5. ^ "No. 34365". The London Gazette (Supplement). 29 January 1937. m/s. 693.  GCVO
  6. ^ "No. 32730". The London Gazette. 18 July 1922. m/s. 5353.  KCVO
  7. ^ "No. 32086". The London Gazette. 15 October 1920. m/s. 9987.  MVO
  8. ^ "No. 35029". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 December 1940. m/s. 25.  DSO
  9. ^ "No. 34878". The London Gazette. 21 June 1940. m/s. 3777.  KJStJ
  10. ^ "No. 33453". The London Gazette. 1 January 1929. m/s. 49.  CStJ
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage. Kingston upon Thames, Surrey: Kelly's Directories. 1976. m/s. 882 – melalui Google Books. 
  12. ^ "No. 35538". The London Gazette (Supplement). 24 April 1942. m/s. 1850.  Military Cross (Second Class) (Greece)
  13. ^ a b Templat:Harvp.
  14. ^ "No. 37023". The London Gazette (Supplement). 6 April 1945. m/s. 1895.  Order of the Cloud and Banner (China)
  15. ^ "No. 37299". The London Gazette (Supplement). 5 October 1945. m/s. 4954.  DSM (US)
  16. ^ a b c "Draped with Honors Mountbatten Steps Down as Defense Chief". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Associated Press. 17 July 1965. Dicapai 13 September 2013 – melalui Google News. 
  17. ^ "No. 37777". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 November 1946. m/s. 5418.  Order of George I (Greece)
  18. ^ "No. 38176". The London Gazette. 13 January 1948. m/s. 274.  Order of the Netherlands Lion
  19. ^ "Mountbatten's coat of arms as a Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim". Dicapai 20 September 2012. [sumber tak boleh dipercayai?]

Works cited[sunting | sunting sumber]

Dimbleby, Jonathan (1994). The Prince of Wales: A Biography. New York: Morrow. ISBN 0-688-12996-X. 
Gilbert, Martin (1988). Never Despair: Winston Churchill 1945–65. London: Minerva. ISBN 978-0749391041. 
Guha, Ramachandra (2008). India After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy. London: Pan. ISBN 978-0330396110. 
Heathcote, Tony (2002). The British Admirals of the Fleet 1734–1995. Havertown: Pen & Sword. ISBN 0-85052-835-6. 
Hicks, Pamela (2012). Daughter of Empire: Life as a Mountbatten. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0297864820. 
Junor, Penny (2005). The Firm: The Troubled Life of the House of Windsor. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-0-312-35274-5. 
Khan, Yasmin (2007). The Great Partition: The Making of India and Pakistan. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300120783. 
King, Greg & Wilson, Penny (2003). The Fate of the Romanovs. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-20768-3. 
Lee, Brian (1999). British Royal Bookplates. Aldershot: Scolar Press. ISBN 978-0859678834. 
Maloney, Ed (2002). A Secret History of the IRA. Allen Lane. ISBN 0-393-32502-4. 
Montefiore, Simon Sebag (2004). Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-1400042302. 
Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh (1973). Burke's Guide to the Royal Family. London: Burke's Peerage. ISBN 978-0220662226. 
Niemi, Robert (2006). History in the Media: Film and Television. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1576079522 – melalui Google Books. 
Nordenvall, Per (1998). Kungl. Serafimerorden 1748–1998 (dalam bahasa Swedish). Stockholm: Kungl. Maj:ts orden. ISBN 91-630-6744-7.  Parameter |trans_title= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan)
O'Brien, Brendan (1995). The Long War: The IRA and Sinn Féin. Dublin: The O'Brien Press. ISBN 978-0862786069. 
Park, Keith (August 1946). Air Operations in South East Asia 3rd May 1945 to 12th September 1945 (PDF). London: War Office.  published in "No. 39202". The London Gazette (Supplement). 13 April 1951. m/s. 2127–2172. 
Pender, Paul (2012). The Butler Did It: My True and Terrifying Encounters with a Serial Killer. Edinburgh: Mainstream. ISBN 978-1780575612. 
Powell, Charles (1996). Juan Carlos of Spain. Houndmills: MacMillan Press, St. Antony's Series. ISBN 0-333-54726-8. 
Sardesai, Damodar (2007). India: The Definitive History. Boulder, CO: Westview. ISBN 978-0813343525. 
Schofield, Victoria (2010). Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan and the Unending War. New York: I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1848851057. 
Smith, Adrian (2010). Mountbatten: Apprentice War Lord 1900–1943. London: I B Tauris & Co Ltd. ISBN 978-1-848-85374-4. 
Stoessinger, John (2010). Why Nations Go to War?. Boston: Wadsworth–Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0495797180. 
Talbot, Ian & Singh, Gurharpal (2009). The Partition of India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521672566. 
Thompson, Julian (2001). The Royal Marines: From Sea Soldiers to a Special Force. London: Pan. ISBN 0-330-37702-7. 
Vickers, Hugo (2000). Alice, Princess Andrew of Greece. London: Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 0-241-13686-5. 
Villa, Brian Loring (1989). Unauthorised Action: Mountbatten and the Dieppe Raid. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-540804-7. 
White, Matthew (2012). The Great Big Book of Horrible Things. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0393081923. 
Wheen, Francis (2001). Tom Driberg: The Soul of Indiscretion. London: Fourth Estate. ISBN 1-84115-575-6. 
Wolpert, Stanley A. (2006). Shameful Flight: The Last Years of the British Empire in India. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195393941. 
Ziegler, Philip (1985). Mountbatten: The Official Biography. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0002165433. 
Templat:Long dash (1989). From Shore to Shore: The Tour Diaries of Earl Mountbatten of Burma 1953–1979. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0002176064 – melalui Google Books. 
Templat:Long dash (January 2011) [first published 2004]. "Mountbatten, Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas, first Earl Mountbatten of Burma (1900–1979)". The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (edisi Online). doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/31480. 
Zuckerman, Lord (November 1981). "Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, OM 25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 27: 354–366. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1981.0014. JSTOR 769876. 

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

Copland, Ian. "Lord Mountbatten and the integration of the Indian states: A reappraisal." Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 21#2 (1993): 385–408.
Hough, Richard (1980). Mountbatten: Hero of Our Time. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0297778059. 
Knatchbull, Timothy (2010). From a Clear Blue Sky. London: Arrow. ISBN 978-0099543589. 
Leigh, David (1988). The Wilson Plot: The Intelligence Services and the Discrediting of a Prime Minister 1945–1976. London: Heinemann. ISBN 978-0434413409. 
Moore, R. J. "Mountbatten, India, and the Commonwealth" Journal of Commonwealth & Comparative Politics 19.1 (1981): 5–43.
Murfett, Malcolm (1995). The First Sea Lords from Fisher to Mountbatten. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-94231-7. 
Roberts, Andrew (2004). Eminent Churchillians. London: Phoenix. ISBN 978-1857992137. , 55–136.
Smith, Adrian (2010). Mountbatten: Apprentice War Lord 1900–1943. London: I B Tauris. ISBN 978-1848853744. 
Terraine, John (1968). The Life and Times of Lord Mountbatten. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0090888108. 
Von Tunzelmann, Alex (2008). Indian Summer: The Secret History of the End of an Empire. London: Pocket Books. ISBN 978-1416522256. 

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pejabat-pejabat kerajaan
Didahului oleh
Viscount Wavell
Wizurai India
1947
Diikuti oleh:
Sendiri
Diikuti oleh:
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Didahului oleh
Sendiri
sebagai Wizurai India
Gabenor Jeneral India
1947–1948
Diikuti oleh:
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari
Gelaran Kehormat
Didahului oleh
Duke of Wellington
Gabenor Isle of Wight
1965–1974
Diikuti oleh:
Sendiri
Didahului oleh
Sendiri
sebagai Gabenor Isle of Wight
Lord Lieutenant Isle of Wight
1974–1979
Diikuti oleh:
John Nicholson
Pegawai tentera
Didahului oleh
Herbert Packer
Fourth Sea Lord
1950–1952
Diikuti oleh:
Sydney Raw
Didahului oleh
John Edelsten
Panglima Armada Mediterranean
1952–1954
Diikuti oleh:
Guy Grantham
Didahului oleh
Rhoderick McGrigor
First Sea Lord
1955–1959
Diikuti oleh:
Charles Lambe
Didahului oleh
William Dickson
Ketua Turus Pertahanan
1959–1965
Diikuti oleh:
Richard Hull
Didahului oleh
Rustu Erdelhun
Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Ketenteraan NATO
1960–1961
Diikuti oleh:
Lyman Lemnitzer
Bangsawan United Kingdom
Gelaran Baru Viscount Mountbatten of Burma
1946–1979
Diikuti oleh:
Patricia Knatchbull
Earl Mountbatten of Burma
Baron Romsey

1947–1979