Mikoyan MiG-29K

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MiG-29K at MAKS-2007 airshow (altered).jpg
Sebuah MiG-29K milik Rusia di Pertunjukan Udara MAKS 2007
Peranan Pesawat pejuang pelbagai peranan berpangkalan di atas kapal pengangkut
National origin Soviet Union / Rusia
Pengeluar Mikoyan
Penerbangan sulung 23 Julai 1988
Pengenalan 19 Februari 2010[1]
Status Dalam perkhidmatan
Pengguna utamas Tentera Laut India
Tentera Laut Rusia
Dikeluarkan 2005–kini[N 1][2][pengesahan diperlukan]
Jumlah dibina 90[3][pengesahan diperlukan]
Kos seunit
Dibangunkan daripada Mikoyan MiG-29M[4]
Dibangunkan kepada Mikoyan MiG-35[5][6]

Mikoyan MiG-29K (Rusia: Микоян МиГ-29K; nama pengenalan NATO: Fulcrum-D[2][pengesahan diperlukan]) adalah sebuah pesawat tempur MRCA buatan Rusia yang dioperasikan di atas kapal pengangkut pesawat. Ia direka dan dikeluarkan oleh firma Mikoyan Design Bureau. MiG-29K telah dibangunkan pada akhir tahun 1980an berdasarkan MiG-29M. Mikoyan memperincikan ia sebagai sebuah pesawat tempur generasi 4+.[7][8]

Standard produksi pesawat MiG-29K berbeza dengan versi prototaip di mana ia mempunyai radar multi-fungsi dan beberapa paparan kokpit baharu; penggunaan kawalan HOTAS (hands-on-throttle-and-stick);[9] integrasi peluru berpandu udara ke udara RVV-AE (juga dikenali sebagai R-77), bersama-sama dengan peluru berpandu anti kapal dan operasi anti radar; serta beberapa persenjataan panduan tepat.

MiG-29K tidak dipesan dan hanya dua buah prototaip yang telah dibina oleh kerana Tentera Laut Rusia lebih memilih Su-27K (kemudian didesignasi semula sebagai Su-33) pada awal tahun 1990an. Mikoyan tidak menghentikan kerja-kerja mereka pada ke atas MiG-29K meskipun kekurangan dana sejak tahun 1992. Program ini mendapat lonjakan pada akhir tahun 1990an untuk memenuhi keperluan India bagi pesawat yang berpangkalan di atas kapal pengangkut berikutan pembelian ke atas kapal pengangkut bekas Soviet, dan MiG-29K pertama kali diterima oleh Cabang Udara Tentera Laut India pada tahun 2009. Tentera Laut Rusia, bersama pesawat Su-33 yang hampir mencapai tempoh tamat perkhidmatan menjelang tahun 2010, juga telah memesan MiG-29K sebagai penganti.

Pembangunan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Origins[sunting | sunting sumber]

The MiG-29K project was initiated in the late 1970s when the Soviet Navy developed a requirement for a supersonic carrier-based fighter. As a first step to meet this requirement, the Mikoyan design bureau designed a "proof of concept" version of the MiG-29 fitted with a stronger undercarriage and a reinforced tail section with an arrestor hook, the MiG-29KVP (Korotkii Vzlet i Posadka, or "short take off and landing").[10] The KVP first flew on 21 August 1982, and was subject to extensive trials which demonstrated it could safely operate from a ski-jump, but ideally a production aircraft needed more power and greater wing area.[11][12] It was decided to base the definitive naval version on the advanced MiG-29M (izdeliye "Product" 9.15) that was already under development, further modified with new undercarriage and folding wings of greater area, with the new model designated the MiG-29K (Korabelniy – "ship based") or Project 9–31.[4][13] The MiG-29K differed considerably from the MiG-29 production model, featuring a new multi-function radar, dubbed Zhuk; a cockpit with monochrome display and use of the HOTAS (hands-on-throttle-and-stick) principle; the RVV-AE air-to-air active homing missiles; antiship and antiradar missiles; as well as air-to-ground precision-guided weapons. To protect the engine from foreign object damage (FOD), the engine inlets were fitted with retractable grills for air flow, rather than metal doors and leading-edge extension auxiliary intake louvres used by land-based MiG-29s.[14][15]

A MiG-29M on display. The MiG-29M was developed into a naval version, the MiG-29K.

The MiG-29Ks first flight was performed on 23 July 1988 at Saky by test pilot Toktar Aubakirov.[16] On 1 November 1989, on the same day as the Sukhoi Su-27K,[N 2] Aubakirov executed the first carrier landing of MiG-29K on the aircraft-carrying cruiser Tbilisi (now known as Admiral Kuznetsov), the first take-off from the carrier's deck was successfully performed the same day.[18] During 1989–1991, the MiG-29K underwent further tests aboard Admiral Kuznetsov. The project was put on hold with the collapse of the Soviet Union, while the Russian Navy only pursued the rival Su-33.[19][N 3] Mikoyan continued work on the MiG-29K despite the lack of funding.[23][pengesahan diperlukan][24]

During its tests aboard Admiral Kuznetsov, the aircraft had a springboard-assisted takeoff from strips 195 meter (640 ka) and 95 m (312 ka) long. According to the results of the tests, the landing accuracy proved to be very high, which made it possible at a later stage to switch over to a three-cable arrester system on Admiral Gorshkov. The landing accuracy is additionally enhanced through the employment of an autothrottle system. The takeoff characteristics allow for most flights to be possible under tropical conditions at a ship speed of 10 knot (19 km/j; 12 mph).[23][24]

Revival[sunting | sunting sumber]

An Indian Navy MiG-29K performs a high speed climb

The MiG-29K programme was revived in response to the decision of the Indian Navy to acquire the former Soviet Navy aircraft carrier Admiral Gorshkov in 2004.[25] When Admiral Gorshkov was part of the Soviet fleet, it was a hybrid aircraft carrier/cruiser using vertical take-off (V/STOL) aircraft; thus the deck was refurbished with a take-off ramp and arrestor wires for operating MiG-29Ks.[14] The aircraft has an enlarged and folding wing, an arrestor hook and a corrosion-protected reinforced fuselage.[26]

One factor favouring the MiG-29K over the Su-33 in the Indian decision was the larger size of the Su-33, which further limited the number of aircraft on deck.[27][28] Modifications were made to the MiG-29K for Indian requirements, including the Zhuk-ME radar, RD-33MK engine, a combat payload up to 5,500 kilogram (12,100 lb), 13 weapon stations, and updated 4-channel digital fly-by-wire flight control system. It is compatible with the full range of weapons carried by the MiG-29M and MiG-29SMT.[29]

The problem of lack of aircraft-carrier based AWACS platform may be tackled by further development of dual-seat MiG-29KUB. It is theoretically possible to outfit the MiG-29KUB with powerful radar, and encrypted data links, to permit networking of multiple MiG-29KUB aircraft for AEW coverage. The MiG-29KUB may also be enhanced in areas such as electronic warfare and long-range interdiction.[23][24]

The MiG-29KUB two-seat variant took its first flight on 20 January 2007, followed by the MiG-29K on 25 June 2007.[30]

Design[sunting | sunting sumber]

MiG-29K fighter at Zhukovskiy LII air field

The MiG-29K is drastically modified from the Mikoyan MiG-29M for naval operations. The airframe and undercarriage are reinforced to withstand the stress experienced upon landing. Folding wings, an arrestor hook, and catapult attachments were added for carrier operations; the aircraft's undercarriage track was also widened. The MiG-29K, unlike the early MiG-29, can both conduct aerial refueling and "buddy" refuel other aircraft.[14]

MiG-29K as a buddy refuelling tanker

The MiG-29K has two widely spaced RD-33MKs. The early prototypes were fitted with two RD-33K turbofan engines, each with afterburner thrust of 86.3 kN (19,800 lb) and a possible take-off thrust of 92.2 kN (20,723 lbf) for shipborne operations.[31][32] The RD-33MK engine features 7% higher power over the base RD-33, enabled by the usage of improved materials for the turbine blades.[33][34]

Internal fuel was increased from 3,340 hingga 4,560 kg (7,360 hingga 10,100 lb), to give a combat radius of 850 km (531 mi). The combat radius can be increased to 1,300 km (810 bt) with three underwing fuel drop tanks. The maximum weight of the aircraft grew from 19.5 hingga 22.4 t (43,000 hingga 49,400 lb), to allow for increased payloads.[35] The MiG-29KUB two-seat fighter, intended for pilot training, can also conduct combat missions identical to the single-seat fighter.[2][pengesahan diperlukan]

Cockpit and avionics[sunting | sunting sumber]

Comparisons between the Zhuk-ME (left) and Zhuk-AE (right)

The aircraft is equipped with three multifunctional color liquid-crystal displays (seven LCDs on the MiG-29KUB), a four-channel digital fly-by-wire flight control system, passive homing system for anti-radar missiles, Sigma-95 GPS receiver, TopGun helmet-mounted targeting system and electronic countermeasures (ECM). Additionally, an onboard oxygen generating system eliminates the need for heavy oxygen canisters.[2][pengesahan diperlukan] The types of combat missions undertaken by the MiG-29K can be increased by adding optronic/infrared imaging reconnaissance pods.[23][24]

The Zhuk-ME is a development of the N010 Zhuk radar, introducing functions such as terrain mapping and following. The radar, weighing 220 kilogram (490 lb), features improved signal processing and a detection range of up to 120 km (75 bt) vs a 5 m2 RCS target for the export variant.[36] In the air targeting mode, up to ten targets can be tracked and four targets engaged simultaneously.[37] In air to surface mode the radar can detect a tank from up to 25 kilometer (16 bt) away and a bridge from 120 kilometer (75 bt) away, a naval destroyer could be detected up to 300 kilometer (190 bt) away, while up to two surface targets can be tracked at once. The radar has a scanning area of ±85 degrees in azimuth and +56/-40 in elevation.[37]

The Zhuk-AE radar was developed with modular approach, enabling upgrade of existing Zhuk ME radars deployed in MiG-29 platforms into the active electronically scanned array (AESA) Zhuk-AE standard. India is already operating the Bars phased array radar on its Su-30MKI and has specified AESA as a critical element of the MRCA platform.[38] The MiG-29K can be outfitted with an IRST system integrated with both optical and laser systems.[2][pengesahan diperlukan] It can provide targeting solutions for ground and air targets at up to 15 km (9.3 bt), with all-round 360-degree coverage. The IRST can also provide detailed trajectories of missiles at closer ranges.

Weapons and defensive capabilities[sunting | sunting sumber]

A MiG-29K and its armaments at MAKS Airshow. The folded wings maximise the limited space available on an aircraft carrier.

MiG-29K has a GSh-30-1 30 mm cannon in the port wing root. It has provisions for laser-guided and electro-optical bombs, as well as air-to-surface missiles like Kh-25ML/25MP, Kh-29T, Kh-31G/31A, Kh-35U, and rockets. Kh-31P passive radar seeker missiles are used as anti-radiation missiles. Kh-35, Kh-31A antiship missiles are for anti-ship roles; for aerial combat air-to-air missile like RVV-AE, R-27ER/ET and R-73E are fitted. The aircraft is also adaptable to various foreign weapons.[35]

The MiG-29K has a combination of low-observable technology, advanced electronic-warfare capabilities, reduced ballistic vulnerability, and standoff weapons to enhance the fighter's survivability.[29] According to Mikoyan, extensive use of radar-absorbent materials reduce the MiG-29K's radar signature 4–5 times over the basic MiG-29.[29] The RD-33MK turbofan engine was also engineered to reduce infrared signature and improve aircraft camouflage.[33][34]

Operational history[sunting | sunting sumber]

India[sunting | sunting sumber]

MiG-29K of INAS 303 executes a low approach to the aircraft carrier Vikramaditya in 2014.

In 2004 India ordered 12 MiG-29K single-seat and 4 MiG-29KUB two-seat fighters.[14] The MiG-29K is to provide both airborne fleet air defence and surface attack capabilities. Deliveries began in December 2009.[39][40] Prior to their delivery to India, the MiG-29Ks underwent testing on board Admiral Kuznetsov.[41][42] In January 2010, India and Russia signed a deal worth US$1.2 billion for the Indian Navy to receive an additional 29 MiG-29Ks.[43] The MiG-29K entered operational service with India in February 2010.[39] Further deliveries of five MiG-29Ks and a flight simulator took place in May 2011. Further deliveries are to continue through 2012.[44] The fighters were based at INS Hansa in Goa on India's west coast until Admiral Gorshkov joined the navy under the name of INS Vikramaditya in last quarter of 2013. Vikramaditya was expected to carry up to 24 MiG-29K/KUB fighters. The future indigenous aircraft carrier INS Vikrant, being built by India, is also likely to carry these aircraft.[44]

MiG-29K of the Indian Navy

Further MiG-29K orders by India were frozen after a MiG-29KUB crashed during testing in Russia prior to delivery to India; the Indian Defence Ministry commented that the crash cast a shadow on the credibility of the aircraft.[45] Russia later announced that pilot error had caused the crash, and there was no need to ground the aircraft.[46] In August 2011, MiG's General Director Sergei Korotkov announced that the final five out of the 16 aircraft contracted in 2004 would be delivered by the end of the year; and that deliveries of a second batch of 29 MiG-29Ks would begin in 2012.[47] In November 2012, the MiG-29K/KUB completed sea trials for the Indian Navy.[48] One problem is that Western and Ukrainian sanctions on Russia have prevented Mikoyan importing components for assembly at the factory, instead they have had to be installed "on the flightline" in India.[49]

In a 2016 report, India's national auditor CAG criticized the aircraft due to defects in engines, airframes and fly-by-wire systems. The serviceability of MiG-29K was reported ranging from 15.93% to 37.63% and that of MiG-29KUB ranging from 21.30% to 47.14%; with 40 engines (62%) being rejected/withdrawn from service due to design defects. These defects are likely to reduce the service life of the aircraft from the stated 6000 hours.[50][51][52] In 2017, the Indian government announced the planned replacement of the MiG-29 with 57 new aircraft, with a competition primarily between the French Dassault Rafale and the American Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.[53][54]

In December 2018 when addressing the press on the eve of Navy Day CNS Admiral Lanba noted regarding the MiG-29K, "there is no issue on supplies of spare parts from Russia at the moment... The MiG-29K fleet has been performing well now." The Indian Navy plans to deploy the MiG-29K onboard its first domestically built carrier, the INS Vikrant, and will acquire further combat jets with updated capabilities for this purpose. Indian Navy Chief Admiral Sunil Lanba announced that issues related to maintenance and availability of spare parts for the MiG-29K fleet, which had previously undermined their readiness, had been resolved.[55]

Russia[sunting | sunting sumber]

MiG-29KR of the Russian Navy on display at Kubinka Airbase

The 279th Shipborne Fighter Aviation Regiment of the Russian Navy has a fleet of 21 Su-33 fighters[56] whose service lives were expected to be reached by 2015. Around 10 to 12 will receive an upgrade including the Gefest SVP-24 bombsight for free-fall bombs, giving them a limited ground attack capability,[56] but more aircraft were needed. It was less cost-effective to open the Su-33 production line for a small run than to piggy-back on the Indian Navy's order of MiG-29K's. India paid $730 million for the development and delivery of 16 units, while 24 for the Russian Navy would cost approximately $1 billion.[57]

The Russian Navy ordered 24 MiG-29Ks in late 2009 for Admiral Kuznetsov.[58] Deliveries of the MiG-29K for the Russian Navy started in 2010.[59][60] MiG and Russia were in final negotiations for an order for more MiG-29K/KUB aircraft in August 2011.[61] An order for 20 MiG-29KR fighter-bombers and four MiG-29KUBR operational trainers for operation from Admiral Kuznetsov, replacing the Sukhoi Su-33, was officially announced in February 2012.[62] However, in 2015, Major-General Igor Kozhin, the Commander of the Navy's Air and Air Defence Forces, announced that a second fighter regiment would be formed to augment the current force, with the intention that the MiG-29s be used by this new unit, with some existing Su-33s refurbished for further use.[63][64]

In October 2016, four MiG-29KR/KUBR from the 100th Independent Shipborne Fighter Aviation Regiment formed part of the air group aboard Admiral Kuznetsov as the ship deployed with its battle group to the Mediterranean Sea as part of the Russian campaign in Syria.[65] On 13 November 2016, a MiG-29KUBR on operations in the Mediterranean crashed en route back to Admiral Kuznetsov.[65][66]

Versi[sunting | sunting sumber]

versi kerusi tunggal untuk India.[2][pengesahan diperlukan]
vresi kerusi tunggal untuk Rusia, mengantikan peralatan buatan Ukraine dan India dengan Rusia.[49]
versi latihan dengan dua kerusi untuk India.[2][pengesahan diperlukan]
versi latihan dengan dua kerusi untuk Rusia.[67]
(KVP – Korotkaya Vzlet Posadka – Mendarat dan berlepas di landasan pendek {STOL}) Beberapa pesawat diubahsuai kepada standard 9–12, (atau 9–18?), dengan sistem high-lift diperkukuh di bahagian bawah dan cangkuk penangkap, untuk tujuan penyelidikan bagi pendaratan di atas dek dan latihan juruterbang.[68]

Pengguna[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pengguna MiG-29K pada tahun 2010
Flag of Russia.svg Rusia

Kemalangan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Pada 23 Jun 2011, sebuah MiG-29KUB telah terhempas dalam satu ujian di Rusia, sebelum diserahkan kepada India, membunuh dua orang juruterbangnya.[74][75]
  • Pada 13 November 2016, sebuah MiG-29KUBR telah terhempas di Laut Mediterranean dalam perjalanan pulang ke kapal pengangkut pesawat Admiral Kuznetsov dari satu misi di Syria. Juruterbangnya dilaporkan berjaya diselamatkan.[67][76]
  • Pada November 2019, sebuah pesawat latihan MiG-29KUB milik Tentera Laut India telah terhempas selepas kegagalan enjin dan kedua-dua juruterbang berjaya melenting keluar dengan selamat.[petikan diperlukan]
  • Pada Februari 2020, sebuah pesawat latihan MiG-29KUB milik Tentera Laut India telah terhempas dan kedua-dua juruterbang berjaya melenting keluar.[petikan diperlukan]
  • Pada 26 November 2020, sebuah pesawat latihan MiG-29KUB Tentera Laut India telah terhempas ke laut di mana seorang juruterbangnya maut.[77]

Spesifikasi (MiG-29K - Izdeliye 9.41)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lukisan MiG-29 dalam 3-sisi
Klimov RD-33MK di MAKS 2009
Mekanisme sayap berlipat
Prob pengisian minyak

Data dari Rosoboronexport,[78] Mikoyan,[8] Gordon and Davidson,[79] deagel.com,[3][pengesahan diperlukan] airforce-technology.com,[80] Business World[81]

Ciri-ciri umum

  • Krew: 1
  • Panjang: 17.3 m (56 ka 9 in)
  • Rentang sayap: 11.99 m (39 ka 4 in)
  • Tinggi: 4.4 m (14 ka 5 in)
  • Luas sayap: 43 m2 (460 ka2)
  • Berat kosong: 11,000 kg (24,251 lb)
  • Berat kasar: 18,950 kg (41,778 lb)
  • Berat berlepas maks: 24,500 kg (54,013 lb)
  • Janakuasa: 2 × Klimov RD-33MK enjin turbin kipas pembakaran lanjut, 52.96 kN (11,905 lbf) tujahan setiap enjin [82] dry, 88.3 kN (19,840 lbf) dengan pembakar lanjut


  • Halaju maksimum: 2,200 km/j (1,400 mph, 1,200 kn) / M2+ pada aras tinggi
1,400 km/j (870 mph; 760 kn) / M1.13 pada aras rendah
  • Halaju kruis: 1,500 km/j (930 mph, 810 kn) / M1.21
  • Jarak: 1,500 km (930 bt, 810 nmi) pada aras tinggi
700 km (430 bt; 380 nmi) pada aras rendah
  • Jarak tempur: 850 km (530 bt, 460 nmi)
  • Julat feri: 2,000 km (1,200 bt, 1,100 nmi) dalaman
3,000 km (1,900 bt; 1,600 nmi) dengan 3 tangki gugur
5,500 km (3,400 bt; 3,000 nmi) dengan 3 tangki gugur + sekali pengisian minyak di udara
  • Had khidmat: 17,500 m (57,400 ka)
  • Had-g: +8
  • Kadar mendaki: 330 m/s (65,000 ft/min) awal
109 m/s (358 ft/s) purata dari 0–6,000 m (0–19,685 ka)




Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pembangunan berkaitan

Pesawat setanding

Senarai berkaitan

References[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Serial production began in 2005 for Indian MiG-29K/KUB aircraft.[2][pengesahan diperlukan]
  2. ^ The Su-27K was to be only an air-to-air fighter aircraft, while the MiG-29K was intended and designed to be a multirole ship-based fighter, able to attack enemy ships and support troops on land as well as conduct air defence missions.[17]
  3. ^ Aviation authors Bill Gunston and Yefim Gordon characterised the rejection of the MiG-29K for the Su-33 as "astonishing", noting that the Su-33 was more expensive and incapable of launching missiles against surface targets.[20] However, some analysts have stated the view that the MiG-29K was only a fall-back option if the Su-33 had proven to be too heavy for carrier operations; and that the Soviet Navy were only interested in fleet air defence, not strike or attack capabilities.[12] Others attributed the rejection of the MiG-29K to the fact that, Sukhoi's designer general, Mikhail Simonov, was a member of the Committee of the Supreme Soviet which managed the aircraft industry.[21][22]
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External links[sunting | sunting sumber]

Gambar luar
MiG-29 overview
Ikon gambar Poster by RIA Novosti

Templat:Mikoyan aircraft