Minyak ikan

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Kapsul-kapsul yang mengandungi minyak ikan

Minyak ikan adalah minyak yang diperolehi daripada tisu ikan berminyak. Minyak ini mengandungi asid lemak omega-3 iaitu asid eikosapentaenoik (EPA) dan asid dokosaheksaenoik (DHA), pendahulu kepada eikosanoid tertentu yang diketahui mengurangkan keradangan dalam badan[1][2] serta memiliki manfaat kesihatan yang lain seperti merawat hipertrigliseridemia, walaupun tuntutan mencegah serangan jantung atau angin ahmar belum disokong.[3] Minyak ikan dan lemak omega-3 telah dikaji dalam konteks pelbagai penyakit lain seperti kemurungan klinkal,[4][5] keresahan,[6][7][8] kanser dan pereputan makula, namun manfaat yang dijangkakan dalam penyakit-penyakit ini belum disahkan.

Lemak omega-3 dalam ikan-ikan sumber sebenarnya tidak dihasilkan secara semula jadi tetapi sebaliknya terkumpul daripada memakan sama ada mikroalga atau ikan mangsa yang telah terkumpul lemak tersebut dengan sendirinya.

Kegunaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Minyak-minyak ini sering dipasarkan dan dijual untuk penggunaan sebagai sebahagian daripada diet atau dalam makanan tambahan masyarakat kontemporari namun ia juga digunakan secara luaran seperti pelembap[9] atau sebagai ubat salap[10] serta dalam seni tubuh,[11] atau sebagai baahn penebat sejuk.[12]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Moghadasian, Mohammed H. (2008). "Advances in Dietary Enrichment with N-3 Fatty Acids". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 48 (5): 402–10. doi:10.1080/10408390701424303. PMID 18464030. 
  2. ^ Cleland, Leslieg; James, Michaelj; Proudman, Susannam (2006). "Fish oil: What the prescriber needs to know". Arthritis Research & Therapy. 8 (1): 679–81. doi:10.1186/ar1876. PMC 1526555Boleh diakses secara percuma. PMID 16542466. 
  3. ^ Xin, Wei; Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoying (2012-01-01). "Effect of fish oil supplementation on fasting vascular endothelial function in humans: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". PLoS One. 7 (9): e46028. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046028. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3448723Boleh diakses secara percuma. PMID 23029372. 
  4. ^ Su, Kuan-Pin; Huang, Shih-Yi; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Shen, Winston W. (2003). "Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder". European Neuropsychopharmacology. 13 (4): 267–71. doi:10.1016/S0924-977X(03)00032-4. PMID 12888186. 
  5. ^ Naliwaiko, K.; Araújo, R.L.F.; Da Fonseca, R.V.; Castilho, J.C.; Andreatini, R.; Bellissimo, M.I.; Oliveira, B.H.; Martins, E.F.; Curi, R. (2004). "Effects of Fish Oil on the Central Nervous System: A New Potential Antidepressant?". Nutritional Neuroscience. 7 (2): 91–9. doi:10.1080/10284150410001704525. PMID 15279495. 
  6. ^ Green, Pnina; Hermesh, Haggai; Monselise, Assaf; Marom, Sofi; Presburger, Gadi; Weizman, Abraham (2006). "Red cell membrane omega-3 fatty acids are decreased in nondepressed patients with social anxiety disorder". European Neuropsychopharmacology. 16 (2): 107–13. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2005.07.005. PMID 16243493. 
  7. ^ Yehuda, Shlomo; Rabinovitz, Sharon; Mostofsky, David I. (2005). "Mixture of essential fatty acids lowers test anxiety". Nutritional Neuroscience. 8 (4): 265–7. doi:10.1080/10284150500445795. PMID 16491653. 
  8. ^ Nemets, B.; Stahl, Z; Belmaker, RH (2002). "Addition of Omega-3 Fatty Acid to Maintenance Medication Treatment for Recurrent Unipolar Depressive Disorder". American Journal of Psychiatry. 159 (3): 477–9. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.3.477. PMID 11870016. 
  9. ^ Talakoub, Lily; Neuhaus, Isaac M.; Yu, Siegrid S. (2008). "Chapter 2: Cosmoceuticals". dalam Alam, Murad; Gladstone, Hayes B.; Tung, Rebecca. Cosmetic Dermatology. Requisites in dermatology. Elsevier Health Sciences. m/s. 9. ISBN 9780702031434. Dicapai 2014-10-23. Other oils used as emollients include fish oil, petrolatum, shea butter, and sunflower seed oil. 
  10. ^ Burch, Ernest S. (2006). Social Life in Northwest Alaska: The Structure of Iñupiaq Eskimo Nations. University of Alaska Press. m/s. 278. ISBN 9781889963921. Dicapai 2014-10-23. Oil was also used externally as an ointment to heal cold sores, cuts, insect bites, frostbite, rashes - in short, skin problems of all kinds. Duck or goose body-cavity fat was apparently as useful as seal or fish oil in dealing with skin problems. 
  11. ^ Heartney, Eleanor (2007). "Zhang Huan: Becoming the Body". Zhang Huan: Altered States. Charta and Asia Society. ISBN 978-8881586417. Dicapai 2014-10-23. This becomes abundantly clear in the work of Chinese body artist Zhang Huan. In the course of his career, Zhang Huan has subjected himself to painful trials: sitting motionless for hours in an outhouse covered in honey and fish oil while flies crawled over his body [...]. 
  12. ^ Ilse Schreiber: Die Schwestern aus Memel (1936), quoted, and extract translated in: Strzelczyk, Florentine (2014). "16: 'Fighting against Manitou': German Identity and Ilse Schreiber's Canada Novels Die Schwestern aus Memel (1936) and Die Flucht in Paradies (1939)". dalam McFarland, Rob; James, Michelle Stott. Sophie Discovers Amerika: German-Speaking Women Write the New World. Studies in German Literature Linguistics and Culture. 148. Boydell & Brewer. m/s. 207. ISBN 9781571135865. Hoffentlich zogen die Eltern in eine Gegend, wo es recht viele Eingeborene gab. Indianer, die nur von Jagd und Fischfang leben. Ach, und womöglich Eskimos, die sich mit Tran einschmieren, um sich gegen die Kälte zu schützen und rohes Fleisch essen [...]. [She hoped her parents would move to an area where there were many aboriginals. Indians who live solely by hunting and fishing. Oh, and if possible Eskimos who smear themselves with fish oil to protect themselves from the cold, and who eat raw meat.] 

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