Naqab

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Kawasan bergunung Nahal Zin dalam gurun Naqab

Naqab (Bahasa Arab: ٱلنَّقَب, translit. an-Naqab, Bahasa Ibrani: הַנֶּגֶב‎, translit. ha-Négev, diinggeriskan kepada Negev) ialah sebuah kawasan padang pasir dan separa gurun di bahagian selatan entiti Israel bahagian barat Timur Tengah. Gurun ini merupakan muka bumi tertua ditemukan bertarikh 1.8 juta tahun dahulu.[1][2]

Gurun ini dimasukkan dalam kawasan Palestin Mandat pada 10 Julai 1922 diizinkan oleh wakil British St John. Philby "atas nama Trans-Jordan". [a] Walaupun begitu, rantau ini kekal dalam pemilikan eksklusif orang Arab Palestin sehingga 1946 di mana Rancangan Morrison–Grady yang hendak memperuntukkan kawasan itu kepada negara Arab lalu Agensi Yahudi segera melaksanakan penempatan orang diaspora Yahudi di sana;[4][5] kesannya dalam tempoh setahun membawa kepada Rancangan Pembahagian Palestin diaturkan Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu memperuntukkan kawasan Naqab kepada pihak Israel.

Kawasan gurun ini turut menempatkan suatu masyarakat Badwi sebanyak 25% kependudukan setempat (sebanyak 160,000 orang) manakala selebihnya dari kaum Yahudi sebanyak 470,000 orang atau 75%.[6] Kota Beersheba merupakan petempatan terbesar di rantau ini serta selaku ibu kota pemerintahan utama.

Penamaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama Naqab meminjam dari bahasa Arab bermaksud "jalan sempit gunung" (طريق ضيّق في جبل‎)[7] atau "laluan [gunung]"[8][9] dari akar ن ق ب‎ bermaksud "merentas, menembus, melalui".[10][7] Negev pula meminjam dari bahasa Ibrani yang bermaksud "kering" atau "selatan"; maksud kedua ini digunakan dalam terjemahan Kitab Perjanjian Lama.[11]

Geografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Muka bumi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Gurun ini dipenuhi gunung-ganang berbatu perang bertaburan antara wadi dan kawah dalam. Kawasan gurun ini terbahagi kepada lima kawasan ekologi tersendiri iaitu kawasan utara yang menghampiri iklim Mediterranean bertanah subur dan cukup hujan, kawasan barat, kawasan tengah, kawasan penara tinggi dan lembah Arabah.

Suhu dan iklim[sunting | sunting sumber]

Wilayah Negev beriklim kering terletak di sebelah timur gurun Sahara dan jauh selatan dari pesisiran timur Laut Tengah Palestin/Israel berkedudukan dalam garis selari utara ke-31: kota Eilat hanya mendapat curahan hujan setinggi rata-rata 31 mm setahun sambil kosong dari bulan Jun sampai Oktober.[12] Bandar-bandar di kawasan utara gurun seperti Beersheba separa gurun.

Data iklim untuk Beersheba
Bulan Jan Feb Mac Apr Mei Jun Jul Ogo Sep Okt Nov Dis Tahun
Rekod tertinggi °C (°F) 28.4
(83.1)
31
(88)
35.4
(95.7)
40.9
(105.6)
42.2
(108)
46
(115)
41.5
(106.7)
40.5
(104.9)
41.2
(106.2)
39.6
(103.3)
34
(93)
31.4
(88.5)
46
(115)
Purata tinggi °C (°F) 16.7
(62.1)
17.5
(63.5)
20.1
(68.2)
25.8
(78.4)
29
(84)
31.3
(88.3)
32.7
(90.9)
32.8
(91)
31.3
(88.3)
28.5
(83.3)
23.5
(74.3)
18.8
(65.8)
25.7
(78.3)
Purata rendah °C (°F) 7.5
(45.5)
7.6
(45.7)
9.3
(48.7)
12.7
(54.9)
15.4
(59.7)
18.4
(65.1)
20.5
(68.9)
20.9
(69.6)
19.5
(67.1)
16.7
(62.1)
12.6
(54.7)
8.9
(48)
14.2
(57.6)
Rekod terendah °C (°F) -5
(23)
-0.5
(31.1)
2.4
(36.3)
4
(39)
8
(46)
13.6
(56.5)
15.8
(60.4)
15.6
(60.1)
13
(55)
10.2
(50.4)
3.4
(38.1)
3
(37)
−5
(23)
Kerpasan mm (inci) 49.6
(1.953)
40.4
(1.591)
30.7
(1.209)
12.9
(0.508)
2.7
(0.106)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.4
(0.016)
5.8
(0.228)
19.7
(0.776)
41.9
(1.65)
204.1
(8.035)
Purata hari kerpasan 9.2 8 6.4 2.6 0.8 0 0 0 0.1 1.8 4.6 7.5 41
Sumber: Israel Meteorological Service[13][14]
Data iklim untuk Eilat
Bulan Jan Feb Mac Apr Mei Jun Jul Ogo Sep Okt Nov Dis Tahun
Rekod tertinggi °C (°F) 32.2
(90)
35.8
(96.4)
38.7
(101.7)
43.4
(110.1)
45.2
(113.4)
47.4
(117.3)
48.3
(118.9)
48.0
(118.4)
45.0
(113)
44.3
(111.7)
38.1
(100.6)
33.6
(92.5)
48.3
(118.9)
Purata tinggi °C (°F) 21.3
(70.3)
23.0
(73.4)
26.1
(79)
31.0
(87.8)
35.7
(96.3)
38.9
(102)
40.4
(104.7)
40.0
(104)
37.3
(99.1)
33.1
(91.6)
27.7
(81.9)
23.0
(73.4)
31.46
(88.63)
Purata rendah °C (°F) 10.4
(50.7)
11.8
(53.2)
14.6
(58.3)
18.4
(65.1)
22.5
(72.5)
25.2
(77.4)
27.3
(81.1)
27.4
(81.3)
25.2
(77.4)
21.8
(71.2)
16.3
(61.3)
11.9
(53.4)
19.4
(66.92)
Rekod terendah °C (°F) 1.2
(34.2)
0.9
(33.6)
3.0
(37.4)
8.4
(47.1)
12.1
(53.8)
18.5
(65.3)
20.0
(68)
19.4
(66.9)
18.6
(65.5)
9.2
(48.6)
5.3
(41.5)
2.5
(36.5)
0.9
(33.6)
Curahan hujan mm (inci) 4
(0.16)
3
(0.12)
3
(0.12)
2
(0.08)
1
(0.04)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
4
(0.16)
2
(0.08)
5
(0.2)
24
(0.94)
Purata hari hujan (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.1 1.8 1.6 0.9 0.7 0 0 0 0 0.7 0.8 1.9 10.5
Sumber: Israel Meteorological Service[15][16][17][18]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Biger described this meeting as follows: "Sovereignty over the Arava, from the south of the Dead Sea to Aqaba, was also discussed. Philby agreed, in Trans-Jordan's name, to give up the western bank of Wadi Arava (and thus all of the Negev area). Nevertheless, a precise borderline was still not determined along the territories of Palestine and Trans-Jordan. Philby's relinquishment of the Negev was necessary, because the future of this area was uncertain. In a discussion regarding the southern boundary, the Egyptian aspiration to acquire the Negev area was presented. On the other hand the southern part of Palestine belonged, according to one of the versions, to the sanjak (district) of Ma'an within the vilayet (province) of Hejaz. King Hussein of Hijaz demanded to receive this area after claiming that a transfer action, to add it to the vilayet of Syria (A-Sham) was supposed to be done in 1908. It is not clear whether this action was completed. Philby claimed that Emir Abdullah had his father's permission to negotiate over the future of the sanjak of Ma'an, which was actually ruled by him, and that he could therefore 'afford to concede' the area west of the Arava in favour of Palestine. This concession was made following British pressure and against the background of the demands of the Zionist Organization for direct contact between Palestine and the Red Sea. It led to the inclusion of the Negev triangle in Palestine's territory, although this area was not considered as part of the country in the many centuries that preceded the British occupation."[3]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Frank, Adam (2018-04-13). "Was There a Civilization on Earth Before Humans?". The Atlantic (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Dicapai pada 2021-05-12.
  2. ^ Britt, Robert Roy (2009-05-05). "Oldest Surface on Earth Discovered". livescience.com (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2012-07-04. Dicapai pada 2021-05-12.
  3. ^ Biger 2004, m/s. 181; Biger references 10 July 1922 meeting notes, file 2.179, CZA.
  4. ^ Karsh, Efraim; Miller, Rory (23 October 2013). Israel at Sixty: Rethinking the Birth of the Jewish State. Routledge. m/s. 55–. ISBN 978-1-317-96776-7.
  5. ^ Pappé, Ilan (15 August 1994). The Making of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1947–1951. I.B.Tauris. m/s. 52–. ISBN 978-1-85043-819-9.
  6. ^ "A Bedouin welcome – Israel Travel, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. 1995-06-20. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 29 Jun 2011. Dicapai pada 9 Oktober 2011.
  7. ^ a b Rujuk dari The Arabic Lexicon kelolaan Hawramani.com:
    • Ahmad Mukhtar Umar (2008). "نقب" [Kamus Bahasa Arab Kontemporari]. معجم اللغة العربية المعاصرة. Kaherah, Mesir: Alam Al-Kutub. ISBN 977-232-626-4.
    • Salmoné, Habib Anthony (1889). "نقب". An Advanced Learner's Arabic-English Dictionary. Beirut, Lubnan: Perpustakaan Lubnan.
  8. ^ Sharon, Moshe (1997). 'Aqabah (Ailah). Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae. Handbook of Oriental Studies/Handbuch Der Orientalistik. Leiden & Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. m/s. 89–90. ISBN 9789004108332. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 23 November 2015. Dicapai pada 1 May 2015. In fact, there are two mountain passes through which the road of Aylah has to cross. The western one crosses the mountain ridge to the west of the gulf, and through it passes the main road from Egypt which cuts through the whole width of Sinai, coming from Cairo via Suez. This mountain pass is also called 'Aqabat Aylah, or as it is better known, "Naqb al-'Aqabah" or "Ras an-Naqb."
  9. ^ Hertzog, Esther; Abuhav, Orit; Goldberg, Harvey E.; Marx, Emanuel (8 May 2018). Perspectives on Israeli Anthropology. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0814330500. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 26 March 2016. Dicapai pada 8 May 2018 – melalui Google Books.
  10. ^ Abd. Rauf Dato' Haji Hassan; Abdul Halim Salleh; Khairul Amin Mohd Zain (2005). Kamus Bahasa Melayu-Bahasa Arab Bahasa Arab-Bahasa Melayu. Shah Alam: Oxford Fajar. m/s. 369. ISBN 967-65-7321-3.
  11. ^ "negeb". Kamus Strong. Yayasan Lembaga SABDA. 2005.
  12. ^ "Beersheba, ISR Weather". MSN. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2007-11-17. Dicapai pada 2008-01-25. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (bantuan)
  13. ^ "Averages and Records for Beersheba (Precipitation, Temperature and Records [Excluding January and June] written in the page)". Israel Meteorological Service. August 2011. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2010-09-14.
  14. ^ "Records Data for Israel (Data used only for January and June)". Israel Meteorological Service. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2011-08-23.
  15. ^ "Averages and Records for Tel Aviv (Precipitation, Temperature and Records written in the page)". Israel Meteorological Service. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 14 September 2010. Dicapai pada 1 August 2010.(dalam bahasa Ibrani)
  16. ^ "Extremes for Tel Aviv [Records of February and May]". Israel Meteorological Service. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 10 July 2015. Dicapai pada 2 August 2015.(dalam bahasa Ibrani)
  17. ^ "Temperature average". Israel Meteorological Service. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 18 June 2013. Dicapai pada 8 December 2011.(dalam bahasa Ibrani)
  18. ^ "Precipitation average". Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 25 September 2011. Dicapai pada 12 July 2011.(dalam bahasa Ibrani)

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