Operasi Barbarossa

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Operasi Barbarossa
Sebahagian daripada Barisan Timur Perang Dunia II
Operation Barbarossa.png
Maklumat am
Tarikh 22 Jun – 5 Disember 1941
(5 bulan, 1 minggu dan 6 hari)
Lokasi Timur dan Utara Eropah
Hasil Pembukaan Barisan Timur
Pihak yang berperang
 Soviet Union
Komander dan pemimpin
Unit yang terlibat
Kekuatan
Kekuatan Barisan Depan (permulaan)
3.8 juta anggota[1][2]
3,350 kereta kebal[3][1]
2,770 kapal terbang[3]
7,200 pucuk meriam[1][3]
Kekuatan Barisan Depan (permulaan)
2.6–2.9 juta anggota [4][5][6]
11,000 kereta kebal[7][8]
7,133–9,100 pesawat tentera[9][10][11]
Kerugian dan kehilangan
Jumlah mangsa korban tentera:
800,000+
Jumlah mangsa korban tentera:
4,000,000+
sunting
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Operasi Barbarossa (Bahasa Jerman: Unternehmen Barbarossa) merupakan nama kod bagi Nazi Jerman dan penjajahan Kuasa Paksi ke atas Kesatuan Soviet semasa Perang Dunia II yang bermula pada 22 Jun 1941.[19] [20] Ia merupakan operasi tentera terbesar dalam sejarah dunia. Lebih 5.5 juta tentera dari kuasa Paksi menjajah Soviet di sepanjang perbatasan 1,800 batu. [21] Operasi ini dinamakan sempena Maharaja Frederick Barbarossa dari Empayar Suci Rom, ketua Salibi pada abad ke-12. Barbarossa merupakan sebahagian utama perang di Perbatasan Timur Perang Dunia II. Perancangan bagi operasi Barbarossa memakan masa beberapa tahun sebelum Jun 1941; persedian rahsia dan operasi tentera itu sendiri memakan masa hampir setahun, dari musim bunga 1941, sehingga musim sejuk 1942. Kegagalan operasi Barbarossa menyebabkan Hitler menuntut operasi tambahan di Rusia, hampir kesemuanya akhirnya gagal, seperti meneruskan Pengepungan Leningrad.[22][23], Operasi Nordlicht, dan Pertempuran Stalingrad, antara pertempuran lain di kawasan jajahan Russia. [24][25][26][27][28][29][30]

Matlamat operasi bagi Operasi Barbarossa merupakan penaklukan pantas bahagian Eropah dari Soviet, arah barat bagi garisan yang menyambungkan bandar Arkhangelsk dan Astrakhan, sering kali dirujuk sebagai garis A-A oleh sumber Jerman. Pada pengakhirannya pada Disember 1941, Tentera Merah telah mematahkan serangan terhebat Wehrmacht. Hitler gagal mencapai kemenangan yang diinginkannya, tetapi keadaan bagi Soviet kekal kritikal. Secara taktikal, pihak Jerman mencapai kemenangan besar dan menduduki sebahagian besar kawasan ekonomi paling penting negara itu, terutamanya di Ukraine.[31] Disebalik kejayaan ini, tentera Jerman diundurkan dari Moscow dan tidak lagi mampu membuat serangan serentak di sepanjang perbatasan strategik Soviet-Jerman.[32]

Kegagalan Operasi Barbarossa akhirnya menyebabkan kekalahan kepada Nazi Jerman dan dianggap titik perubahan bagi Reich Ketiga. Operasi Barbarossa membuka Perbatasan Timur, yang akhirnya menjadi medan perang terbesar dalam sejarah manusia. Operasi Barbarossa dan kawasan yang dirangkuminya menjati tapak pertempuran paling besar dan dashyat, keganasan peling berdarah, kehilangan jiwa yang besar dan keadaan teruk bagi kedua-dua Soviet dan Jerman - kesemuanya mempengaruhi arah kedua-dua Perang Dunia II dan sejarah abad ke 20.

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Finland was not officially a member of the Axis, but coordinated its invasion of the Soviet Union with the Axis powers.

Ralat petik: Tag <ref> dengan nama "western_military_districts_Soviet_Union" yang ditentukan dalam <references> tidak digunakan dalam teks sebelumnya.

Ralat petik: Tag <ref> dengan nama "171_divisions" yang ditentukan dalam <references> tidak digunakan dalam teks sebelumnya.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Clark 2012, ms. 73.
  2. Glantz 2001, ms. 9.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Glantz 2010a, ms. 20.
  4. Glantz 2001, 2.68 million.
  5. Glantz 1998, 2.9 million.
  6. Taylor 1974, 2.6 million.
  7. Mercatante 2012, ms. 64.
  8. Clark 2012, ms. 76.
  9. Glantz 2010a, 7,133 aircraft.
  10. Mercatante 2012, 9,100 aircraft.
  11. Clark 2012, 9,100 aircraft.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 "Heeresarzt 10-Day Casualty Reports per Theater of War, 1941".
  13. "Red Army and NKVD figures, 1941–1945".
  14. 14.0 14.1 Bergström 2007, ms. 117.
  15. Graham Royde-Smith.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Krivosheev 1997, ms. 95–98.
  17. "AOK POW Reports".
  18. Sharp 2010, ms. 89.
  19. Higgins, Trumbull (1966). Hitler and Russia. The Macmillan Company. pp. pp. 11 – 59, 98 –151. 
  20. Bryan I. Fugate. Operation Barbarossa. Strategy and tactics on the Eastern Front, 1941. Novato: Presidio Press, 1984.
  21. World War II Chronicle, 2007. Legacy/ Publications International, Ltd. Page 146.
  22. Simonov, Konstantin (1979). "Records of talks with Georgi Zhukov, 1965–1966". Hrono. 
  23. Life and Death in Besieged Leningrad, 1941–44 (Studies in Russian and Eastern European History), edited by John Barber and Andrei Dzeniskevich. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005 (hardcover, ISBN 1-4039-0142-2).
  24. The siege of Leningrad. By Alan Wykes. Ballantines Illustrated History of WWII, 3rd edition, 1972. Pages 9-61.
  25. Scorched Earth. (pages 205 - 240) By Paul Carell. Schiffer Military History, 1994. ISBN 0-88740-598-3
  26. Finland in the Second World War. Between Germany and Russia. Palgrave. 2002. (pp. 90 - 141)
  27. Military-Topographic Directorate, maps No. 194, 196, Officer's Atlas. General Staff USSR. 1947. Атлас Офицера. Генеральный штаб вооруженных сил ССР. М., Военно-топографическоее управление,- 1947. Листы 194, 196
  28. Russia's War: A History of the Soviet Effort: 1941-1945 ISBN 0-14-027169-4 by Richard Overy Page 91
  29. The World War II. Desk Reference. Eisenhower Center Director Douglas Brinkley. Editor Mickael E. Haskey. Grand Central Press, Stonesong Press, HarperCollins, 2004. ISBN 0-06-052651-3. Page 210.
  30. Siege of Leningrad. Encyclopedia Britannica. [1]
  31. A.J.P Taylor & Colonel D.M Proektor, p106
  32. A.J.P Taylor & Colonel D.M Proektor,p107

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  • Weinberg, Gerhard (2005). A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521618267. 
  • Wette, Wolfram (2007). The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674025776. 

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