Pawagam India

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Pawagam India
150px
No. skrin6,780 skrin tunggal (2017)[1]
2,100 multiplex screens (2016)[2][3]
 • Per kapita9 per juta (2015)[3]
Filem cereka terbitan (2018)[4]
Jumlah1,813
Jumlah kemasukan (2016)[5]
Jumlah20,000,000
 • Per kapita1.69
Filem kebangsaan1,713,600,000
Kutipan pecah panggung (2017)[7]
Jumlah158.9 bilion (AS$2.44 billion)
Filem kebangsaanAS$2.1 bilion (2015)[6]

Pawagam India terdiri daripada filem yang diterbitkan di India.[8] Panggung wayang gambar amat popular di India, dengan sebanyak 1,600 filem dierbitkan dalam pelbagai bahasa setiap tahun.[9][10] Pawagam India menghasilkan lebih banyak filem yang ditonton oleh orang ramai berbanding di negara lain; pada 2011, sebanyak 3.5 bilion tiket telah dijual di serata India, 900,000 lebih daripada Hollywood. Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Kochi, Bangalore dan Hyderabad ialah pusat utama penerbitan filem di India.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Will single-screen theatres in India become history?". Moneycontrol. Dicapai 7 September 2019. 
  2. ^ Joshi, Hemant. "Bollywood The Indian Film Industry" (PDF). Deloitte. Dicapai 2 June 2017. 
  3. ^ a b "Feature films: Cinema infrastructure - Capacity". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. UNESCO. Dicapai 7 May 2019. 
  4. ^ "INDIAN FEATURE FILMS CERTIFIED DURING THE YEAR 2018". Film Federation of India. 6 May 2019. 
  5. ^ "Culture: Feature Films". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. 2015. Dicapai 7 May 2019. 
  6. ^ "Indian film industry's gross box office earnings may reach $3.7 billion by 2020: Report - Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". 26 September 2016. 
  7. ^ "Value of the film industry in India". Statista. 2018. Dicapai 6 May 2019. 
  8. ^ Hasan Suroor (26 October 2012). "Arts : Sharmila Tagore honoured by Edinburgh University". The Hindu. Dicapai 1 November 2012. 
  9. ^ "Tamil leads as India tops film production". Times of India. Dicapai 25 March 2015. 
  10. ^ "Electrolux-2nd" (PDF). Diarkibkan daripada asal (PDF) pada 7 February 2012. Dicapai 6 February 2012. 

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Suresh Chabria; Paolo Cherchi Usai (1994). Light of Asia: Indian Silent Cinema, 1912–1934. Wiley Eastern. ISBN 978-81-224-0680-1. 
  • Stanley A. Wolpert (2006). Encyclopedia of India. ISBN 978-0-684-31350-4. 
  • Desai, Jigna (2004). Beyond Bollywood: The Cultural Politics of South Asian Diasporic Film. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-96684-9. 
  • K. Moti Gokulsing; Wimal Dissanyake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books Limited. ISBN 978-1-85856-329-9. 
  • Gulzar, Govin Nihalanni, & Saibel Chatterjee. Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema New Delhi: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2003. ISBN 81-7991-066-0.
  • Khanna, Amit (2003), "The Business of Hindi Films", Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema: historical record, the business and its future, narrative forms, analysis of the medium, milestones, biographies, Encyclopædia Britannica (India) Private Limited, ISBN 978-81-7991-066-5.
  • Gopal, Sangita; Moorti, Sujata (2008). Global Bollywood: Travels of Hindi Song and Dance. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4578-7. 
  • Narweker, Sanjit, ed. Directory of Indian Film-Makers and Films. Flicks Books, 1994. ISBN 0-948911-40-9
  • Stanley A. Wolpert (2006). Encyclopedia of India. ISBN 978-0-684-31351-1. 
  • Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey (1996). The Oxford History of World Cinema. Oxford University Press, US. ISBN 978-0-19-811257-0. 
  • Passek, Jean-Loup, penyunting (1983). Le cinéma indien. Paris: Centre national d'art et de culture Georges Pompidou. ISBN 9782864250371. OCLC 10696565. 
  • Rajadhyaksha, Ashish; Willemen, Paul (1999). Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-57958-146-6. 
  • Stanley A. Wolpert (2006). Encyclopedia of India. ISBN 978-0-684-31351-1. 
  • Velayutham, Selvaraj (2008). Tamil Cinema: The Cultural Politics of India's Other Film Industry. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-39680-6. 
  • Watson, James L. (2009), Globalization, Encyclopædia Britannica.
  • Gopal, Sangita; Moorti, Sujata (2008). Global Bollywood: Travels of Hindi Song and Dance. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4578-7. 
  • Report of the Indian Cinematograph Committee 1927–1928. Superintendent, The Government Press, Madras. 1928. 
  • Dwyer, Rachel; Patel, Divia (2002). Cinema India: The Visual Culture of Hindi Film. ISBN 978-0-8135-3175-5. 
  • Culture and Representation: The Emerging Field of Media Semiotics/J A H Khatri/Ruby Press & Co./ISBN 978-93-82395-12-6/ 2013.