Pemberontakan Eureka

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Eureka Rebellion
Eureka stockade battle.jpg
Eureka Stockade Riot. J. B. Henderson (1854)
Tarikh 3 Disember 1854
Lokasi Ballarat East (kini Eureka), Ballarat, Australia
Hasil Pemberontakan dilemahkan pihak berkuasa Victoria
Pihak yang terlibat
United Kingdom Jajahan Victoria Stockade rebels
Komandan
United Kingdom J. W. Thomas
United Kingdom Charles Pasley
Peter LalorTemplat:WIA
Henry RossTemplat:WIA #
Kekuatan
276 190
Korban
6 killed 22–60 killed (estimated)[1]
12+ orang cedera
120+ orang ditahan

Pemberontakan Eureka yang berlaku dalam tahun 1854 ialah sebuah pemberontakan yang penting dari segi sejarah Australia. Ia merupakan pemberontakan pelombong emas di Ballarat, Victoria yang menentang pihak berkuasa kolonial United Kingdom. Pertempuran Kubu Eureka (gelaran popular buat pemberontakan ini) berlangsung antara pelombong dan Angkatan Kolonial Australia (Colonial forces of Australia) pada 3 Disember 1854 di Eureka Lead. Nama pertempuran diambil sempena nama kubu yang dibina para pelombong semasa konflik tersebut.[2] Pertempuran berakhir dengan kematian sekurang-kurangnya 27 orang, majoritinya pelombong, dan kejadian ini ialah konflik yang paling signifikan dalam sejarah kolonial Victoria.

Nasib para pemberontak banyak mendapat simpati khalayak umum apabila mereka dibicarakan di kota Melbourne when they were placed on trial resulted in the introduction of the Electoral Act 1856, yang memberi mandat hak mengundi kepada para rakyat lelaki kepada dewan rakyat parlimen jajahan Victoria; lalu ia menjadi langkah demokrasi politik kedua dikenakan dalam sejarah Australia.[3] Para penduduk wanita diberikan hak sama 5 tahun kemudian dengan syarat pemilikan harta.[4] Maka, pemberontakan ini dikenalpasti secara kontroversinya sebagai bermulanya demokrasi di Australia ataupun sebagai sebuah pemberontakan politik.[5][6][7]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Wright, Clare, The Forgotten Rebels of Eureka (2013) Text Publishing, Melbourne ISBN 9781922147370, m/s. 428
  2. ^ Wendy Lewis, Simon Balderstone and John Bowan (2006). Events That Shaped Australia. New Holand. ISBN 978-1-74110-492-9. 
  3. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan licence tidak disediakan
  4. ^ https://www.parliament.sa.gov.au/education/teachers/Documents/Women's%20Petition%20Photograph.pdf Diarkibkan 29 March 2011 di Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ 'Dr. H.V. Evatt, leader of the ALP, wrote that "The Eureka Stockade was of crucial importance in the making of Australian democracy"; Robert Menzies, later Liberal Prime Minister, said that "the Eureka revolution was an earnest attempt at democratic government"; Ben Chifley, former ALP Prime Minister, wrote that "Eureka was more than an incident or passing phase. It was greater in significance than the short-lived revolt against tyrannical authority would suggest. The permanency of Eureka in its impact on our development was that it was the first real affirmation of our determination to be masters of our own political destiny." (from "The Eureka Rebellion". National Republicans. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 8 March 2017. , quoting Historical Studies: Eureka Supplement, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Vic., 1965, pages 125–6)
  6. ^ Sunterass, Anne Beggs (2003). "Contested Memories of Eureka: Museum Interpretations of the Eureka Stockade". Labour History. History Cooperative. Diarkibkan daripada asal pada 26 April 2007. Dicapai 22 December 2006. 
  7. ^ Geoffrey Blainey commented in 1963 that "Eureka became a legend, a battlecry for nationalists. republicans, liberals, radicals, or communists, each creed finding in the rebellion the lessons they liked to see." ..."In fact the new colonies' political constitutions were not affected by Eureka, but the first Parliament that met under Victoria's new constitution was alert to the democratic spirit of the goldfields, and passed laws enabling each adult man in Victoria to vote at elections, to vote by secret ballot, to stand for the Legislative Assembly." Blainey, Geoffrey (1963). The Rush That Never Ended. Melbourne University Press. m/s. 56–7. 

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