Pengeboman strategik

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Tokyo selepas pengeboman api besar-besaran pada malam 9–10 Mac 1945, iaitu satu serangan yang paling memusnahkan dalam sejarah penerbangan tentera. Pengeboman Tokyo dalam Perang Dunia II mengurangkan separuh daripada produktiviti industri ibu negara tersebut.

Pengeboman strategik ialah satu strategi ketenteraan yang digunakan dalam perang total bersama matlamat mengalahkan pihak musuh dengan memusnahkan semangat atau keupayaan ekonominya untuk mengeluar dan mengangkut material ke medan operasi tentera, atau kedua-duanya sekali. Ia adalah serangan dari udara yang bersistematik dan tersusun yang menggunakan pesawat pengebom strategik, peluru berpandu jarak jauh atau sederhana, atau pesawat pejuang-pengebom bersenjata nuklear untuk menyerang sasaran yang dianggap penting bagi keupayaan berperang pihak musuh.

Salah satu matlamat perang ialah untuk melemahkan semangat musuh, supaya perdamaian atau penyerahan kalah menjadi lebih baik daripada meneruskan konflik itu. Pengeboman strategik telah digunakan untuk tujuan ini. Ungkapan "pengeboman ganas" (terror bombing) memasuki kosa kata Bahasa Inggeris pada akhir Perang Dunia II dan banyak kempen pengeboman strategik dan serbuan secara individu telah digambarkan sebagai pengeboman ganas oleh para pengulas dan ahli sejarah. Disebabkan istilah itu mempunyai konotasi pejoratif, sesetengah, termasuk Pihak Berikat, lebih suka menggunakan kata-kata eufemisme seperti "semangat melawan" dan "pengeboman moral".[1][2]

Perbezaan teori antara peperangan udara taktikal dan strategik telah berkembang semasa zaman antara dua perang dunia. Sesetengah ahli teori utama peperangan udara strategik, sewaktu period ini ialah orang Itali Giulio Douhet, sekolah Trenchard di United Kingdom, dan Jeneral Billy Mitchell di Amerika Syarikat. Ahli-ahli teori ini adalah sangat berpengaruh, kedua-dua justifikasi tentera untuk sebuah tentera udara yang bebas (seperti Tentera Udara Diraja) dan mempengaruhi pemikiran politik pada perang masa hadapan seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh komen Stanley Baldwin tahun 1932 iaitu pesawat pengebom sentiasa akan melepasinya.

Pelopor pengeboman strategik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota kaki
Petikan

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Algeo, John (1993). Fifty years among the new words: a dictionary of neologisms, 1941–1991 (edisi 2, reprint). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-44971-5. 
  • Axinn, Sidney (2008). A Moral Military. Temple University Press. ISBN 978-1-59213-958-3. 
  • Brower, Charles F. (1998). World War II in Europe: the final year: Roosevelt Study Center. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-21133-2. 
  • Boyne, Walter J. (1994). Clash of Wings: World War II in the Air. New York: Simon & Schuster. m/s. 343, 344. ISBN 0-671-79370-5. 
  • Copp, Terry (September–October 1996). "The Bomber Command Offensive". originally published in the Legion Magazine. 
  • Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. (1978a). Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare. London: Phoebus. m/s. 969.  |title= hilang atau kosong (bantuan)
  • Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. (1978b). Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare. London: Phoebus. m/s. 1736, 1697, 1700.  |title= hilang atau kosong (bantuan)
  • Flight staff (1914). "Aircraft and the War". Flight: 905–906. 
  • Fritz, Stephen G. (2004). Endkampf: soldiers, civilians, and the death of the Third Reich (edisi illustrated). University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2325-9. 
  • Hayward, Joel (2009). Air Power, Insurgency and the "War on Terror". Royal Air Force Centre for Air Power Studies. ISBN 978-0-9552189-6-5. 
  • Hessel, Peter (2005). The Mystery of Frankenberg's Canadian Airman (edisi illustrated). James Lorimer & Company. ISBN 1-55028-884-9. 
  • Kochavi, Arieh J. (2005). Confronting captivity: Britain and the United States and their POWs in Nazi Germany (edisi illustrated). UNC Press Books. ISBN 0-8078-2940-4. 
  • Lewis, Peter M. H. (1994). Grolier Incorporated, ed. B-29 Superfortress. Academic American Encyclopedia. Grolier Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-7172-2053-3. 
  • Longmate, Norman (1983). The Bombers: The RAF offensive against Germany 1939–1945. Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-151580-7. 
  • Myrdal, Alva (1977). The game of disarmament: how the United States and Russia run the arms race. Manchester University Press ND. ISBN 0-7190-0693-7. 
  • Omissi, David (1990). Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-2960-0. 
  • Overy, R. J. (2005). The air war, 1939–1945. Brassey's. ISBN 978-1-57488-716-7. 
  • Taylor, Frederick (2005). Dresden: Tuesday 13 February 1945. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 0-7475-7084-1. 

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Biddle, Tami Davis. Rhetoric and Reality in Air Warfare: The Evolution of British and American Ideas about Strategic Bombing, 1914–1945 (Princeton Studies in International History and Politics) (2004)
  • Boog, Horst, ed. The Conduct of the Air War in the Second World War (1992)
  • Boog, Horst, ed. Germany and the Second World War: Volume VII: The Strategic Air War in Europe and the War in the West and East Asia, 1943–1944/5 (Oxford UP, 2006), 928pp official German history vol 7 excerpt and text search; online edition
  • Buckley, John (1999). Air Power in the Age of Total War. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33557-4. 
  • Clodfelter, Mark. "Aiming to Break Will: America's World War II Bombing of German Morale and its Ramifications", Journal of Strategic Studies, June 2010, Vol. 33 Issue 3, pp 401–435
  • Clodfelter, Mark. Beneficial Bombing: The Progressive Foundations of American Air Power, 1917–1945 (University of Nebraska Press; 2010) 347 pages
  • Craven, Wesley Frank and James Lea Cate. The Army Air Forces in World War II (6 vol 1958), official USAF history
  • Davis, Richard G. "Bombing Strategy Shifts, 1944-45", Air Power History 39 (1989) 33-45
  • Franklin, Noble, and Charles Webster. The Strategic Air Offensive against Germany, 1939–1945 (4 volumes, 1961), official RAF history
  • Futrell, Robert Frank. Ideas, concepts, doctrine: A history of basic thinking in the United States Air Force, 1907–1964 (2 vol 1974)
  • Grayling, Anthony C. Among the dead cities: The history and moral legacy of the WWII bombing of civilians in Germany and Japan (Bloomsbury Publishing USA, 2009)
  • Griffith, Charles. The quest: Haywood Hansell and American strategic bombing in World War II (1999) online edition
  • Hansell, Jr., Haywood S. Air Plan That Defeated Hitler (1980) online version
  • Kennett, Lee B. A History of Strategic Bombing (1982)
  • Koch, H. W. "The Strategic Air Offensive against Germany: the Early Phase, May–September 1940." The Historical Journal, 34 (March 1991) pp 117–41. online at JSTOR
  • Levine, Alan J. The Strategic Bombing of Germany, 1940–1945 (1992) online edition
  • MacIsaac, David. Strategic Bombing in World War Two (1976)
  • Messenger, Charles. "Bomber" Harris and the Strategic Bombing Offensive, 1939–1945 (1984), defends Harris
  • Neillands, Robin. The Bomber War: The Allied Air Offensive Against Nazi Germany (Overlook Press, 2001)
  • Overy. Richard. "The Means to Victory: Bombs and Bombing" in Overy, Why the Allies Won (1995), pp 101–33
  • Overy. Richard. The Bombers and the Bombed: Allied Air War Over Europe 1940–1945 (2014), 592pp excerpt and text search; a longer version was published in UK as The Bombing War: Europe, 1939–1945 (2013), 880pp
  • Sherry, Michael. The Rise of American Air Power: The Creation of Armageddon (1987), important study 1930s-1960s
  • Smith, Malcolm. "The Allied Air Offensive", Journal of Strategic Studies (1990) 13#1 pp 67–83
  • Spaight. James M. "Bombing Vindicated" G. Bles, 1944. ASIN: B0007IVW7K (Spaight was Principal Assistant Secretary of the Air Ministry) (U.K)
  • Verrier, Anthony. The Bomber Offensive (1968), British
  • Webster, Charles and Noble Frankland, The Strategic Air Offensive Against Germany, 1939–1945 (HMSO, 1961), 4 vol. Important official British history
  • Werrell, Kenneth P. "The Strategic Bombing of Germany in World War II: Costs and Accomplishments", Journal of American History 73 (1986) 702-713; good place to start. in JSTOR
  • Werrell, Kenneth P. Death From the Heavens: A History of Strategic Bombing (2009)

Templat:Military aircraft types (roles)