Pengurusan krisis

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Pengurusan krisis ialah proses di mana organisasi menangani kejadian yang mengganggu dan tidak dijangka yang mengancam untuk membahayakan organisasi atau pihak berkepentingan.[1] Kajian pengurusan krisis bermula dengan bencana industri dan alam sekitar berskala besar pada tahun 1980-an. [2][3] Ia dianggap sebagai proses yang paling penting dalam perhubungan awam.[3]

Tiga elemen ialah biasa kepada krisis: (a) ancaman kepada organisasi, (b) unsur kejutan, dan (c) masa membuat keputusan yang singkat.[4] Venette[5] berpendapat bahawa "krisis ialah satu proses transformasi di mana sistem lama tidak dapat dikekalkan lagi". Oleh itu, kualiti mendefinisikan keempat ialah keperluan untuk perubahan. Jika perubahan tidak diperlukan, peristiwa itu boleh digambarkan dengan lebih tepat sebagai kegagalan atau insiden.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Bundy, Jonathan; Pfarrer, Michael D.; Short, Cole E.; Coombs, W. Timothy (2017). "Crises and Crisis Management: Integration, Interpretation, and Research Development". Journal of Management. 43 (6): 1661–1692. doi:10.1177/0149206316680030.
  2. ^ Shrivastava, Paul; Mitroff, Ian I.; Miller, Danny; Miclani, Anil (1988). "Understanding Industrial Crises[1]". Journal of Management Studies. 25 (4): 285–303. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.1988.tb00038.x.
  3. ^ a b ASIS International, "Organizational Resilience: Security, Preparedness, and Continuity Management Systems-Requirements with Guidance for Use, ASIS SPC.1-2009, American National Standard", 2009
  4. ^ Seeger, M. W.; Sellnow, T. L.; Ulmer, R. R. (1998). "Communication, organization and crisis". Communication Yearbook. 21: 231–275.
  5. ^ Venette, S. J. (2003). Risk communication in a High Reliability Organization: APHIS PPQ's inclusion of risk in decision making. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Proquest Information and Learning.

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Barton, L. (2007). Crisis leadership now: A real-world guide to preparing for threats, disaster, sabotage, and scandal. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  • Borodzicz, Edward P. (2005). Risk, Crisis and Security Management. West Sussex, England: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
  • Bossu, Gilles, Mazet-Roux. and Roussel. Citizen Seismology or How to Involve the Public in Earthquake Response in Comparative Emergency Management: Examining Global and Regional Responses to Disasters. Editors: D. M. Miller and J. Rivera. Auerbach/Taylor and Francis Publishers. pp. 237–259 2011
  • Coombs, W. T. (2006). Code Red in the Boardroom: Crisis Management as Organizational DNA. Westport, CT: Praeger.
  • Crump, Jeffrey (2019). Cyber Crisis Management Planning: How to reduce cyber risk and increase organizational resilience. m/s. 11. ISBN 978-0-578-52310-1.
  • Davidson, M.N. (2005). Ethics in Human Resource Management, in P.H. Werhane, R. E. Freeman (Eds.), Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of Business Ethics. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • "Book Reviews". Personnel Psychology. 57 (2): 493–567. 2004. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2004.tb02499.x.
  • Davidson, M.N. (2004). "Here and There: A Conversation about Identity". Industrial-Organizational Psychologist. 41 (3).
  • Davidson, M.N. (2004). "Diversity that matters". Batten Briefings. 3 (1).
  • Davidson, M.N. (2003). "Making the Tough Calls: Negotiating Exclusion in Inclusive and Diverse Organizations". Industrial-Organizational Psychologist. 41 (1).
  • Davidson, M.N. (2003). "Leveraging Difference for Organizational Excellence". Batten Briefings. 2 (1).
  • Davidson, M.N. (2002). "Inclusion and Power: Reflections on Dominance and Subordination in Organizations". Industrial-Organizational Psychologist. 40 (1).
  • Davidson (2001). "Diversity and inclusion: What difference does it make?". Industrial-Organizational Psychologist. 39 (2).
  • Davidson, Martin N. (2001). "Know Thine Adversary: The Impact of Race on Styles of Dealing with Conflict". Sex Roles. 45 (5/6): 259–276. doi:10.1023/A:1014301429426. S2CID 141598795.
  • Davidson, Martin N.; Foster-Johnson, Lynn (2001). "Mentoring in the Preparation of Graduate Researchers of Color". Review of Educational Research. 71 (4): 549–574. doi:10.3102/00346543071004549. S2CID 145105783.
  • Davidson, M.N. (1999). The role of emotion in negotiation: The impact of anger. In R.J. Bies, R.J. Lewicki, B.H. Sheppard, (Eds.), Research on Negotiation in Organizations. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc.
  • Davidson, Martin N. (2008). "The Value of Being Included: An Examination of Diversity Change Initiatives in Organizations". Performance Improvement Quarterly. 12: 164–180. doi:10.1111/j.1937-8327.1999.tb00121.x.
  • Dezenhall, E. (2003). Nail 'em!: Confronting high-profile attacks on celebrities & businesses. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books.
  • Dezenhall, E.; Weber, J. (2007). Damage control: Why everything you know about crisis management is wrong. Portfolio Hardcover.
  • Erickson, Paul A. (2006). Emergency Response Planning for Corporate and Municipal Managers (ed. 2nd). Burlington, MA: Elsevier, Inc.
  • Ferdman (2002). "Inclusion: What can I and my organization do about it?". Industrial-Organizational Psychologist. 39 (4).
  • Ferdman (2002). "Drawing the line: Are some differences too different?". Industrial-Organizational Psychologist. 39 (3).
  • Fink, S. (2007). Crisis management: Planning for the inevitable. Backinprint.com.
  • Friedman, R.A. (2001). "Managing diversity and second-order conflict". International Journal of Conflict Management. 12 (2): 132–153. doi:10.1108/eb022853.
  • Friedman, R.A. (1999). The role of emotion in negotiation: The impact of anger. In R.J. Bies, R.J. Lewicki, B.H. Sheppard, (Eds.), Research on Negotiation in Organizations. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc.
  • Groom, S.A.; Fritz, J.H. (2011). Communication ethics and crisis: Negotiating differences in public and private spheres. Madison, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.
  • Mitroff, Ian I.; Gus Anagnos (2000). Managing Crises Before They Happen: What Every Executive Needs to Know About Crisis Management. New York: AMACOM.
  • Mitroff, Ian I. (2003). Crisis Leadership: Planning for the Unthinkable. New York: John Wiley.
  • Mitroff, Ian I. (2005). Why Some Companies Emerge Stronger And Better From a Crisis: Seven Essential Lessons For Surviving Disaster. New York: AMACOM.
  • Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency (September 2007). "National Response Plan". Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 30 October 2007.
  • Office of Security and Risk Management Services (October 2007). "Crisis Management Workbook" (PDF). Fairfax County Public Schools. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal (PDF) pada 2 December 2007.
  • Shrivastava, Paul (1987). Bhopal:Anatomy of a crisis. New York: Ballinger.
  • Smith, Larry; Dan Millar, PhD (2002). Before Crisis Hits: Building a Strategic Crisis Plan. Washington, DC: AACC Community College Press.
  • Smith, Larry; Dan Millar, PhD (2002). Crisis Management and Communication; How to Gain and Maintain Control (ed. 2nd). San Francisco, CA: International Association of Business Communicators.
  • Ulmer, R. R.; Sellnow, T. L.; Seeger, M. W. (2006). Effective crisis communication: Moving from crisis to opportunity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

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