Pengurusan strategik

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Dalam bidang pengurusan, pengurusan strategik melibatkan penggubalan dan pelaksanaan utama matlamat dan inisiatif yang diambil oleh sesuatu organisasi bahagian pengurusan bagi pihak pemilik, berdasarkan pertimbangan sumber dan penilaian terhadap persekitaran dalaman dan luaran di mana organisasi beroperasi.[1][2][3]

Pengurusan strategik memberikan arah keseluruhan kepada perusahaan dan melibatkan objektif organisasi, membangunkan dasar dan rancangan untuk mencapai matlamat tersebut, dan kemudian memperuntukkan sumber untuk melaksanakan rancangan tersebut.[4] akademik dan pengamal telah membangunkan pelbagai model dan kerangka kerja untuk membantu dalam membuat keputusan strategik dalam konteks persekitaran kompleks dan dinamik yang kompetitif.[5] Pengurusan strategik tidak bersifat statik; model sering termasuk gelung maklum balas untuk memantau pelaksanaan dan untuk memberitahu pusingan seterusnya perancangan.[6][7][8]

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  1. ^ Nag, R.; Hambrick, D. C.; Chen, M.-J (2007). "What is strategic management, really? Inductive derivation of a consensus definition of the field". Strategic Management Journal. 28 (9): 935–955. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.491.7592Boleh dicapai secara percuma. doi:10.1002/smj.615. 
  2. ^ Compare a corporation-oriented view: Alkhafaji, Abbass F. (2003). Strategic Management: Formulation, Implementation, and Control in a Dynamic Environment. New York: Routledge (diterbitkan 2013). ISBN 9781135186357. Dicapai 2018-06-17. Strategic management is the process of assessing the corporation and its environment in order to meet the firm's long-term objectives of adapting and adjusting to its environment through manipulation of opportunities and reduction of threats. 
  3. ^ Compare broader definitions of strategic management encompassing the management of non-commercial entities: Courtney, Roger (2002). Strategic Management for Voluntary Nonprofit Organizations. Routledge studies in the management of voluntary and non-profit organizations. 5. London: Psychology Press. m/s. 8. ISBN 9780415250238. Dicapai 2018-06-17. [...] 'Strategic Management' as 'the process of strategic change' (Bowman and Asche 1987) or as 'the process of making and implementing strategic decisions', 'strategic decisions' being those 'that determine the overall direction of an enterprise and its ultimate viability in light of the ... changes that may occur in its ... environments' (Quinn 1980). 
  4. ^ A Simple Approach to Strategic Management
  5. ^ Ghemawat, Pankaj (Spring 2002). "Competition and Business Strategy in Historical Perspective". Business History Review. SSRN 264528Boleh dicapai secara percuma. 
  6. ^ Hill, Charles W. L.; Jones, Gareth R. (2012). Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach (edisi 10). Mason, Ohio: Cengage Learning. m/s. 21. ISBN 9781111825843. Dicapai 2018-06-17. The feedback loop [...] indicates that strategic planning is ongoing; it never ends. Once a strategy has been implemented, its execution must be monitored [...]. This information and knowledge is returned to the corporate level through feedback loops, and becomes the input for the next round of strategy formulation and implementation. 
  7. ^ (Lamb, 1984:ix)
  8. ^ Lamb, Robert, Boyden Competitive strategic management, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984

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