Penyerangan Belgrade

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Penyerangan Belgrade
Sebahagian daripada Barisan Yugoslavia dan Barisan Timur dalam Perang Dunia II
Uništen tenk ispred palate Albanija.jpg
Kereta kebal T-34/85 Soviet yang musnah di Belgrade (Istana Albanija di latar belakang)
Tarikh15 September 1944 – 24 November 1944[2]
Lokasi
Keputusan Kemenangan Bersekutu
Pihak yang terlibat
Pihak Bersekutu
 Kesatuan Soviet
Partisan Yugoslavia
Bulgaria

Kuasa Paksi
 Jerman Nazi

Komandan dan pemimpin
Kesatuan Soviet Fyodor Tolbukhin
Kesatuan Soviet Nikolai Gagen
Kesatuan Soviet Vladimir Zhdanov
Peko Dapčević
Danilo Lekić
Vladimir Stoychev
Kiril Stanchev
Asen Sirakov
Jerman Nazi Maximilian von Weichs
Jerman Nazi Wilhelm Schneckenburger 
Jerman Nazi Hans Felber
Jerman Nazi Alexander Löhr
Unit terlibat
Kesatuan Soviet Barisan Ke-3 Ukraine
Kor 1
Kor-12
Tentera Darat 1
Tentera Darat Ke-2
Tentera Darat Ke-4
Jerman Nazi Kumpulan Tentera Darat F
Jerman Nazi Tentera Darat Ke-2 Panzer
Flag of the Government of National Salvation (occupied Yugoslavia).svg Pengawal Kebangsaan Serbia[petikan diperlukan]
Kekuatan
580,000 askar
3,640 pucuk artileri
520 kereta kebal dan meriam serbuan
1,420 pesawat
80 kapal
150,000 askar
(kebanyakan askar infantri berkelas rendah & askar sokongan bukan-Jerman)
2,100 pucuk artileri
125 kereta kebal dan meriam serbuan
350 pesawat
70 kapal
Kerugian dan korban

Pihak Soviet:
4,350 terkorban atau missing
14,488 cedera atau sakit
18,838 keseluruhan[3]
Tentera Darat Bulgaria:
Lebih 3,000 terkorban[4]

Partisan Yugoslavia:
2,953 terbunuh
(serangan atas Belgrade sahaja)[5]
45,000[petikan diperlukan]

Penyerangan Belgrade atau operasi ofensif strategik Belgrade (Bahasa Serbia: Београдска операција / Beogradska operacija; Bahasa Rusia: Белградская стратегическая наступательная операция, Belgradskaya strategicheskaya nastupatel'naya operatsiya) (15 September 1944 – 24 November 1944)[6] adalah operasi ketenteraan semasa Perang Dunia II di Yugoslavia dimana Belgrade telah dibebaskan dari Wehrmacht Jerman melalui usaha sama Tentera Merah Soviet, Partisan Yugoslavia, dan Tentera Bulgaria.[7] Bala tentera Soviet dan militia tempatan melancarkan operasi bersepadu yang berasingan tetapi tidak teratur terhadap Jerman di Belgrade dan berjaya mengundurkan mereka.[8] Perancangan militari dikoordinasikan sama rata diantara pemimpin tentera, dan operasi ini sebahagian besarnya dihidupkan melalui kerjasama taktikal antara Josip Broz Tito dan Joseph Stalin yang bermula pada September 1944.[9][10] Persediaan militari ini membolehkan tentera Bulgaria terlibat dalam operasi diseluruh wilayah Yugoslavia, yang mana meneruskan kejayaan taktikal sambil meningkatkan perselisihan diplomatik.[11]

Objectif utama serangan Belgrade ialah membebaskan pendudukan Jerman ke atas Serbia, menawan Belgrade sebagai satu kubu strategik di rantau Balkan, dan memutuskan talian komunikasi Jerman antara Greece dan Hungary.[12] Penyerangan ini telah dipimpin oleh Barisan Ke-3 Ukraine Soviet dengan kerjasama Kor Pertama Yugoslavia. Operasi serentak di bahagian selatan melibatkan Tentera Darat Ke-2 Bulgaria dan Kor XIII Yugoslavia, dan pencerobohan Barisan Ke-2 Ukraine ke arah utara dari sempadan Yugoslav-Bulgaria memberi tekanan tambahan terhadap tentera Jerman.[13] Terdapat beberapa pertembungan antara tentera Bulgaria dan rejimen anti-partisan Jerman di Macedonia yang mewakili kempen operasi tempur paling selatan.[14][15]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. 2. San Francisco: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4. pp. 222–228.
  2. ^ Krivosheyev 1997.
  3. ^ Glantz (1995), p. 299
  4. ^ Иво Антонов, началник на отдел „Военни паметници и военно-патриотично възпитание“ при МО. В-к „Труд“, 05.11.2016 г.
  5. ^ Biryuzov 1964, m/s. 260.
  6. ^ p.1116, Dupuy; Belgrade itself was taken on 20 October
  7. ^ Ivan Laković, Dmitar Tasić, The Tito–Stalin Split and Yugoslavia's Military Opening toward the West, 1950–1954: In NATO's Backyard, The Harvard Cold War Studies Book Series Authors, Lexington Books, 2016, ISBN 1498539343, p. 203.
  8. ^ p.615, Wilmot "[the Red Army] entered Belgrade ... at the same time as Tito's partisans."; p.152, Seaton; "The Russians had no interest in the German occupation forces in Greece and appear to have had very little interest in those retiring northwards through Yugoslavia...Stalin was content to leave to Tito and the Bulgarians the clearing of Yugoslav territory from the enemy."; Library of Congress Country Studies citing "information from Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1919–1945, Arlington, Virginia, 1976": "...Soviet troops crossed the border on October 1, and a joint Partisan-Soviet force liberated Belgrade on October 20."
  9. ^ Biryuzov 1964, m/s. 83.
  10. ^ Biryuzov 1964, m/s. 270.
  11. ^ Tomasevich 2001, m/s. 168.
  12. ^ Biryuzov 1964, m/s. 103–104.
  13. ^ Biryuzov 1964, m/s. 103, 124.
  14. ^ The Oxford companion to World War II, Ian Dear, Michael Richard Daniell Foot, Oxford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-19-860446-7, p. 134.
  15. ^ Biryuzov 1964, m/s. 124.

Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Biryuzov, Sergeĭ Semenovich; Hamović, Rade (1964). BEOGRADSKA OPERACIJA. Beograd: Vojni istoriski institut Jugoslovenske narodne armije.
  • Dudarenko, M.L., Perechnev, Yu.G., Yeliseev, V.T., et.el., Reference guide "Liberation of cities": reference for liberation of cities during the period of the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945, Moscow, 1985
  • Glantz, David, 1986 Art of War symposium, From the Vistula to the Oder: Soviet Offensive Operations – October 1944 – March 1945, A transcript of Proceedings, Center for Land Warfare, US Army War College, 19–23 May 1986
  • Glantz, David M. & House, Jonathan (1995), When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler, Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, ISBN 0-7006-0899-0.
  • Krivosheyev, Grigoriy Fedotovich (1997). Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century. Greenhill Books. ISBN 9781853672804.
  • Maclean, Fitzroy (1949). Eastern Approaches. Penguin Group. ISBN 9780140132717.
  • Seaton, Albert, The fall of Fortress Europe 1943–1945, B.T.Batsford Ltd., London, 1981 ISBN 0-7134-1968-7
  • Schmider, Klaus (2002). PARTISANENKRIEG IN JUGOSLAWIEN 1941–1944. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Verlag E.S. Mittler & Sohn GmbH. ISBN 3-8132-0794-3.
  • Tomasevich, Jozo (2002). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia: 1941 – 1945. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0857-6.
  • Dupuy, Ernest R., and Dupuy, Trevor N., The encyclopedia of Military History from 3500 B.C. to the present (revised edition), Jane's Publishing Company, London, 1980
  • Mitrovski, Boro, Venceslav Glišić and Tomo Ristovski, The Bulgarian Army in Yugoslavia 1941–1945, Belgrade, Medunarodna Politika, 1971
  • Wilmot, Chester, The Struggle for Europe, Collins, 1952
  • Grechko, A.A., (ed.), Liberation Mission of the Soviet Armed Forces in the Second World War, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1975

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Campaignbox Yugofront