Perang India-Pakistan 1971

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Perang India-Pakistan 1971
Sebahagian daripada Perang India-Pakistan
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Tarikh 3 Disember-16 Disember 1971
Lokasi Bangladesh dan perbatasan India-Pakistan
Hasil Kemenangan India;
Gencatan senjata di teater barat.
Casus belli Krisis Bangladesh
Serangan udara terhadap India di India barat-laut
Perubahan
wilayah
Bangladesh menjadi negara merdeka.
Pihak yang terlibat
 India
*  Bangladesh
* Mukti Bahini
 Pakistan
* Pakistan Pakistan Timur
Komandan
 India Sam Manekshaw
 India J.S. Aurora
 India G.G Bewoor
 India K. P. Candeth
 Pakistan Gul Hassan Khan
 Pakistan Abdul Hamid Khan
 Pakistan Tikka Khan
 Pakistan A. A. K. Niazi #
Kekuatan
500.000+ tentera
100.000 pemberontak Mukti Bahini
400.000+ tentera
Korban
3.843 terkorban[1]
9.851 cedera [1]
4.000 terkorban
10.000 cedera
90.368 ditangkap[2]

Perang India-Pakistan 1971 ialah konfrontasi ketenteraan antara India dan Pakistan yang berlaku semasa perang pembebasan di Pakistan Timur dari 3 Disember 1971 hingga kejatuhan Dacca (Dhaka) pada 16 Disember 1971. Perang bermula dengan serangan udara di 11 stesen udara India, yang membawa kepada permulaan permusuhan dengan Pakistan dan India masuk ke perang kemerdekaan di Pakistan Timur di sisi pasukan nasionalis Bengali. Bertahan hanya 13 hari, ia merupakan salah satu perang terpendek dalam sejarah.[3][4]

Semasa perang, tentera India dan Pakistan serentak bertelagah di bahagian timur dan barat; perang berakhir selepas Perintah Timur tentera Pakistan menandatangani Instrumen Penyerahan[5] pada 16 Disember 1971 di Dhaka, menandakan pembentukan Pakistan Timur sebagai negara baru Bangladesh. Secara rasmi, Pakistan Timur sebelum ini menyeru pengasingannya dari perpaduan Pakistan pada 26 Mac 1971. Kira-kira 90,000[6] hingga 93,000 askar Pakistan dipenjarakan oleh Tentera India, yang meliputi 79,676 hingga 81,000 anggota seragam Angkatan Bersenjata Pakistan, termasuk beberapa askar Bengali yang tetap setia kepada Pakistan.[7][8] Baki 10,324 hingga 12,500 tahanan adalah orang awam, sama ada anggota keluarga anggota tentera atau kolaborator (razakar).[9][10][11] Dianggarkan bahawa antara 300,000 dan 3,000,000 orang awam terbunuh di Bangladesh.[12][13][14][15][16] Akibat konflik itu, lebih lapan hingga sepuluh juta orang melarikan diri dari negara itu untuk mendapatkan perlindungan di India.[17]

Semasa perang Bangladesh untuk kemerdekaan pada 1971, anggota tentera Pakistan dan menyokong militia Islam memanggil Razakar merogol antara 200,000 dan 400,000 wanita dan gadis Bangladesh dalam kempen pemerkosaan genosidal yang sistematik.[18]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Official Government of India Statement giving numbers of KIA - Parliament of India Website
  2. ^ Quantification of Losses Suffered
  3. ^ "India: Easy Victory, Uneasy Peace". Time. 27 December 1971.
  4. ^ "World's shortest war lasted for only 45 minutes". Pravda. 10 March 2007.
  5. ^ Azhar, M. u. R., Masood, S., & Malek, N. M. (2018). Conflict and Development: A case study of East Pakistan Crisis, 1971. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science, 2(9).
  6. ^ Orton, Anna (2010). India's Borderland Disputes: China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal. Epitome Books. m/s. 117. ISBN 9789380297156. Dicapai pada 2016-03-10.
  7. ^ Burke, S. M (1974). Mainsprings of Indian and Pakistani Foreign Policies – S. M. Burke. ISBN 9780816607204. Dicapai pada 27 July 2012.
  8. ^ Bose, Sarmila (November 2011). "The question of genocide and the quest for justice in the 1971 war" (PDF). Journal of Genocide Research. 13 (4): 398. doi:10.1080/14623528.2011.625750.
  9. ^ "Jamaat claims denied by evidence". THE DAILY STAR. 28 February 2008. Dicapai pada 10 March 2016.
  10. ^ Haqqani, Hussain (2005). Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military. United Book Press. ISBN 978-0-87003-214-1., Chapter 3, p. 87.
  11. ^ Burke, Samuel Martin (1974). Mainsprings of Indian and Pakistani Foreign Policies. University of Minnesota Press. m/s. 216. ISBN 978-0-8166-5714-8.
  12. ^ Alston, Margaret (2015). Women and Climate Change in Bangladesh. Routledge. m/s. 40. ISBN 9781317684862. Dicapai pada 2016-03-08.
  13. ^ Totten, Samuel (2012). Plight and Fate of Women During and Following Genocide. Transaction Publishers. m/s. 55. ISBN 9781412847599. Dicapai pada 2016-03-08.
  14. ^ Myers, David G. (2004). Exploring Social Psychology 4E. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. m/s. 269. ISBN 9780070700628. Dicapai pada 2016-03-08.
  15. ^ Consulate (Dacca) Cable, Sitrep: Army Terror Campaign Continues in Dacca; Evidence Military Faces Some Difficulties Elsewhere, 31 March 1971, Confidential, 3 pp.
  16. ^ Kennedy, Senator Edward, "Crisis in South Asia – A report to the Subcommittee investigating the Problem of Refugees and Their Settlement, Submitted to U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee", 1 November 1971, U.S. Govt. Press, page 66. Sen. Kennedy wrote, "Field reports to the U.S. Government, countless eye-witness journalistic accounts, reports of International agencies such as World Bank and additional information available to the subcommittee document the reign of terror which grips East Bengal (East Pakistan). Hardest hit have been members of the Hindu community who have been robbed of their lands and shops, systematically slaughtered, and in some places, painted with yellow patches marked 'H'. All of this has been officially sanctioned, ordered and implemented under martial law from Islamabad."
  17. ^ Rummel, Rudolph J., "Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900", ISBN 3-8258-4010-7, Chapter 8, Table 8.2 Pakistan Genocide in Bangladesh Estimates, Sources, and Calculations: lowest estimate 2 million claimed by Pakistan (reported by Aziz, Qutubuddin. Blood and tears Karachi: United Press of Pakistan, 1974. pp. 74, 226), some other sources used by Rummel suggest a figure of between 8 and 10 million with one (Johnson, B. L. C. Bangladesh. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1975. pp. 73, 75) that "could have been" 12 million.
  18. ^ Sharlach, Lisa (2000). "Rape as Genocide: Bangladesh, the Former Yugoslavia, and Rwanda". New Political Science. 22 (1): (89–102), 92–93. doi:10.1080/713687893.

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