Perang Inggeris-Iraq

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Pergi ke pandu arah Pergi ke carian
Perang Inggeris-Iraq
Sebahagian daripada Perang Dunia Kedua (Kancah Mediterranean dan Timur Tengah)
Men in pith helmets
Askar British di Baghdad, 11 Jun 1941
Tarikh2–31 Mei 1941 (02-05-1941 – 31-05-1941)[8][nb 4]
Lokasi
Keputusan Kemenangan Pihak Bersekutu
Pihak yang terlibat

Kuasa Bersekutu :
 United Kingdom

Sokongan udara dan laut :
 Australia[nb 1]
Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand[nb 2]
Greece[nb 3]
Kuasa Paksi :
Flag of Iraq (1924–1959).svg Kerajaan Beraja Iraq
Sokongan udara :
 Jerman Nazi[5]
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg Itali[6]
Flag of France (1794–1815, 1830–1974, 2020–present).svg Perancis Vichy[7]
Komandan dan pemimpin
United Kingdom Claude Auchinleck
United Kingdom Archibald Wavell[10]
United Kingdom Edward Quinan[11]
United Kingdom William Fraser[10]
United Kingdom William Slim
United Kingdom H. G. Smart[12]
United Kingdom Ouvry Roberts
United Kingdom John D'Albiac
Iraq Rashid Ali al-Gaylani
Iraq Salah al-Sabbagh
Iraq Kamil Shabib
Iraq Fahmi Said_-(Dihukum mati)
Iraq Mahmud Salman(Dihukum mati)
Iraq Fawzi al-Qawuqji
Flag of Hejaz 1917.svg Amin al-Husseini[13]
Jerman Nazi Werner Junck
Kekuatan
1 divisyen infantri[14]
2 kumpulan briged[nb 5]
100+ pesawat[nb 6]
4 divisyen[17]
30,000 askar[18]
116 pesawat Iraq[19] (50–60 boleh digunakan)[11]
21–29 pesawat Jerman[5][20]
12 pesawat Itali[6]
Kerugian dan korban
Kasualti sedikit[21]
Sekurang-kurangnya 200 terbunuh[22]
28 pesawat[23]
1,750 kasualti, termasuk 500 terbunuh[21]
Kebanyakannya pesawat Iraq yang berguna[24]
19 pesawat Jerman[6]
3 pesawat Itali[6]

Perang Inggeris-Iraq adalah kempen ketenteraan Pihak Bersekutu pimpinan British semasa Perang Dunia Kedua menentang Kerajaan Beraja Iraq dibawah Rashid Ali, yang telah merampas kuasa dalam rampasan kuasa Iraq 1941, dengan pertolongan dari Jerman dan Itali. Kempen ini menyebabkan kejatuhan kerajaan Ali, penjajahan semula Iraq oleh British, dan kembalinya pemerintahan Pemangku Raja Iraq, Putera 'Abd al-Ilah, iaitu sekutu British.

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ HMAS Yarra, representing Australia, participated at sea.[2]
  2. ^ HMNZS Leander, representing New Zealand, participated at sea.[3]
  3. ^ Greek airmen undergoing training at Habbaniya flew sorties against the Iraqis.[4]
  4. ^ On 30 May Rashid Ali and his supporters fled to Persia. At 4 am on 31 May, the Mayor of Baghdad signed an armistice on a bridge across the Washash Canal.[9] Mercol, Gocol, and Harcol operations against guerrillas continued into June.
  5. ^ See Iraqforce; Habforce constituted one reinforced Brigade group while the force based at RAF Habbaniya constituted the other.
  6. ^ 85 aircraft based at RAF Habbaniya.[15][16] 18 bombers were flown into RAF Shaibah as reinforcements[12] while No. 244 Squadron RAF was already based there equipped with Vicker Vincents.[16] No. 84 Squadron RAF was rebased to RAF Aqir, in Palestine, to support British ground forces during the rebellion.[16] Four Bristol Blenheims of No. 203 Squadron RAF were flown to RAF Lydda, also in Palestine, to fly combat missions over Iraq.[16]

Petikan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Young, p. 7.
  2. ^ Wavell, p. 4094.
  3. ^ Waters, p. 24.
  4. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Carr tidak disediakan
  5. ^ a b Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Playfair195 tidak disediakan
  6. ^ a b c d Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Playfair196 tidak disediakan
  7. ^ Sutherland, Jon; Canwell, Diane (2011). Vichy Air Force at War: The French Air Force that Fought the Allies in World War II. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Aviation. m/s. 38–43. ISBN 978-1-84884-336-3.
  8. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Playfair182-3 tidak disediakan
  9. ^ Playfair 1956, pp. 192, 332.
  10. ^ a b Playfair 1956, p. 186.
  11. ^ a b Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Playfair179 tidak disediakan
  12. ^ a b Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Playfair183 tidak disediakan
  13. ^ Patterson, David (2010). A Genealogy of Evil: Anti-Semitism from Nazism to Islamic Jihad. Cambridge University Press. m/s. 114. ISBN 978-0-521-13261-9.
  14. ^ Mackenzie, p. 101.
  15. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Playfair182 tidak disediakan
  16. ^ a b c d Jackson, p. 159.
  17. ^ url="https://resources.saylor.org/wwwresources/archived/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/HIST351-10.2.2-Anglo-Iraqi-War.pdf"
  18. ^ Lyman, Iraq 1941, p. 25.
  19. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Lyman2526 tidak disediakan
  20. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Mack100 tidak disediakan
  21. ^ a b Wavell, p. 3439.
  22. ^ "Resources.saylor.org" (PDF). Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Dicapai pada 12 August 2010.
  23. ^ Playfair 1956, p. 193.
  24. ^ Lyman, p. 48.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Buku[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Auchinleck, Claude (1946). Despatch on Operations in the Middle East From 5th July, 1941 to 31st October 1941. London: War Office. in "No. 37695". The London Gazette (Supplement). 20 August 1946. m/s. 4215–4230.
  • Broich, John. Blood, Oil, and the Axis: The Allied Resistance against a Fascist State in Iraq and the Levant, 1941. Abrams Press, 2019) p. 365.
  • de Chair, Somerset (1943). The Golden Carpet (ed. 2nd). London: Faber and Faber. OCLC 633936612.
  • Churchill, Winston (1985) [1950]. "14: The Revolt in Iraq". The Grand Alliance. The Second World War. III. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-41057-6.
  • Dudgeon, Anthony (2000). Hidden Victory: The Battle of Habbaniya, May 1941. Stroud and Charleston: Tempus Publishing. ISBN 0-7524-2001-1.
  • Dunford Wood, Colin (2020). Big Little Wars: The War Diaries of Colin Dunford Wood, 1939-41, India and Iraq. London: Independent Publishing Network. ISBN 978-1838538484.
  • Glubb, John Bagot (1948). The Story of the Arab Legion. Mazal Holocaust Collection. London: Hodder & Stoughton. OCLC 798611.
  • Jackson, Ashley (2006). The British Empire and the Second World War. London: Hambledon Continuum. ISBN 1-85285-417-0.
  • James, Barrie G. (2009). Hitler's Gulf War, The Fight for Iraq 1941. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Aviation. ISBN 978-1-84884-090-4.
  • Kiwarkis, Gaby. "Assyrian RAF Levies". Dicapai pada 1 January 2016.
  • Kurowski, Franz (2005). The Brandenburger Commandos: Germany's Elite Warrior Spies in World War II. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-3250-9.
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  • Mackenzie, Compton (1951). Eastern Epic: September 1939 – March 1943 Defence. 1. London: Chatto & Windus. OCLC 59637091.
  • Martin, Colonel Thomas Alexander (1952). The Essex Regiment, 1929–1950. Brentwood: Essex Regiment Association. OCLC 4045659.
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  • Playfair, Major-General I. S. O.; with Flynn RN, Captain F. C.; Molony, Brigadier C. J. C. & Toomer, Air Vice-Marshal S. E. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO 1956]. Butler, J. R. M. (penyunting). The Mediterranean and Middle East: The Germans come to the help of their Ally (1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. II. Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-84574-066-1.
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  • Wavell, Archibald (1946). Despatch on Operations in Iraq, East Syria and Iran from 10th April, 1941 to 12th January, 1942. London: War Office. in "No. 37685". The London Gazette (Supplement). 13 August 1946. m/s. 4093–4102.
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