Perbincangan pengguna:Rizman Suzaidi

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terjemahan oleh Rizman Suzaidi


Perisian Sumber Terbuka merujuk kepada keterbukaan untuk mengkaji, mengubah, dan memperbaiki reka bentuk sesuatu perisian komputer (termasuk kod sumbernya) menerusi lesen sumber terbuka

Pada tahun 1998, sekumpulan individu telah mengutarakan idea "open source" untuk melabel semula perisian bebas sebagai perisian sumber-terbuka. Cadangan ini bertujuan agar perisian yang sedemikian menjadi lebih 'mainstream' dalam dunia korporat. Pemaju Perisian yang mahukan hasil kerjanya difahami oleh sesiapa sahaja atau dimajukan lagi bolehlah menggunakan lesen perisian sumber-terbuka. Perisian Sumber-Terbuka secara amnya membenarkan sesiapa sahaja untuk membina versi baru perisian tersebut, port ia ke sistem pengoperasian dan senibina pemprosesan baru, kongsi perisian tersebut dengan orang lain atau pasarkannya. Matlamat sumber terbuka ini adalah untuk membolehkan produk menjadi lebih boleh difahami, boleh diubah, boleh diduplikasi, atau boleh dicapai dengan mudah, sedang perisian tersebut sedang boleh dipasarkan.



Sumber terbuka (Open source) atau perisian sumber terbuka (open source software, OSS), bermaksud sebarang perisian komputer yang mana kod sumbernya diletakkan sama ada dalam domain awam atau, kebiasaannya, dihakcipta oleh satu atau lebih orang/entiti dan diedarkan di bawah satu lesen sumber-terbuka, contohnya GNU General Public License (GPL) (Lesen GNU GPL ini selalu dirujuk sebagai copyleft). Lesen sebegini mungkin memerlukan kod sumber sesuatu program diedarkan bersama perisian yang dicipta, dan kod sumber tersebut boleh diubah secara bebas, dengan kekangan yang paling rendah. Kekangan ini diperlukan untuk memelihara nama (atau kehormatan) dan peristiharan hak cipta penulis di dalam kod tersebut. Dalam sesetengah kes, seperti mana Apache atau FreeBSD, hanya sedikit syarat sahaja dikenakan untuk digunakan pada versi yang telah diubahsuai.

Apabila digunakan sebagai adjektif, istilah "Open Source" dalah Bahasa Inggeris di beri tanda sempang (-), contoh: "Apache is an open-source software".

Ini adalah hak pengguna perisian. Lesen sumber terbuka sendiri tidak memerlukan bahawa perisian, atau sumbernya, pada awalnya mesti percuma (in both senses of the word) available on the Internet. Most popular open-source software is, however.

Istilah sumber terbuka dalam kegunaan biasa juga merujuk kepada sebarang perisian dengan kod sumber bebas pada umum, tanpa mengambil kira syarat-syarat perlesenannya, tetapi penggunaan ini menimbulkan kecaman hebat dari OSF open source community, yang menggelar mereka "sumber dibuka" dan bukannya sumber terbuka. Antara contoh perisian sumber terbuka yang bukan OSF seperti sesetengah versi Solaris dan PGP. Terdapat juga lesen shared source di mana, sekali lihat, ia nampak macam sumber terbuka, tetapi sebenarnya mempunyai namyak perbezaan-perbezaan kritikal.

"Sumber Terbuka" vs "Perisian Bebas"[sunting sumber]

Istilah "Sumber Terbuka" berbeza dengan "perisian bebas" (free software). Perisian yang tergolong dalam Free Software Foundation's (FSF) sangat hampir (very similar) dengan Free software definition. Perisian tersebut telah dibangunkan untuk menyokong motivasi free software movement. Perisian ini sebaiknya digelar sebagai perisian bebas. Projek GNU terutamanya membangkang perisian mereka dikaitkan dengan nama "sumber terbuka" atau "Open Source", walaupun perisian mereka boleh dimuat-turun secara percuma.

Keputusan untuk mengambil istilah "open source", dicadangkan oleh Christine Peterson dari Foresight Institute. Cadangan ini dibuat sebahagiannya berdasarkan dari kekeliruan yang perkataan "free" yang membawa maksud percuma dan bebas. Walaupun banyak daripada perisian dalam senarai FSF adalah percuma, "Free" Software dari FSF lebih membawa maksud perisian bebas (merdeka). Ia boleh jadi percuma atau boleh jadi produk berbayar. Adalah diharapkan dengan penggunaan istilah "sumber terbuka" akan memadamkan such ambiguity, dan menjadikan konsep perisian jenis ini lebih mudah diterima oleh pengguna perniagaan (pengguna perniagaan selalu salahkaitkan "free-software" dengan anti-komersilisme). Walau bagaimanapun, sejak pengenalan istilah tersebut, label "open source" telah dikritik for fostering an ambiguity of a different kind: that of confusing it for mere availability of the source, rather than the freedom to use, modify, and redistribute it.

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The Free Software Definition is more restrictive than the Open Source Definition; as a consequence of this, free software is open source, but open-source software may or may not be "free." In practice, nearly all open-source licenses also satisfy the FSF's free software definition, and the difference is more a matter of philosophical emphasis. (One exception is an early version of the Apple Public Source License, which was considered open-source but not free, because it did not allow private modified versions; this restriction was later removed.) Software distributed under both the GPL and BSD licenses is considered both free and open-source. The original BSD License had terms legally incompatible with the GPL, but this practical difficulty is a separate issue. Confusion about the distinctions between free and open-source software is a source of some misunderstanding, particularly in the mass media where the two terms are often applied interchangeably.

For additional comparison, see Open source movement and Free software movement.

The open source movement[sunting sumber]

The open source movement is a large movement of programmers and other computer users that advocates unrestricted access to the source code of software. It grew out of licenses such as BSD, the ubiquitous access to Unix source code at universities and goals which differ somewhat from those of the Free software movement. The line between the two is somewhat blurry; both are founded in the hacker culture. Mostly, the Free software movement is based upon political and philosophical ideals, while open source proponents tend to focus on more pragmatic arguments. Openness is a term that has evolved now to refer to projects that are open to anyone and everyone to contribute to, before and/or after the actual programming. Both groups assert that this more open style of licensing allows for a superior software development process, and therefore that pursuing it is in line with rational self-interest. Free software advocates, however, would argue that "freedom" is a paramount merit that one should prefer (or at least weigh heavily) even in cases where proprietary software has some superior technical features.

Proponents of the open source development methodology claim that it is superior in a number of ways to the closed source method (and some individuals may suggest that the open source methodology is the methodology that is able to produce the quality of software that can be higher than that produced by any other methodology or technique). Stability, reliability, and security are frequently cited as reasons to support open source. One successful application of the open source model is the Linux operating system, which is renowned for its stability and security characteristics. Among the works that explore and justify open source development is a series of works by Eric S. Raymond which includes The Cathedral and the Bazaar and Homesteading the Noosphere.

Open source advocates point out that as of the early 2000s, at least 90 percent of computer programmers are employed not to produce software for direct sale, but rather to design and customize software for other purposes, such as in-house applications. According to advocates, this statistic implies that the value of software lies primarily in its usefulness to the developer or developing organization, rather than in its potential sale value, and that consequently there is usually no compelling economic reason to keep source code secret from competitors. Open-source advocates further argue that corporations frequently over-protect software in ways actually damaging to their own interests, for reasons ranging from mere institutional habit through reflexive territoriality to a rational but incorrect evaluation of the tradeoffs between collecting secrecy rent and the quality and market payoff of openness.

Pertikaian sumber terbuka[sunting sumber]

Pertikaian mengenai sumber terbuka vs sumber tertutup (alternatively dikenali sebagai pembangunan proprietari proprietary development) seumpama perang keagamaan. Sementara sebahagian besar masyarakat teknologi menyokong sumber terbuka, terdapat juga mereka yang menyokong pihak lain. Kritikan paling utama mengenai perisian sumber terbuka adalah mengenai intellectual property rights. Sesetengah syarikat pemaju perisian bergantung kepada hak cipta dan hak paten yang diberikan kepada pemaju perisian sebagai sumber utama pendapatan mereka. Dengan mengekalkan sumber perisian mereka tersembunyi, mereka boleh meminta bayaran untuk penggunaannya. Sementara kebanyakan perisian ditulis untuk kegunaan dalaman, pendapatan dari penjualan dan perlesenan perisian perdagangan merupakan pendapatan utama bagi syarikat yang menjual perisian. Tambahan lagi, banyak syarikat dengan pasukan penyelidik dan pemaju sering memajukan portfolios paten yang luas. Syarikat ini dapat mengenakan bayaran perlesenan untuk penggunaan paten mereka dalam perisian, bagaimanapun penyebaran sumber terbuka membuka potensi bagi .... however open source distribution creates the potential for an infinite number of derived works using the patented technology with no oversight by the patent holder.

Another common argument, one that is more difficult for open source advocates to contradict with hard facts, is that closed source development allows more control over the final product. The theory behind this argument is that open source software is primarily a volunteer effort, while closed-source development is typically a salary-driven effort. By having the monetary resources to fund developers and management, and the ability to control development in a given direction, closed source proponents argue that development can be more efficient and more focused.

Large scale open-source projects such as Linux, FreeBSD, or Apache tend to discredit this argument. However, even within these very successful projects, there are often key technological components missing due to the fact that no one has the time or effort to volunteer to do them. For example, multi-threading and SMP capabilities in open-source operating systems historically (and in some cases currently) lagged behind commercial systems such as Microsoft Windows, simply because the work was not considered an interesting problem by enough qualified developers. This argument tends to hold mostly for very difficult or obscure projects with minimal immediate return, such as support for specific hardware or a long-term overhaul of system architecture. But it does not take into account the generally higher quality of such work found in the open-source projects once the work is actually undertaken. Finally, in recent years many companies, notably Apple, Red Hat and Transmeta, have begun paying full-time developers for working on open-source projects.

Open source advocates[sunting sumber]

Bruce Perens, Eric Raymond, Linus Torvalds, Paul Vixie, Alan Cox, Tim O'Reilly, Brian Behlendorf, Russell Pavlicek (author of the book Embracing Insanity)

Projek dan Organisasi[sunting sumber]

Contoh-contoh lesen sumber terbuka[sunting sumber]

For a more extensive list, see Open source license.

Contoh-contoh perisian sumber terbuka[sunting sumber]

For a more extensive list, see List of open-source software packages.

Related topics[sunting sumber]

See also[sunting sumber]

Contrast with[sunting sumber]

External links[sunting sumber]

On the creation of the name "Open Source":

General links about open source:

ar:مصدر مفتوح da:Open source de:Open Source eo:Malfermita kodo es:Código abierto fi:Avoin lähdekoodi fr:Open Source he:קוד פתוח it:opensource ja:オープンソース ko:오픈소스 lt:Atvirojo kodo programa ms:Kandungan terbuka nl:Open-source software pl:Otwarte oprogramowanie ru:Open source simple:Open source sv:Öppen källkod zh-cn:开放源代码

Terjemahan mesin[sunting sumber]

Jangan salin tampal terjemahan mesin di sini. (Google Translate). pembayaran sistem yang digunakan dalam Bitcoin adalah istilah mengarut. Yosri (bincang) 13:56, 20 Februari 2017 (UTC)