Persidangan Berlin

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Gambaran persidanganyang dilangsungkan sepertimana dalm akhbar "Illustrierte Zeitung"

Persidangan Berlin, Persidangan Kongo (Bahasa Jerman: Kongokonferenz), atau Persidangan Afrika Barat Berlin (Bahasa Jerman: Westafrika-Konferenz) tahun 1884–85 adalah suatu perjumpaan yang mengatur penjajahan dan perdagangan Eropah d benuai Afrika pada masa Imperialisme Baru yang bertepatan dengan bangkitnya Jerman sebagai kekuatan imperial. Persidangan ini diserukan oleh Kerajaan Portugal dan diorganisasikan oleh Otto von Bismarck, Kanselor Jerman.

Suatu Undang-Undang Umum Persidangan Berlin digubal hasil dari persidangan ini yang dapat dianggap sebagai suatu dokumen yang menghalalkan perebutan Afrika dengan mengakibatkan meningkatnya peluasan dan penjajahan ke atas banyak kuasa Eropah di Afrika, sementara wilayah Afrika yang masih ada kuasa memerintah sendiri semakin berkurang.

Gambaran umum[sunting | sunting sumber]

Agenda dikemukakan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Portugal–United Kingdom: Pihak Portugis mengemukakan suatu peta yang menuntut penghubungan antara jajahan-jajahan Angola dan Mozambique mellaui pengilhakan kawasan ini (kini Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Malawi.); kesemua negara-negara ini menyokong usulan pihak tersebut All of the countries attending the conference, except for the United Kingdom, endorsed Portugal's ambitions. A little more than five years later, in 1890, the British government, in breach of the Treaty of Windsor (and of the Treaty of Berlin itself), issued an ultimatum demanding that the Portugis withdraw from the disputed area.[petikan diperlukan]
  • France–Britain: A line running from Say in Niger to Maroua, on the north-east coast of Tasik Chad determined what part belonged to whom. France would own territory to the north of this line, and the United Kingdom would own territory to the south of it. The Nile Basin would be British, with the French taking the basin of Tasik Chad. Furthermore, between the 11th and 15th degrees latitude, the border would pass between Ouaddaï, which would be French, and Darfur in Sudan, to be British. In reality, a no man's land 200 kilometres wide was put in place between the 21st and 23rd meridians.
  • France–Germany: The area to the north of a line formed by the intersection of the 14th meridian and Miltou was designated French, that to the south being German, later called German Cameroon.
  • Britain–German: The separation came in the form of a line passing through Yola, on the Benoué, Dikoa, going up to the extremity of Tasik Chad.
  • France–Italy: Italy was to own what lies north of a line from the intersection of the Tropic of Cancer and the 17th meridian to the intersection of the 15th parallel and 21st meridian.

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]