Pertempuran Greece

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Pertempuran Greece
Sebahagian daripada Kempen Balkan semasa Perang Dunia II
Battle of Greece WWII 1941 map-en.svg
Serangan Jerman Nazi ke atas Greece
Maklumat am
Tarikh 6–30 April 1941
Lokasi Greece dan selatan Albania
Hasil Kemenangan Kuasa Paksi
Pihak yang berperang
Kuasa Paksi:
 Jerman Nazi
 Itali
 Bulgaria
Kuasa Bersekutu:
 Greece
 United Kingdom
 Australia
 New Zealand
Komander dan pemimpin
Jerman Nazi Wilhelm List
Jerman Nazi Maximilian von Weichs
Kerajaan Itali (1861–1946) Ugo Cavallero
Kerajaan Greece Alexander Papagos
United Kingdom Henry Maitland Wilson
Australia Thomas Blamey
New Zealand Bernard Freyberg
Kekuatan
Jerman:[1][2]
680,000 askar
1,200 kereta kebal
700 pesawat
1Itali:[3]
565,000 askar
463 pesawat[4]
163 kereta kebal
Jumlah: 1,245,000 askar
1Greece:[5][6]
430,000 askar, 20 kereta kebal
Empayar British:[7][8][9][10][11]
262,612 askar
100 kereta kebal
200–300 pesawat
Kerugian dan kehilangan
1Itali:[11]
13,755 maut,
63,142 cedera,
25,067 hilang
3Jerman:[12]
1,099 maut,
3,752 cedera,
385 hilang
1Greece:[11]
13,408 terkorban,[13]


42,485 cedera,[14]
1,290 hilang
Empayar British:[7]
903 maut,
1,250 cedera,
13,958 ditawan

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Pertempuran Greece (juga dikenali sebagai Operasi Marita, Bahasa Jerman: Unternehmen Marita)[15] adalah nama umum bagi pencerobohan Paksi ke atas Greece Bersekutu oleh Jerman Nazi pada April 1941. Ia adalah seiring dengan pencerobohan Fasis Itali yang tersekat yang dikenali sebagai Perang Greece-Itali. Ia biasanya dibezakan daripada Pertempuran Crete, yang muncul selepas tanah besar Greece ditakluki. Operasi Paksi ini adalah sebahagian daripada Kempen Balkan Jerman yang lebih besar dalam Perang Dunia II.

Sewaktu pencerobohan Jerman Nazi, Greece sedang berperang dengan Itali Fasis, berikutan pencerobohan Itali pada 28 Oktober 1940. Pihak Greek menyertai Kuasa Bersekutu dan mengalahkan serangan awal Itali dan serangan balas Mac 1941. Apabila Operasi Marita bermula pada 6 April, sebahagian besar tentera darat Greek berada di sempadan Greek dengan Albania, ketika itu adalah negara naungan Fasis Itali, dari mana tentera Itali cuba memasuki Greece. Tentera Jerman menceroboh melalui Bulgaria, mewujudkan barisan depan yang kedua. Greece telahpun menerima bala bantuan yang kecil dari tentera Empayar British, bagi menghadapi serangan Jerman tetapi tiada lagi bantuan dihantar selepas pencerobohan bermula. Tentera Greek mendapati dirinya kekurangan dalam usaha menentang tentera Itali dan Jerman. Oleh itu, garisan pertahanan Bulgaria tidak menerima tentera bantuan yang mencukupi dan dengan cepat ditawan oleh pihak Jerman, yang kemudiannya mengatasi tentera Greek di sempadan Albania, memaksa mereka menyerahkalah. Tentera Empayar British telah dikalahkan dan terpaksa berundur dengan matlamat pemindahan. Selama beberapa hari pasukan tentera Bersekutu memainkan peranan penting dalam membendung kemaraan Jerman keatas posisi Thermopylae, membolehkan kapal-kapal bersiap untuk memindahkan unit-unit yang mempertahankan Greece.[16] Tentera Jerman tiba di ibukota Athens pada 27 Aprila[›] dan selatan pantai Greece pada 30 April, menawan 7,000 askar Empayar British dan mengakhiri peperangan dengan kemenangan muktamad. Penaklukan Greece lengkap dengan penawanan Crete sebulan kemudian. Menyusuli kejatuhannya, Greece Bersekutu telah diduduki oleh angkatan tentera Paksi Jerman, Itali dan Bulgaria.[17]

Hitler kemudian menyalahkan kegagalan pencerobohan Soviet Union, yang terpaksa ditangguhkan, atas kegagalan Mussolini menakluk Greece.[18] Penjelasan ini untuk kekalahan Jerman yang membawa malang oleh Soviet Union telah disangkal oleh majoriti sejarawan, yang menuduh Hitler cuba menyalahkan kekalahan negaranya kepada sekutu beliau, Itali.[19] Namun ia mempunyai akibat yang serius bagi usaha perang Paksi di kancah Afrika Utara. Von Rintelen menekankan, dari sudut pandangan Jerman, kesilapan strategik kerana tidak menakluk Malta.[20]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

^ a: Sources do not agree on the number of the soldiers the British Empire managed to evacuate. According to British sources, 50,732 soldiers were evacuated.[21][22] But of these, according to G.A. Titterton, 600 men were lost in the troopship (the former Dutch liner) Slamat.[23][22] Adding 500–1,000 stragglers who reached Crete, Titterton estimates that "the numbers that left Greece and reached Crete or Egypt, including British and Greek troops, must have been around 51,000." Gavin Long (part of Australia's official history of World War II) gives a figure around 46,500, while, according to W. G. McClymont (part of New Zealand's official history of World War II), 50,172 soldiers were evacuated.[24][25] McClymont points out that "the differences are understandable if it is remembered that the embarkations took place at night and in great haste and that among those evacuated there were Greeks and refugees."[25]
^ b: On two preceding occasions Hitler had agreed that the Mediterranean and Adriatic were exclusively Italian spheres of interest. Since Yugoslavia and Greece were situated within these spheres, Mussolini felt entitled to adopt whatever policy he saw fit.[26]
^ c: According to the United States Army Center of Military History, "the almost immediate setbacks of the Italians only served to heighten Hitler's displeasure. What enraged the Führer most was that his repeated statements of the need for peace in the Balkans had been ignored by Mussolini."[26]
Nevertheless, Hitler had given Mussolini the green light to attack Greece six months earlier, acknowledging Mussolini's right to do as he saw fit in his acknowledged sphere of influence.[27] ^ d: According to Buckley, Mussolini preferred that the Greeks would not accept the ultimatum but that they would offer some kind of resistance. Buckley writes, "documents later discovered showed that every detail of the attack had been prepared... His prestige needed some indisputable victories to balance the sweep of Napoleonic triumphs of Nazi Germany."[28]
^ e: According to the United States Army Center of Military History, the Greeks informed the Yugoslavs of this decision and they in turn made it known to the German Government.[29] Papagos writes:

This, incidentally, disposes of the German assertion that they were forced to attack us only in order to expel the British from Greece, for they knew that, if they had not marched into Bulgaria, no British troops would have landed in Greece. Their assertion was merely an excuse on their part to enable them to plead extenuating circumstances in justification of their aggression against a small nation, already entangled in a war against a Great Power. But, irrespective of the presence or absence of British troops in the Balkans, German intervention would have taken place firstly because the Germans had to secure the right flank of the German Army which was to operate against Russia according to the plans already prepared in autumn 1940 and secondly because the possession of the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula commanding the eastern end of the Mediterranean was of great strategic importance for Germany's plan of attacking Great Britain and the line of Imperial communications with the East.[30]

^ f: During the night of 6 April 1941, while the German invasion had already begun, the Yugoslavs informed the Greeks that they would implement the plan: they would attack the Italian troops in the morning of the next day at 6:00 a.m. At 3:00 a.m. of April 7, the 13th division of the Greek Epirus Army attacked the Italian troops, occupied two heights and captured 565 Italians (15 officers and 550 soldiers). Nevertheless, the Yugoslav offensive would not take place and on April 8, the Greek headquarters ordered the pause of the operation.[31][32]
^ g: Although earmarked for Greece, the Polish Independent Carpathian Rifle Brigade and the Australian 7th Division were kept by Wavell in Egypt because of Erwin Rommel's successful thrust into Cyrenaica.[33]

Petikan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Collier 1971, m/s. 180.
  2. ^ Helios 1945, Greek Wars.
  3. ^ Richter 1998, m/s. 119, 144.
  4. ^ History, Hellenic Air Force, dicapai pada 25 March 2008 .
  5. ^ Campaign in Greece. The Encyclopedia Americana. 
  6. ^ Ziemke.
  7. ^ a b Beevor 1994, m/s. 26.
  8. ^ Long 1953, m/s. 182–83.
  9. ^ "7", History (PDF), AU: AWM .
  10. ^ McClymont 1959, m/s. 486.
  11. ^ a b c Richter 1998, m/s. 595–97.
  12. ^ Bathe & Glodschey 1942, m/s. 246.
  13. ^ Zabecki, David (2014), Germany at War: 400 Years of Military History (4 volumes), ABC-CLIO, p. 563, ISBN 978-1-598849806, The Greek Army sustained 13,408 killed, 42,485 wounded, and 270,000 prisoners. 
  14. ^ Zabecki, David (2014), Germany at War: 400 Years of Military History (4 volumes), ABC-CLIO, p. 563, ISBN 978-1-598849806, The Greek Army sustained 13,408 killed, 42, 485 wounded, and 270,000 prisoners. 
  15. ^ Smith 1986.
  16. ^ Johnston, Mark; Chagas, Carlos (2013), The Australian Army in World War II, Osprey Publishing, p. 18, ISBN 978-1846031236, For several days Australian troops played a prominent part in a holding action on the Thermopylae Line in southern Greece, allowing ships to be assembled to evacuate thousands to Egypt and Crete on 24–27 April 1941. 
  17. ^ Dear & Foot 1995, m/s. 102–6.
  18. ^ Kershaw 2007, m/s. 178.
  19. ^ Hillgruber 1993, m/s. 506.
  20. ^ von Rintelen 1951, m/s. 90, 92–3, 98–9.
  21. ^ Murray & Millett 2000, m/s. 105.
  22. ^ a b Titterton 2002, m/s. 84.
  23. ^ Duncan.
  24. ^ Long 1953, m/s. 182–83.
  25. ^ a b McClymont 1959, m/s. 486.
  26. ^ a b Blau 1986, m/s. 3–4.
  27. ^ Sadkovich 1993, m/s. 439–464.
  28. ^ Buckley 1984, m/s. 17.
  29. ^ Blau 1986, m/s. 72.
  30. ^ Papagos 1949, m/s. 317.
  31. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan H tidak disediakan
  32. ^ Long 1953, m/s. 41.
  33. ^ Beevor 1994, m/s. 60.

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