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Mardelong (مردلوڠ)

Phatthalung Province.jpg
Bendera bagi Phatthalung Mardelong (مردلوڠ)
Official seal of Phatthalung Mardelong (مردلوڠ)
Peta Thailand menonjolkan Wilayah Phatthalung
Peta Thailand menonjolkan Wilayah Phatthalung
Negara Thailand
 • GabenorWinai Kharuwannaphat (sejak Oktober 2009)
 • Jumlah3,424.5 km2 (1,322.2 batu persegi)
Ranking kawasanDitempatkan ke-58
 • Jumlah498,471
 • RankingDitempatkan ke-47
 • Kepadatan150/km2 (380/batu persegi)
 • Rangking kepadatanDitempatkan ke-27
Zon waktuUTC+7 (Masa Piawai Thailand)
Kod ISO 3166TH-93

Phatthalung (Bahasa Thai: พัทลุง) dalam​ (Bahasa Melayu: Mardelong) dan (Jawi: مردلوڠ) ialah sebuah wilayah (changwat) di selatan Thailand. Wilayah-wilayah berjiran adalah (mengikut arah jam-utara) Nakhon Si Thammarat, Songkhla, Satun dan Trang.

Geografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Wilayah ini terletak di Semenanjung Melayu. Di timur ia bersempadan dengan Tasik Songkhla yang besar yang cetek, sementara di barat diliputi dengan pergunungan Banjaran Nakhon Si Thammarat. Taman Negara Khao Pu - Khao Ya terletak di kawasan pergunungan ini.

Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Phatthalung was formerly known as Mardelong (Jawi: مردلوڠ) in Malay, especially during the time when the region came under Muslim influence.[1]

During the reign of King Ramathibodi I of the Ayutthaya kingdom in the 14th century Phatthalung became one of twelve royal cities. At the end of the 18th century King Rama I submitted the city to the Ministry of Defense, which was responsible for all the southern provinces. During the administrative reform by King Chulalongkorn Phatthalung became part of the Monthon Nakhon Si Thammarat.

Demografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

The majority of the province's populace are Thai Buddhists, although 11.1% of the population adhere to the Islamic faith. Many Muslims in Phatthalung have some ethnic Malay ancestry, who have gradually intermarried with the Thais and adopted Thai cultural influences.[2]

Symbols[sunting | sunting sumber]

The provincial seal shows the 250 meter high Phu Khao Ok Thalu mountain, the symbol of the province.

The provincial tree as well as the provincial flower is the Sweet Shorea (Shorea roxburghii).

Divisyen pentadbiran[sunting | sunting sumber]

Peta Amphoe

Phatthalung dibahagikan kepada 11 daerah (amphoe). Daerah kemudian dibahagikan lagi kepada 65 mukim (tambon) dan 626 kampung (muban).

  1. Mueang Phatthalung
  2. Kong Ra
  3. Khao Chaison
  4. Tamot
  5. Khuan Khanun
  6. Pak Phayun
  1. Si Banphot
  2. Pa Bon
  3. Bang Kaeo
  4. Pa Phayom
  5. Srinagarindra

Pelancongan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Penglihatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Phra Phutthanirarokhantarai Chaiyawat Chaturathit atau Phra Si Mum Mueang (พระพุทธนิรโรคันตรายชัยวัฒน์จตุรทิศหรือพระสี่มุมเมือง) adalah imej Buddha Selatan dan sebuah objek pujaan bertuah Phatthalung. Imej Buddha gangsa ini dalam kedudukan bertakafur disemadikan di dalam sebuah astaka dengan empat anjung di latar depan. Ia terletak di antara Dewan Bandaraya dan Mahkamah Wilayah Phatthalung.

Wat Khuha Sawan (วัดคูหาสวรรค์) Ini adalah salah satu dari tugu kuno Phatthalung. Terdapat satu imej Buddha yang berbaring, pagoda, dan imej Buddha lain ditemui di dalam gua bersama-sama dengan batu bersurat dari tanah liat zaman Sriwijaya.

Gunung Ok Thalu, tanda Phatthalung

Khao Ok Talu (เขาอกทะลุ) Ia adalah sebuah tanda simbolik di Phatthalung, dengan ketinggian kira-kira 250 m. Terdapat anak tangga yang menuju ke puncaknya. Pemandangan Phatthalung boleh dilihat dari sini.

Wat Wang (วัดวัง) The temple has many important items. The Ubosot (ordination hall) is in the architectural style of the Rattanakosin era, with the ‘Chofa’- gable finial, ‘Bai Raka’- crockets, and a front portico. One hundred and eight stucco Buddha images are enshrined in the gallery around the ordination hall.

Rulers’ New and Old Palaces (วังเจ้าเมืองพัทลุง วังเก่า – วังใหม่) Once they served as a residence cum office of the governors of Phatthalung. Nowadays, some parts of them remain. The palaces were registered as an ancient monument in 1983.

Phraya Thukkharat (Chuai) Monument (อนุสาวรีย์พระยาทุกขราษฎร์ (ช่วย)) Phraya Thukkharat was a former monk named Phra Maha Chuai. During the War of Nine Armies in the reign of King Rama I, Phra Maha Chuai assisted Phraya Phatthalung who headed a force of villagers to fight against and defeat the Burmese army. Later, he left the monkhood and was royally appointed as Phraya Thukkharat in charge of official duties as an assistant to the city ruler.

Hat Saen Suk Lampam (หาดแสนสุขลำปำ) This sandy beach along the coastal line of Songkhla Lake is fringed by shady pine trees. The pavilion jutting into the sea called ‘Sala Lampam Thi Rak,’ serves as a viewpoint to admire the lake’s surroundings.

Coconut Shell Handicraft Centre of Mueang Phatthalung (ศูนย์รวมหัตถกรรมกะลามะพร้าวเมืองพัทลุง) This is a village of handicrafts made from coconut shell.

Thale Noi Non-hunting Area (เขตห้ามล่าสัตว์ป่าทะเลน้อย) This is the first non-hunting area ever founded in Thailand. Interesting things at the Thale Noi Waterfowl Park are the Thale Noi Palace, sea of blooming lotus in the morning, flocks of waterfowls, the nesting and egg-laying grounds of waterfowls at Ao Mo and those at Khuan Thale Mong, Khuan Khi Sian Ranger Station, and the Sala Nang Riam viewpoint.

Wat Khian Kaeo (วัดเขียนบางแก้ว) It was recognized as a model temple for development in 1990. In addition, the temple houses a museum where Buddha images and crockery have been collected.

Laem Chong Thanon (แหลมจองถนน) It is a fishing village in Tambon Chong Thanon.

Namtok Phraiwan (น้ำตกไพรวัลย์) This large-scale waterfall is tranquil and full of shady trees.

Namtok Lan Mom Chui (น้ำตกหม่อมจุ้ย) It is a waterfall amidst a shady forest in the area of the Ban Tamot Wildlife Protection Unit.

Khao Pu – Khao Ya National Park (อุทยานแห่งชาติเขาปู่ – เขาย่า) The most geographical features are forests in the Banthat Range which has a complex of mountains with ‘Khao Hin Thaen’ as the highest mountaintop. Most of the floras belong to a moist evergreen forest. Wild animals consist of 60 species of mammals. In addition, other places of interest are as follows:-

Tham Matcha Pla Won (ถ้ำมัจฉาปลาวน) It is a medium cave, about 2 km from the park headquarters. Inside, there are 3 spacious chambers, stalactites, stalagmites, limestone curtain, and many bats. Furthermore, the Asian giant toad and millipede are also found here.

Pha Phueng (ผาผึ้ง) It is a limestone cliff, around 300 m from the park headquarters. Giant bees always come to make hundreds of hives here every year during February to April.

Nature Trails (เส้นทางเดินศึกษาธรรมชาติ) There are 2 trails within the area of the park headquarters.

Khlong Hu Rae (แอ่งน้ำหูแร่) or Hu Rae Canal is large and full of clear and clean water. The canal’s bottom is sandy and boulders lie at its depth.

Bang Kaeo Shadow Puppet Figure and Handicraft Centre (ศูนย์ศิลปหัตกรรมรูปหนังบางแก้ว) The Bang Kaeo Handicraft village consists of 25 members who carve hides into puppet figures for Nang Talung and Nang Yai shadow plays, as well as new figures in patterns required by customers.

Tham Sumano (ถ้ำสุมะโน) Inside, there are some stalactites and stalagmites, as well as spacious chambers. The cave is cool and shady with spectacular nature. It comprises a system of 18 small caves. The cave is also used for insight development and Dharma practices.

Local Products[sunting | sunting sumber]

Most of the local products are handicrafts, coconut, etc. Famous souvenirs include Kalamae or coconut toffee, Kluai Chap or crispy buttered banana and Luk Yi (velvet tamarind) candy or crispy baked prawn, etc.

Budaya[sunting | sunting sumber]

Seni[sunting | sunting sumber]

Manora or Nora (มโนราห์หรือโนรา) It is a kind of local performing art in the South. Phatthalung, in particular, is called an origin of the Manora dance. Assumably, it was an influence from the South of India, together with Lakhon Chatri (theatrical show by males). However, some dancing patterns were changed to match folk cultures in each province. There are 12 major dancing patterns. The audience will see dancing patterns and listen to lyrics sung by dancers, be they impromptu or composed verses.

Talung (ตะลุง) It is a popular folk performance in the South. Talung puppet figures are made of hard dried sheets of cattle hide cut and carved beautifully into characters for a shadow play. The characters are usually painted wholly in black and each of them is put firmly between a split bamboo slat called ‘Mai Tap.’ A character’s mouth and hands will be moved to accord with the narration. A Talung ensemble comprises puppet masters who are also vocalists, and a band, totalling not over 8 persons. The musical instruments include pipe, drum, Phon (a kind of local drum) and gong.

Perayaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Perayaan menonton Burung Thale Noi bermula pada tahun 1998 sebagai satu aktiviti tambahan semasa Tahun Melawat Thailand dan dirancang bagi memadankan tarikan paling penting di Phatthalung.

Tradisi Khaeng Phon Lak Phra atau Chak Phra (งานประเพณีแข่งโพนลากพระหรือชักพระ) It is held on the fourteenth day of the waxing moon, the full moon day and the first day of the waning moon in the eleventh lunar month, which coincides with the End of Buddhist Lent. It is a tradition to move around Buddha images both by land and by river. In Phatthalung, it is observed by land. Beating Phon or local drum controls the movement of a Buddha image procession. Each procession representing a temple has its own drum beaters. When two processions meet, they exchange a challenging tune of drum beating. A Phon beating competition is, therefore, held every year at the Phatthalung Stadium and Hat Saen Suk Lampam (Lampam Beach), Amphoe Mueang Phatthalung. Activities in the event include a Phon beating contest by representatives from temples in Phatthalung and neighbouring provinces, a Phon procession contest, a Phon beating style contest, dancing performances, Sat Tom (throwing a traditional dessert made of sticky rice wrapped with a young leaf of Kapho or mangrove fan palm), a Buddha image procession contest, religious rites, water sports on the Lampam Lake, local arts and exhibition of Phatthalung and nearby provinces, such as Krachut or bulrush mat weaving and coconut shell products.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ C. Skinner (1985). The Battle for Junk Ceylon: The Syair Sultan Maulana. Foris Publications. m/s. 272. ISBN 9067650668.
  2. ^ William Chambers (publisher), Robert Chambers (1898). Chambers's Journal. W. & R. Chambers. m/s. 539.

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Koordinat: 7°36′56″N 100°04′22″E / 7.61556°N 100.07278°E / 7.61556; 100.07278