Pulau Hashima

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Pulau Hashima
Nama asli: 端島
Battle-Ship Island Nagasaki Japan.jpg
Pandangan dari udara
Geografi
Lokasi Asia Timur
Luas  (Tiada)
Pentadbiran
Jepun
Prefektur Prefektur Nagasaki
Demografi
Jumlah penduduk 0 (setakat 2011)

sunting
Lihat pendokumenan templat ini
Hashima dari arah laut, 2012

Pulau Hashima (端島 atau Hashima — -shima ialah istilah Jepun untuk pulau?), biasanya dipanggil Gunkanjima (軍艦島; bermaksud Pulau Kapal Perang), merupakan salah sebuah daripada 505 buah pulau yang tidak didiami di Prefektur Nagasaki. Ia terletak kira-kira 15 kilometer (9 batu) dari Nagasaki.

Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pulau ini telah dibeli oleh Mitsubishi pada tahun 1890 bagi tujuan perlombongan arang batu bawah laut. Ia telah ditinggalkan pada tahun 1974. Antara ciri paling terkenal yang terdapat di pulau ini ialah bangunan pangsapuri and tembok laut konkrit yang telah ditinggalkan dan masih berada dalam keadaan baik. Pulau ini ditadbir sebagai sebahagian daripada kota Nagasaki setelah penggabungan bekas bandar Takashima pada tahun 2005.[petikan diperlukan]

Hashima dikenali oleh perlombongan dan operasi arang batunya semasa zaman perindustrian di Jepun. Mitsubishi membeli pulau ini pada tahun 1890 dan memulakan projek dengan tujuan utamanya ialah melombong arang batu di bawah laut. Mereka telah membina bangunan konkrit terbesar di Jepun setinggi 9 tingkat.[1] Sebuah blok pangsapuri kemudian dibina pada tahun 1916 bagi menempatkan para pekerja. Bahan konkrit telah dipilih secara khusus bagi melindungi kemudahan daripada ancaman dan kerosakan ribut taufan. Pada tahun 1959, 6.3-hectare (16-ekar) populasi pulau mencapai kemuncaknya dengan 5,259 orang penduduk dan ketumpatan populasi seramai 835 orang per hektar (83,500 orang/km2, 216,264 orang per batu persegi) bagi keseluruhan pulau, atau 1,391 per hektar (139,100 orang/km2) bagi daerah kediaman.[2]

Apabila petroleum mengantikan arang batu di Jepun pada tahun 1960-an, lombong-lombong arang batu mula ditutup di seluruh negara, tidak terkecuali di Hashima. Mitsubishi secara rasminya mengumumkan penutupan lombong ini pada tahun 1974. Hashima kini dikenali sebagai Pulau Hantu.[3] Perjalanan ke Hashima telah dibuka semula pada 22 April 2009 selepas 35 tahun ditutup.[4]

Etimologi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pulau Kapal Tempur merupakan terjemahan bahasa Melayu bagi nama gelaran Jepun untuk Pulau Hashima, Gunkanjima (gunkan bermaksud kapal tempur, jima merupakan bentuk rendaku shima yang bermakna pulau). Nama gelaran pulau ini datang daripada bentuknya yang menyerupai kapal tempur Jepun Tosa.[5] Ia juga dikenali sebagai Pulau Hantu.

Keadaan sekarang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Puing lombong, 2012

Pulau ini semakin mendapat perhatian antarabangsa bukan sahaja lantaran warisan wilayah modennya, malahan juga lantaran saki-baki kompleks perumahan yang tidak terusik mewakili tempoh dari zaman Taishō sehingga zaman Shōwa. Pulau ini telah menjadi topik perbualan penggemar puing.

Lantaran pulau terbiar ini tidak diuruskan, beberapa buah bangunan telahpun roboh. Bangunan-bangunan lain yang ada berkebarangkalian pecah musnah. Walau bagaimanapun, sesetengah dinding luaran yang kerobohan telahpun dipulihkan dengan konkrit.[6]

Ketika pulau tersebut dipunyai oleh Mitsubishi Material sehingga tahun 2002, pulau ini telah dipindahkan ke pekan Takashima. Buat masa sekarang, bandar Nagasaki yang menyerap pekan Takashima pada 2005 melaksanakan bidang kuasanya ke seluruh pulau. Sebahagian kecil pulau telah dibuka semula untuk pelancongan pada 22 April 2009.[7] Pembukaan penuh pulau ini memerlukan jumlah wang yang banyak untuk memastikan premis tersebut selamat lantaran bangunan-bangunan yang semakin menua

Tarikan terkini[sunting | sunting sumber]

Hashima di zaman Meiji, poskad Nagasaki yang antik dan diwarnai tangan
Sebuah blok pangsapuri di pulau ini, sekitar 1930

On August 23, 2005, landing was permitted to journalists only. The scene of the ruined locations on the island was broadcast in the media. Originally, Nagasaki City planned restoration of a pier for the prospective tourist landing in April 2008. In addition, a 220-metre (722 foot) long visitor walkway was planned (entrance to unsafe building areas was to be prohibited).

Due to the delay in development construction, however, in the end of 2007, the city announced that public access was delayed for approximately one year up until spring 2009. However, the city faced safety concerns, regarding the risk of collapse of the buildings on the island due to significant aging.

Because of the harsh weather, it was estimated that landing would only be feasible for fewer than 160 days per year. From a cost-effectiveness point of view, the city considered relinquishment of plans to extend the visitor walkway further for an approximate 300 metres (984 feet) toward the eastern part of the island and approximately 190 meters (623 feet) toward the western part of the island after 2009.[petikan diperlukan]

In 2009, the island was featured in History Channel's Life After People, first season episode "The Bodies Left Behind" as an example of the decay of concrete buildings after only 35 years of abandonment.[8] The island was again featured in 2011 in episode six of a 3D production for 3net, Forgotten Planet discussing the island's current state, history and unauthorized photo shoots by urban explorers.[9][10] During the 2009 Mexican photography festival FotoSeptiembre, Mexican photographers Guillaume Corpart Muller and Jan Smith, along with Venezuelan photographer Ragnar Chacin showcased images from the island in the exhibition "Pop. Density 5,000/km2". The exhibit traced urban density and the rise and fall of cities around the world.[11]

The Japanese Cultural Institute in Mexico used the images of Corpart Muller and Smith in the photography exhibit, "Fantasmas de Gunkanjima", organized by Daniela Rubio, as part of the celebrations surrounding 200 Years of Diplomacy Mexico–Japan.[12]

Sony featured the island in a video promoting one of their video cameras. The camera was mounted onto a mini, multi-rotor, RC helicopter and flown around the island as well as throughout many buildings. The video was posted on YouTube in April 2013.[13]

In 2013, Google sent an employee to the island with a Street View backpack to capture its condition in panoramic 360-degree views and allow users to take a virtual walk across the island. Google also used its Business Photos technology to let users look inside the abandoned buildings, complete with old black-and-white TVs and discarded soda bottles.[14]

In June 2013, German publisher Steidl published the book Gunkanjima by French photographers Yves Marchand and Romain Meffre. The book also features some historical pictures made by photographer Chiyuki Ito who lived and worked on the island.[15]

Pendaftaran Warisan Dunia[sunting | sunting sumber]

A non-profit organization, "The Way to World Heritage Gunkanjima" (represented by Doutoku Sakamoto), has proposed that Gunkanjima island be designated a UNESCO World Heritage site as one of The Modern Industrial Heritage Sites in Kyushu and Yamaguchi.[16] The process leading to designating the property as a World Heritage Site includes: preparation of the nomination letter attesting the value of the property; a field investigation, after the property nomination, by the Japanese government, which is submitted to UNESCO; discussion of the proposal by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee. The representatives of six prefectures and 11 cities, including Yuichiro Ito, Governor of Kagoshima Prefecture, and Genjiro Kaneko, Governor of Nagasaki Prefecture, jointly submitted to the Agency for Cultural Affairs a proposal for addition of the "Modern Industrial Heritage Sites in Kyushu and Yamaguchi" to the Japan's tentative candidate list for World Heritage nomination. In August 2006, the Ministry of Economics, Trade and Industry decided to support the World Heritage designation proposal in an attempt to promote the utilization of the Meiji-Era industrial heritage, including Hashima, as tourism resources in the Kyushu and Yamaguchi region.

On September 26, 2008, the Agency for Cultural Affairs added the "Modern Industrial Heritage Sites in Kyushu and Yamaguchi" to the tentative lists. It was concluded that the property possesses outstanding universal value; the property clearly attests the intensive introduction of Western technology, which served as the driving force for Japan's rapid industrialization in a dramatically brief period and its own industrial modernisation processes.

This submission is contested by South Korean authorities, who object on the grounds that the coal mining facilities on the island employed forced Korean and Chinese labourers during World War II.[17][18]

Capaian[sunting | sunting sumber]

Persiaran di pulau, Ogos 2010
Pulau Hashima di tahun 2012

When people resided on the island, the Nomo Shosen line serviced the island from Nagasaki Port via Ioujima Island and Takashima Island. In 1970, 12 round trip services were available per day. It took 50 minutes to travel from the island to Nagasaki. After all residents left the island, the direct route was discontinued.

Currently, sightseeing boat trips around the island are provided by two operators; Yamasa-Kaiun from Nagasaki Port, Kyodo Co. from Nomo Island. As of April 22, 2009, the island is open once again for public visits, with Yamasa Kaiun providing transportation to the island from Nagasaki.[4][19]

Budaya popular[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sebuah filem Jepun pada tahun 1949 bertajuk Midori Naki Shima (Pulau Tidak Berhijau) telah difilemkan di Pulau Hashima.[20]

Sebuah kugiran rock Jepun B'z telah menggunakan pulau ini sebagai tempat penggambaran video muzik bagi single mereka pada tahun 2009 iaitu "My Lonely Town" dan juga mengambil gambar kulit CD dan pembungkusan di sana.[21]

Pada tahun 2012, dalam sebuah filem James Bond iaitu Skyfall, Pulau Hashima telah menjadi inspirasi sebagai sarang seorang penjahat, Raoul Silva. Walaupun rakaman luaran pulau ini dipaparkan, tiada babak yang difilemkan di pulau itu sendiri. Set luaran pulau ini dicipta kembali menggunakan gabungan CGI dan kesan amali di Pinewood Studios di Great Britain.[22]

Wayang gambar seram Thailand 2013 Project Hashima menggambarkan lima orang pelajar kolej yang melawati Pulau Hiroshima untuk penggambaran.[23]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Der Spiegel (Article) (dalam bahasa German), DE 
  2. ^ "Japan's 007 island still carries scars of wartime past". CNN. 2013-06-13. Dicapai pada 2013-08-22. 
  3. ^ Burke-Gaffney, Brian (Summer 1996), "Hashima: The Ghost Island", Crossroads: A Journal of Nagasaki History and Culture, UWOSH (4): 33–52, ISSN 0919-6102 
  4. ^ a b "Abandoned 'Battleship Island' to reopen to public in Nagasaki". Japan. The Mainichi Daily News. 21 April 2009. Diarkibkan daripada original pada 2009-04-22. Dicapai pada 2009-04-22. 
  5. ^ Kawamoto, Yashuhiko. "Deserted 'Battleship Isle' may become heritage ghost ship," The Japan Times. February 17, 2009.
  6. ^ Pulin. "昔の思い出 昭和末期の長崎の端島(いわゆる軍艦島)のこと" (dalam bahasa Japanese). Dicapai pada 16 August 2014. 
  7. ^ Bender, Andrew. "The Mystery Island From 'Skyfall' And How You Can Go There". Forbes. Forbes, Inc. Dicapai pada 26 May 2014. 
  8. ^ "Episode One: The Bodies Left Behind" (Episode guide). Life After People. The History Channel. 
  9. ^ "Episode Six: Hashima/Gary" (Episode guide). Forgotten Planet. 3net. 
  10. ^ Gakuran, Michael. "Gunkanjima: Ruins of a Forbidden Island". Dicapai pada 2012-11-13. 
  11. ^ "Centro de la imagem" (PDF). MX: Conaculta. 2009.  |contribution= diabaikan (bantuan)
  12. ^ 400 Aniversario México-Japón, JP: Mexican embassy, 2010-11-02 
  13. ^ Sony's Action Cam on RC Helicopter filming 軍艦島 (Gunkanjima / battleship island), YouTube, Sony, 2013-04-12 
  14. ^ By dingra on Jul 2, 2013. "Google Maps Updated with 'Skyfall' Island Japan Terrain". HotHardware. Dicapai pada 2013-10-15. 
  15. ^ Yves Marchand & Romain Meffre. "Gunkanjima". Steidl. Dicapai pada 2013-11-21. 
  16. ^ TV Asahi (2008-05-23). Broadcast. TV Asahi, 23 May 2008.
  17. ^ Japan Attempts to Put Island Where Koreans Were Worked to Death on World Heritage List, Donga 
  18. ^ Burke-Gaffney, Brian. "HASHIMA: THE GHOST ISLAND". University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh. Dicapai pada 2012-11-18. 
  19. ^ Nagasaki Travel: Gunkanjima (Battleship Island), Japan guide, May 28, 2009, dicapai pada 2010-11-18 
  20. ^ Burke-Gaffney, Brian. "Hashima: the ghost island". University of Washington, Oshkosh. Dicapai pada 2012-11-18. 
  21. ^ "Barks". JP. 1 September 2009. Dicapai pada 2012-12-28. 
  22. ^ Fazio, Giovanni (30 November 2012). "Hashima Island provides the inspiration for a villain's lair". The Japan Times. m/s. 20. Dicapai pada 2012-11-30. 
  23. ^ http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/review/project-hashima-hachima-porchekt-film-683280

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]


Koordinat: 32°37′40″N 129°44′18″E / 32.62778°N 129.73833°E / 32.62778; 129.73833