Revolusi Pertanian Islam

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Syarikat pertanian

Zaman Kegemilangan Islam dari abad ke-8 ke abad ke-13 menyaksikan suatu perubahan asas pada pertanian digelar sebagai Revolusi Pertanian Arab,[1] Revolusi Hijau Pertengahan,[2][3] atau Revolusi Pertanian Islam.[4] Ekonomi sedunia ditubuhkan oleh pedagang Arab dan Islam lain di sepanjang Dunia Lama, membenarkan penyebaran banyak teknik tanaman dan pertanian di kalangan berlainan bahagian dunia Islam, dan juga adaptasi tanaman dan teknik dari dan ke daerah di sebalik dunia Islam. Tanaman dari Afrika seperti sorghum, tanaman dari China seperti buah sitrus, dan beberapa tanaman dari India seperti mangga, padi, kapas dan tebu, telah diedarkan di sepanjang dunia Islam, yang terdahulunya belum menanam tanaman ini.[1] Sesetengah pengarang tekah merujukkan pada penyebaran beberapa tanaman sewaktu zaman ini sebagai Globalisasi tanaman.[5] Pengenalan ini, bersama dengan pengenalan jentera pertanian, membawa ke perubahan utama pada ekonomi, taburan penduduk, liputan tumbuhan,[6] penghasilan pertanian dan kemasukan wang, tingkat penduduk, perkembangan bandar, pengedaran tenaga buruh, industri berkaitan, masakan, peraturan makanan dan pakaian dalam dunia Islam.[1]

Zaman penemuan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bentuk globalisasi yang pertama mula wujud ketika zaman kegemilangan Islam dan empayar Islam, apabila ilmu pengetahuan, perdagangan dan ekonomi dari tempat-tempat yang terasing sebelum ini mula berhubung kesan daripada perhubungan dengan peneroka Muslim, pelayar, ilmuwan, pedagang dan pengembara. Sesetengah orang telah merujuk kepada zaman ini sebagai Zaman Penerokaan "Pax Islamica" atau "Afrika-Asiatik", merujuk kepada kenyataan orang Yahudi (dikenali sebagai Radhanite), Sogdian dan pedagang dan peneroka Muslim dari Asia Barat Daya dan Afrika Utara yang telah meneroka dan mengembara sebahagian besar Dunia Lama (Asia, Eropah dan Afrika) dan telah menubuhkan ekonomi global yang awal [7] merentasi sebahagian besar Asia dan Africa serta Eropah, dengan perhubungan perdagangannya merentas dari Lautan Atlantik dan Laut Mediterranean di sebelah barat hingga ke Lautan Hindi dan Laut China di sebelat timur.[8] Perkara ini telah membantu penubuhan empayar Islam (termasuk Khulafa al-Rasyidin, Ummaiyyah, Abbasiyyah dan Fatimiyyah sebagai kuasa ekonomi dunia dalam kurun ke-7 hingga ke-13.[7] Beberapa laporan dari zaman pertengahan Arab juga menunjukkan yang peneroka Muslim dari Andalusia Sepanyol dan Maghribi telah belayar merentasi Lautan Atlantik dan mungkin telah sampai ke Amerika pada zaman kegemilangan Islam.[9]

Inovasi pertanian[sunting | sunting sumber]

Muslims widely practiced cash cropping[10] and the modern crop rotation system where land was cropped four or more times in a two-year period. Winter crops were followed by summer ones, and in some cases there was in between. In areas where plants of shorter growing season were used, such as spinach and eggplants, the land could be cropped three or more times a year. In parts of Yemen, wheat yielded two harvests a year on the same land, as did rice in Iraq.[1] Muslims developed a scientific approach based on three major elements; sophisticated systems of crop rotation, highly developed irrigation techniques, and the introduction of a large variety of crops which were studied and catalogued according to the season, type of land and amount of water they require. Numerous encyclopaedias on farming and botany were produced, with highly accurate precision and details.[11]

Sistem pertanian maju[sunting | sunting sumber]

As early as the 9th century, an essentially modern agricultural system became central to economic life and organization in the Arab caliphates, replacing the largely export driven Roman model. Cities of the Near East, North Africa, and Moorish Spain were supported by elaborate agricultural systems which included extensive irrigation based on knowledge of hydraulic and hydrostatic principles, some of which were continued from Roman times. In later centuries, Persian Muslims began to function as a conduit, transmitting cultural elements, including advanced agricultural techniques, into Turkic lands and western India. The Muslims introduced what was to become an agricultural revolution based on four key areas:

  • Development of a sophisticated system of irrigation using machines such as norias, water mills, water raising machines, dams and reservoirs. With such technology they managed to greatly expand the exploitable land area.
  • The adoption of a scientific approach to farming enabled them to improve farming techniques derived from the collection and collation of relevant information throughout the whole of the known world.[11] Farming manuals were produced in every corner of the Muslim world detailing where, when and how to plant and grow various crops. Advanced scientific techniques allowed leaders like Ibn al-Baitar to introduce new crops and breeds and strains of livestock into areas where they were previously unknown.
  • Incentives based on a new approach to land ownership and labourers' rights, combining the recognition of private ownership and the rewarding of cultivators with a harvest share commensurate with their efforts. Their counterparts in Europe struggled under a feudal system in which they were almost slaves (serfs) with little hope of improving their lot by hard work.
  • The introduction of new crops transforming private farming into a new global industry exported everywhere,[1] including Europe, where farming was mostly restricted to wheat strains obtained much earlier via central Asia. Spain received what she in turn transmitted to the rest of Europe; many agricultural and fruit-growing processes, together with many new plants, fruit and vegetables. These new crops included sugar cane, rice, citrus fruit, apricots, cotton, artichokes, aubergines, and saffron. Others, previously known, were further developed. Muslims also brought to that country lemons, oranges, cotton, almonds, figs and sub-tropical crops such as bananas and sugar cane. Several were later exported from Spanish coastal areas to the Spanish colonies in the New World. Also transmitted via Muslim influence, a silk industry flourished, flax was cultivated and linen exported, and esparto grass, which grew wild in the more arid parts, was collected and turned into various articles.

Pembaharuan ekonomi dan kemasyarakatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

The caliphate understood that incentives were needed to increase productivity and wealth, thus enhancing tax revenues. Hence, they introduced a social transformation through the changed ownership of land,[4] where any individual of any gender[12] or any ethnic or religious background had the right to buy, sell, mortgage and inherit land for farming or any other purposes. They also introduced the signing of a contract for every major financial transaction concerning agriculture, industry, commerce, and employment. Copies of the contract was usually kept by both parties involved.[4]

The two types of economic systems that prompted agricultural development in the Islamic world were either politically-driven, by the conscious decisions of the central authority to develop under-exploited lands; or market-driven, involving the spread of advice, education, and free seeds, and the introduction of high value crops or animals to areas where they were previously unknown. These led to increased subsistence, a high level of economic security that ensured wealth for all citizens, and a higher quality of life due to the introduction of artichokes, spinach, aubergines, carrots, sugar cane, and various exotic plants; vegetables being available all year round without the need to dry them for winter; citrus and olive plantations becoming a common sight, market gardens and orchards springing up in every Muslim city; intense cropping and the technique of intensive irrigation agriculture with land fertility replacement; a major increase in animal husbandry; higher quality of wool and other clothing materials; and the introduction of selective breeding of animals from different parts of the Old World resulting in improved horse stocks and the best load-carrying camels.[4]

The average life expectancy in the lands under Islamic rule also experienced an increase, due to the Agricultural Revolution as well as improved medical care. In contrast to the average lifespan in the ancient Greco-Roman world (22-28 years),[13][14] the average lifespan in the early Islamic Caliphate was more than 35 years.[15] The average lifespans of the Islamic scholarly class in particular was much higher: 84.3 years in 10th-11th century Iraq and Persia,[16] 72.8 years in the 11th century Middle East, 69–75 years in 11th century Islamic Spain,[17] 75 years in 12th century Persia,[18] and 59–72 years in 13th century Persia.[19] The Islamic Empire also experienced a growth in literacy, having the highest literacy rate of the Middle Ages, comparable to Athens' literacy in classical antiquity but on a larger scale.[20]

Industri gula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Semasa Revolisi Perladangan Muslim, pengeluaran gula diperbaiki dan diubah menjadi industri berskala besar oleh orang-orang Arab. Orang-orang Arab dan Berber menyebar gula diseluruh Empayar Arab sejak abad ke-8.[21]

Inovasi lain[sunting | sunting sumber]

Banyak inovasi pertanian lain diperkenal oleh jurutera dan peladang Muslim, seperti bentuk baru penyewaan tanah (land tenure), pembaikan dalam penyaliran, pelbagai kaedah pengairan yang sofsikated,[22] pengenalan baja dan sistem pengaliran yang meluas , pembangunan sistem penyaliran berasaskan aliran graviti dari sungai dan mata air,[3] pengunaan pertama noria and chain pumps for irrigation purposes,[4] the establishment of the sugar cane industry in the Mediterranean and experimentation in sugar cultivation,[23] numerous advances in industrial milling and water-raising machines (see Industrial growth below), and many other improvements and innovations.

Sains pertanian[sunting | sunting sumber]

During the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, Muslim scientists laid the foundations of agricultural science, which included significant advances in the fields of agronomy, astronomy, botany, earth science, environmental philosophy, and environmental science. In particular, the experimental scientific method was introduced into the field in the 13th century by the Andalusian-Arab botanist Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, the teacher of Ibn al-Baitar. Al-Nabati introduced empirical techniques in the testing, description and identification of numerous materia medica, and he separated unverified reports from those supported by actual tests and observations.[24]

The earliest known work dedicated to the study of agriculture was Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean Agriculture, which also dealt with the related field of botany and was also an early cookbook. The early Arab lexicographs were the first known works to separate the two disciplines of agriculture and botany, though both were considered part of the medical sciences due to agriculture's primary role being to feed and botany's primary role being to heal. The agricultural sciences were known by the Arabic term filaha, which had a dual-meaning, to both care for the Earth and to take care of plants. Many of the early Islamic authors on botany were often philologists, due to their role in the translation of ancient scientific texts.[25] This was also the case with early Arabic zoology, like with al-Jahiz for example.

Al-Asma'i was the earliest known Arab biologist, botanist and zoologist; his works include the Book of Distinction, Book of the Wild Animals, Book of the Horse, and Book of the Sheep.

Agronomi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Muslim agriculturists demonstrated advanced agronomic, agrotechnical and economic knowledge in areas such as meteorology, climatology, hydrology, soil occupation, and the economy and management of agricultural enterprises. They also demonstrated agricultural knowledge in areas such as pedology, agricultural ecology, irrigation, preparation of soil, planting, spreading of manure, killing herbs, sowing, cutting trees, grafting, pruning vine], prophylaxis, phytotherapy, the care and improvement of microbiological cultures and plants, and the harvest and storage of crops.[26]

Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean Agriculture was an early Arabic work on agronomy and agriculture. The following eight chapters of the book are dedicated to water in the context of agriculture:[27]

  1. Research of water and related technical knowledge
  2. Digging wells and increasing their flow using proven artifices and techniques
  3. The drilling of wells
  4. Artifices used to increase water in a well
  5. Making water rise up a very deep well
  6. Augmenting the quantity of water in wells and sources
  7. Modifying and improving the taste of water
  8. "On the difference in nature and action of the water according to its position" close of far away "with regard to the ecliptic"

The Nabatean Agriculture then goes on to discuss a number of other complex issues on agriculture, including the management of an agricultural enterprise and the duties of the owner regarding his enterprise and workers; the official (wakil) in charge of the management of the enterprise, his obligation towards the farmer]s, and applying the instructions he receives from his boss; the weather forecasting of atmospheric changes and signs from the planetary astral alterations; signs of rain based on observation of the lunar phases, nature of thunder and lightning, direction of sunrise, behaviour of certain plants and animals, and weather forecasts based on the movement of winds; the recognition of plant tissue cultures which succeed in certain years; a list of work to be done in each month of year; the position of the moon relative to the Earth; the required knowledge of a farmer and the owner of an agricultural enterprise; pollenized air and winds; and formation of winds and vapours.[28]

Other agricultural topics discussed in the Nabatean Agriculture include the causes of the corruption of plants and of torrential rain; the nature of soils and their different flavours; the manure; how to get rid of bad herbs and how to cut plants which need to be cut; and a number of other agricultural topics.[29]

In 12th century al-Andalus, Ibn al-'Awwam al-Ishbili wrote the Kitab al-Filaha which synthesized his own agricultural knowledge with that of the Nabatean Agriculture and his other Arabic predecessors. This work also described 585 microbiological cultures, 55 of which concern fruit trees. This work was influential in Europe after it was translated into Spanish by Banqueri in Madrid in 1801 and into French by Clement-Mullet in Paris in 1864.[30]

Astronomi dan meteorologi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Another innovation during this period was the application of astronomy to agriculture and botany. As weather forecasting predictions and the measurement of time and the onset of seasons became more precise and reliable, farmers became informed of these advances and often employed them in agriculture. They also benefited from the compilation of calendars with information on when to plant each type of crop, when to graft trees, when and how to fertilize crops, when to harvest, and what to eat and what to avoid at each time of year. These advances made it possible for farmers to plan the growth of each of their crops for specific markets and at specific times of the year.[4]

Parts of al-Dinawari's Book of Plants deal with the applications of astronomy and meteorology to agriculture. It describes the astronomical and meteorological character of the sky, the planets and constellations, the sun and moon, the lunar phases indicating seasons and rain, the anwa (heavenly bodies of rain), and atmospheric phenomena such as winds, thunder, lightning, snow, floods, valleys, rivers, lakes, wells and other sources of water.[31]

Botani[sunting | sunting sumber]

Muslims developed a scientific approach to botany and agriculture based on three major elements: sophisticated systems of crop rotation, highly developed irrigation techniques, and the introduction of a large variety of crops which were studied and catalogued according to the season, type of land and amount of water they require. Numerous encyclopaedias on botany were produced, with highly accurate precision and details.[11]

The 9th century botanist al-Dinawari is considered the founder of Arabic botany. He wrote a botanical encyclopedia entitled Kitab al-Nabat (Book of Plants), which consisted of six volumes. Only the third and fifth volumes have survived, though the sixth volume has partly been reconstructed based on citations from later works. In the surviving portions of his works, 637 plants are described from the letters sin to ya. He also discusses plant evolution from its birth to its death, describing the phases of plant growth and the production of flowers and fruit.[31]

In the early 13th century, Ibn al-Baitar published the Kitab al-Jami fi al-Adwiya al-Mufrada, which is considered one of the greatest botanical compilations and pharmaceutical encyclopedias, and was a botanical authority for centuries.[32] It contains details on at least 1,400 different plants, foods, and drugs, 300 of which were his own original discoveries.[33] The Kitab al-Jami fi al-Adwiya al-Mufrada was also influential in Europe after it was translated into Latin in 1758,[32] where it was being used up until the early 19th century.[33]

Sains bumi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Geografi Islam

Muslim scientists made a number of contributions to the earth sciences. Alkindus introduced experimentation into the Earth sciences.[34]

Parts of al-Dinawari's Book of Plants deals with the Earth sciences in the context of agriculture. He considers the Earth, stone and sands, and describes different types of ground, indicating which types are more convenient for plants and the qualities and properties of good ground.[31]

Biruni is considered the father of geodesy for his important contributions to the field,[35][36] along with his significant contributions to geography and geology.

Among his writings on geology, Biruni wrote the following on the geology of India:

"But if you see the soil of India with your own eyes and meditate on its nature, if you consider the rounded stones found in earth however deeply you dig, stones that are huge near the mountains and where the rivers have a violent current: stones that are of smaller size at a greater distance from the mountains and where the streams flow more slowly: stones that appear pulverised in the shape of sand where the streams begin to stagnate near their mouths and near the sea - if you consider all this you can scarcely help thinking that India was once a sea, which by degrees has been filled up by the alluvium of the streams."[37]

John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson write in the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive:

"Important contributions to geodesy and geography were also made by al-Biruni. He introduced techniques to measure the earth and distances on it using triangulation. He found the radius of the earth to be 6339.6 km, a value not obtained in the West until the 16th century. His Masudic canon contains a table giving the coordinates of six hundred places, almost all of which he had direct knowledge."[38]

In geology, Avicenna hypothesized on two causes of mountains in The Book of Healing. In cartography, the Piri Reis map drawn by the Ottoman cartographer Piri Reis in 1513, was one of the earliest world maps to include the Americas, and perhaps the first to include Antarctica. His map of the world was considered the most accurate in the 16th century.

Falsafah alam sekitar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Perhaps due to resource scarcity in most Islamic nations, there was an emphasis on limited (and some claim also sustainable) use of natural capital, i.e. producing land. Traditions of haram and hima and early urban planning were expressions of strong social obligations to stay within carrying capacity and to preserve the natural environment as an obligation of khalifa or "stewardship".[39]

Muhammad is considered a pioneer of environmentalism for his teachings on environmental preservation. His hadiths on agriculture and environmental philosophy were compiled in the "Book of Agriculture" of the Sahih Bukhari, which included the following saying:[39]

"There is none amongst the believers who plants a tree, or sows a seed, and then a bird, or a person, or an animal eats thereof, but it is regarded as having given a charitable gift [for which there is great recompense]."[40]

Several such statements concerning the environment are also found in the Qur'an, such as the following:[41]

"And there is no animal in the earth nor bird that flies with its two wings, but that they are communities like yourselves."[42]

Sains alam sekitar[sunting | sunting sumber]

The earliest known treatises dealing with environmentalism and environmental science, especially pollution, were Arabic medical treatises written by al-Kindi, Qusta ibn Luqa, al-Razi, Ibn Al-Jazzar, al-Tamimi, al-Masihi, Avicenna, Ali ibn Ridwan, Ibn Jumay, Isaac Israeli ben Solomon, Abd-el-latif, Ibn al-Quff, and Ibn al-Nafis. Their works covered a number of subjects related to pollution such as air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination, municipal solid waste mishandling, and environmental impact assessments of certain localities.[43] Cordoba, al-Andalus also had the first waste containers and waste disposal facilities for litter collection.[44]

Zoologi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Further information: Early Islamic philosophy: Evolution and Islamic medicine

In the zoology field of biology, Muslim biologists developed theories on evolution and natural selection which were widely taught in medieval Islamic schools. John William Draper, a contemporary of Charles Darwin, considered the "Mohammedan theory of evolution" to be developed "much farther than we are disposed to do, extending them even to inorganic or mineral things." According to al-Khazini, ideas on evolution were widespread among "common people" in the Islamic world by the 12th century.[45]

The first Muslim biologist to develop a theory on evolution was al-Jahiz (781-869). He wrote on the effects of the environment on the likelihood of an animal to survive, and he first described the struggle for existence and an early form of natural selection.[46][47] Al-Jahiz was also the first to discuss food chains,[48] and was also an early adherent of environmental determinism, arguing that the environment can determine the physical characteristics of the inhabitants of a certain community and that the origins of different human skin colors is the result of the environment.[49]

Ibn al-Haytham wrote a book in which he argued for evolutionism (although not natural selection), and numerous other Islamic scholars and scientists, such as Ibn Miskawayh, the Brethren of Purity, al-Khazini, Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Nasir al-Din Tusi, and Ibn Khaldun, discussed and developed these ideas. Translated into Latin, these works began to appear in the West after the Renaissance and appear to have had an impact on Western science.

Ibn Miskawayh's al-Fawz al-Asghar and the Brethren of Purity's Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity (The Epistles of Ikhwan al-Safa) expressed evolutionary ideas on how species evolved from matter, into vapor, and then water, then minerals, then plants, then animals, then apes, and then humans. These works were known in Europe and likely had an influence on Darwinism.[50]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b c d e Andrew M. Watson (1974), "The Arab Agricultural Revolution and Its Diffusion, 700–1100", The Journal of Economic History 34 (1), m/s. 8–35.
  2. ^ A. M. Watson (1981), "A Medieval Green Revolution: New Crops and Farming Techniques in the Early Islamic World", in The Islamic Middle East, 700-1900: Studies in Economic and Social History
  3. ^ a b Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Glick tidak disediakan
  4. ^ a b c d e f Zohor Idrisi (2005), The Muslim Agricultural Revolution and its influence on Europe, FSTC
  5. ^ The Globalisation of Crops, FSTC
  6. ^ Andrew M. Watson (1983), Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-24711-X.
  7. ^ a b John M. Hobson (2004), The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation, p. 29-30, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-54724-5.
  8. ^ Subhi Y. Labib (1969), "Capitalism in Medieval Islam", The Journal of Economic History 29 (1), p. 79-96.
  9. ^ S. A. H. Ahsani (July 1984). "Muslims in Latin America: a survey", Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 5 (2), p. 454-463.
  10. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Banaji tidak disediakan
  11. ^ a b c Al-Hassani, Woodcock and Saoud (2007), Muslim heritage in Our World, FSTC publishing, 2nd Edition, pp. 102–23.
  12. ^ Maya Shatzmiller, p. 263.
  13. ^ Life expectancy (sociology)
  14. ^ University of Wyoming
  15. ^ Conrad, Lawrence I. (2006), The Western Medical Tradition, Cambridge University Press, m/s. 137, ISBN 0-521-47564-3
  16. ^ Bulliet, Richard W. (1983), "The Age Structure of Medieval Islamic Education", Studia Islamica, 57: 105–117 [111], doi:10.2307/1595484
  17. ^ Shatzmiller, Maya (1994), Labour in the Medieval Islamic World, Brill Publishers, m/s. 66, ISBN 90-04-09896-8
  18. ^ Bulliet, Richard W. (April 1970), "A Quantitative Approach to Medieval Muslim Biographical Dictionaries", Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Brill Publishers, 13 (2): 195–211 [200]
  19. ^ Ahmad, Ahmad Atif (2007), "Authority, Conflict, and the Transmission of Diversity in Medieval Islamic Law by R. Kevin Jaques", Journal of Islamic Studies, 18=issue=2: 246–248 [246], doi:10.1093/jis/etm005
  20. ^ Andrew J. Coulson, Delivering Education (PDF), Hoover Institution, m/s. 117, dicapai pada 2008-11-22
  21. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Hassan tidak disediakan
  22. ^ Elias H. Tuma (1987), "Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World: The Diffusion of Crops and Farming Techniques, 700–1100 by Andrew M. Watson", The Journal of Economic History 47 (2), pp. 543–4.
  23. ^ J. H. Galloway (1977), "The Mediterranean Sugar Industry", Geographical Review 67 (2), pp. 177–94.
  24. ^ Huff, Toby (2003), The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China, and the West, Cambridge University Press, m/s. 218, ISBN 0-521-52994-8
  25. ^ Fahd, Toufic, "Botany and agriculture", m/s. 813 Missing or empty |title= (bantuan), in (Morelon & Rashed 1996, pp. 813-52)
  26. ^ Toufic Fahd (1996), "Botany and agriculture", in Roshdi Rashed, ed., Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Vol. 3, pp. 813–52 [849]. Routledge, London and New York.
  27. ^ Fahd, Toufic, "Botany and agriculture", m/s. 841 Missing or empty |title= (bantuan), in (Morelon & Rashed 1996, pp. 813-52)
  28. ^ Fahd, Toufic, "Botany and agriculture", m/s. 842 Missing or empty |title= (bantuan), in (Morelon & Rashed 1996, pp. 813-52)
  29. ^ Fahd, Toufic, "Botany and agriculture", m/s. 842 Missing or empty |title= (bantuan), in (Morelon & Rashed 1996, pp. 813-52)
  30. ^ Fahd, Toufic, "Botany and agriculture", halaman 848–9 Missing or empty |title= (bantuan), in (Morelon & Rashed 1996, pp. 813-52)
  31. ^ a b c Fahd, Toufic, "Botany and agriculture", m/s. 815 Missing or empty |title= (bantuan), in (Morelon & Rashed 1996, pp. 813-52)
  32. ^ a b Russell McNeil, Ibn al-Baitar, Malaspina University-College.
  33. ^ a b Diane Boulanger (2002), "The Islamic Contribution to Science, Mathematics and Technology", OISE Papers, in STSE Education, Vol. 3.
  34. ^ Plinio Prioreschi, "Al-Kindi, A Precursor Of The Scientific Revolution", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, 2002 (2): 17-19.
  35. ^ Akbar S. Ahmed (1984). "Al-Beruni: The First Anthropologist", RAIN 60, p. 9-10.
  36. ^ H. Mowlana (2001). "Information in the Arab World", Cooperation South Journal 1.
  37. ^ Abdus Salam (1984), "Islam and Science". In C. H. Lai (1987), Ideals and Realities: Selected Essays of Abdus Salam, 2nd ed., World Scientific, Singapore, p. 179-213.
  38. ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Al-Biruni", arkib MacTutor History of Mathematics, Universiti St Andrews.
  39. ^ a b S. Nomanul Haq, "Islam", in Dale Jamieson (2001), A Companion to Environmental Philosophy, pp. 111-129, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 1-4051-0659-X.
  40. ^ Sahih Bukhari 3:513
  41. ^ S. Nomanul Haq, "Islam", in Dale Jamieson (2001), A Companion to Environmental Philosophy, pp. 111-129 [111-119], Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 1-4051-0659-X.
  42. ^ [Quran 6:38]
  43. ^ L. Gari (2002), "Arabic Treatises on Environmental Pollution up to the End of the Thirteenth Century", Environment and History 8 (4), pp. 475-488.
  44. ^ S. P. Scott (1904), History of the Moorish Empire in Europe, 3 vols, J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia and London.
    F. B. Artz (1980), The Mind of the Middle Ages, Third edition revised, University of Chicago Press, pp 148-50.
    (cf. References, 1001 Inventions)
  45. ^ John William Draper (1878). History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, p. 154-155, 237. ISBN 1-60303-096-4.
  46. ^ Conway Zirkle (1941). Natural Selection before the "Origin of Species", Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 84 (1), p. 71-123.
  47. ^ Mehmet Bayrakdar (Third Quarter, 1983). "Al-Jahiz And the Rise of Biological Evolutionism", The Islamic Quarterly. London.
  48. ^ Frank N. Egerton, "A History of the Ecological Sciences, Part 6: Arabic Language Science - Origins and Zoological", Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, April 2002: 142-146 [143]
  49. ^ Lawrence I. Conrad (1982), "Taun and Waba: Conceptions of Plague and Pestilence in Early Islam", Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 25 (3), pp. 268-307 [278].
  50. ^ Muhammad Hamidullah and Afzal Iqbal (1993), The Emergence of Islam: Lectures on the Development of Islamic World-view, Intellectual Tradition and Polity, p. 143-144. Islamic Research Institute, Islamabad.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Pengajian Islam