Senarai negara dengan kadar pembunuhan yang disengajakan

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Senarai negara dengan kadar pembunuhan yang disengajakan per tahun per 100,000 orang penduduk.[1] Kebolehpercayaan data kadar pembunuhan nasional mungkin berbeza-beza..[2] Undang-undang mendefinisikan "pembunuhan sengaja" berbeza antara setiap negara. Pembunuhan sengaja mungkin atau tidak termasuk pembunuhan bayi, bantuan bunuh diri atau euthanasia.[3] Pejabat Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu Mengenai Dadah dan Jenayah (UNODC) dalam laporan Kajian Global Mengenai Pembunuhan mendefinisikan pembunuhan sengaja sebagai :

Dalam pelbagai jenis kematian yang ganas, unsur utama pembunuhan yang disengajakan adalah liabiliti lengkap pelaku langsung, yang dengan demikian tidak termasuk pembunuhan langsung yang berkaitan dengan perang atau konflik, kematian diri (bunuh diri), pembunuhan akibat campurtangan undang-undang atau pembunuhan yang wajar (seperti pertahanan diri), dan kematian yang disebabkan apabila pelaku tidak senonoh atau cuai tetapi tidak berniat mengambil kehidupan manusia (pembunuhan tanpa sengaja). 

UNODC data digunakan di meja utama di bawah.

Demografi pembunuhan yang disengajakan dipengaruhi oleh perubahan dalam penjagaan trauma, yang membawa kepada kecelakaan yang bertukar menjadi serangan ganas, maka kadar pembunuhan yang disengajakan tidak semestinya menunjukkan tahap keseluruhan keganasan dalam sesebuah masyarakat. Mereka mungkin juga tidak dilaporkan atas alasan politik.[4][5] Satu lagi masalah untuk perbandingan angka-angka berikut ialah beberapa data mungkin termasuk percubaan. Secara umum nilai-nilai dalam senarai ini tidak boleh termasuk usaha gagal kecuali jika dinyatakan sebaliknya.

Kajian yang dijalan oleh Deklarasi Geneva ke atas Keganasan dan Pembangunan Bersenjata menganggarkan terdapat kira-kira 490,000 pembunuhan yang disengajakan pada tahun 2004. Kajian menganggarkan kadar global ialah 7.6 pembunuhan yang disengajakan per 100,000 penduduk bagu tahun 2004.[6] UNODC pula melaporkan anggaran kadar pembunuhan yang disengajakan adalah 6.2 per 100,000 penduduk bagi tahun 2012 (dalam laporan mereka bertajuk "Kajian Global Mengenai Pembunuhan 2013").[7] UNODC mengira kadar 6.9 pada tahun 2010.[8]

Pembunuhan setiap 100,000 penduduk di tahun 2012.
      0–1       1–2       2–5       5–10       10–20       >20

Kajian global UNODC[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pejabat PBB Mengenai Dadah dan Jenayah (UNODC) memiliki sebuah laman sesawang yang digelar Kajian Global Mengenai Pembunuhan. Semua data dalam bahagian ini diperoleh dari laporan di laman web.

Mengikut rantau[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kadar dikira mengikut per 100,000 penduduk.

Kadar pembunuhan UNODC, dalam tahun semasa
Rantau Kadar Count
      Amerika 16.3 157,000
      Afrika 12.5 135,000
      Dunia 6.2 437,000
      Eropah 3.0 22,000
      Oceania 3.0 1,100
      Asia 2.9 122,000

Laporan UNODC mempunyai carta bar dan graf garis masa kadar pembunuhan untuk subrantau. Namun, laporan itu tidak menyenaraikan kadar angka yang tepat. Kiraan subrabtau tidak dijumpai dalam laporan, tetapi boleh dikira secara manual dengan jumlah kiraan untuk setiap negara di subrantau.

Mengikut negara[sunting | sunting sumber]

Geoskim PBB dengan nama-nama wilayah yang digunakan di jadual di sini.

Rantau dan nama rantau dalam jadual adalah berdasarkan kepada geoskim PBB memandangkan sumber jadual adalah dari laporan UNODC.  

Carta ini tidak menggunakan data yang terkini kerana bagaimana pembunuhan yang sengaja ditakrifkan, dikumpulkan, dan dikira bagi setiap negara adalah berbeza. Untuk mendapatkan data yang lebih konsisten, berterusan, dan boleh dipercayai hanya sumber UNODC terkini digunakan untuk bahagian negara.

Apabila menggunakan angka-angka tersebut, apa sahaja perbandingan rentas negara perlu dilakukan dengan berhati-hati kerana perbezaan yang wujud di antara definisi kesalahan undang-undang di setiap negara, perbezaan kaedah untuk pengiraan dan rakaman serta perbezaan dalam bahagian kesalahan jenayah yang tidak dilaporkan kepada atau dikesan oleh pihak berkuasa penguatkuasa undang-undang.

Nota: x (dalam ruang kiraan, terutamanya di bahagian Oceania) – Dari sumber UNODC: "disebabkan oleh saiz penduduk yang kecil saiz anggaran mengira kurang dari 2".
Ruang "Nota" dipautkan ke bahagian nota di bawah carta. Ia dipautkan ke maklumat tambahan tentang perang, dan sebagainya. UNODC tidak mengira kematian perang dalam data.
Row numbers on the left are fixed.
 



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UNODC murder rates (per 100,000 inhabitants). Most recent year UNODC has published
Country (or dependent territory,
subnational area, etc.)
Kadar Jumlah Rantau Subrantau Senarai
tahun
Nota

 Burundi 4.03 436 Africa Eastern Africa 2014
 Comoros 7.60 60 Africa Eastern Africa 2015
 Djibouti 6.77 60 Africa Eastern Africa 2015
 Eritrea 7.46 390 Africa Eastern Africa 2015
 Ethiopia 7.60 7,552 Africa Eastern Africa 2015
 Kenya 5.75 2,648 Africa Eastern Africa 2015
 Madagascar 0.62 130 Africa Eastern Africa 2010
 Malawi 1.78 279 Africa Eastern Africa 2012
 Mauritius 2.71 34 Africa Eastern Africa 2011
 Mayotte (France) 5.93 12 Africa Eastern Africa 2009
 Mozambique 3.39 849 Africa Eastern Africa 2011
 Réunion (France) 1.82 15 Africa Eastern Africa 2009
 Rwanda 4.51 500 Africa Eastern Africa 2013
 Seychelles 2.15 2 Africa Eastern Africa 2010
 Somalia 5.56 599 Africa Eastern Africa 2015 notes
 South Sudan 13.70 1,504 Africa Eastern Africa 2012 notes
 Uganda 11.84 4,473 Africa Eastern Africa 2014
 Tanzania 7.01 3,746 Africa Eastern Africa 2015
 Zambia 5.85 814 Africa Eastern Africa 2010
 Zimbabwe 6.74 981 Africa Eastern Africa 2012
 Angola 9.65 2,414 Africa Middle Africa 2015
 Cameroon 5.93 1,385 Africa Middle Africa 2015
 Central African Republic 13.09 642 Africa Middle Africa 2015 notes
 Chad 9.02 1,266 Africa Middle Africa 2015
 Republic of the Congo 10.88 466 Africa Middle Africa 2015
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 13.36 10,322 Africa Middle Africa 2015
 Equatorial Guinea 3.21 27 Africa Middle Africa 2015
 Gabon 9.00 155 Africa Middle Africa 2015
 Sao Tome and Principe 3.44 6 Africa Middle Africa 2011
 Algeria 1.37 542 Africa Northern Africa 2015
 Egypt 3.23 2,703 Africa Northern Africa 2011
 Libya 2.49 156 Africa Northern Africa 2015 notes
 Morocco 1.05 355 Africa Northern Africa 2014
 Sudan 6.45 2,596 Africa Northern Africa 2015 notes
 Tunisia 3.05 332 Africa Northern Africa 2012
 Botswana 10.53 220 Africa Southern Africa 2011
 Lesotho 38.00 764 Africa Southern Africa 2010
 Namibia 16.93 388 Africa Southern Africa 2012
 South Africa 34.27 18,673 Africa Southern Africa 2015
 Swaziland 8.16 102 Africa Southern Africa 2013
 Benin 6.01 654 Africa Western Africa 2015
 Burkina Faso 0.71 117 Africa Western Africa 2012
 Cape Verde 8.84 46 Africa Western Africa 2015
 Ivory Coast 11.84 2,688 Africa Western Africa 2015
 Gambia 9.07 181 Africa Western Africa 2015
 Ghana 1.70 423 Africa Western Africa 2011
 Guinea 8.46 1,067 Africa Western Africa 2015
 Guinea-Bissau 9.17 169 Africa Western Africa 2015
 Liberia 3.22 135 Africa Western Africa 2012
 Mali 10.82 1,905 Africa Western Africa 2015
 Mauritania 10.22 416 Africa Western Africa 2015
 Niger 4.47 788 Africa Western Africa 2012
 Nigeria 9.79 17,843 Africa Western Africa 2015
 Senegal 7.30 1,105 Africa Western Africa 2015
 Sierra Leone 1.92 124 Africa Western Africa 2015
 Togo 9.14 668 Africa Western Africa 2015
 Anguilla (UK) 27.66 4 Americas Caribbean 2014
 Antigua and Barbuda 11.23 10 Americas Caribbean 2012
 Aruba (Netherlands) 3.94 4 Americas Caribbean 2010
 Bahamas 29.81 111 Americas Caribbean 2012
 Barbados 10.91 31 Americas Caribbean 2015
 British Virgin Islands (UK) 8.37 2 Americas Caribbean 2006
 Cayman Islands (UK) 14.74 8 Americas Caribbean 2009
 Cuba 4.72 534 Americas Caribbean 2011
 Dominica 8.40 6 Americas Caribbean 2011
 Dominican Republic 17.39 1,810 Americas Caribbean 2014
 Grenada 7.52 8 Americas Caribbean 2014
 Guadeloupe (France) 7.90 36 Americas Caribbean 2009
 Haiti 10.04 1,033 Americas Caribbean 2012
 Jamaica 43.21 1,207 Americas Caribbean 2012
 Martinique (France) 2.78 11 Americas Caribbean 2009
 Montserrat (UK) 20.39 1 Americas Caribbean 2008
 Puerto Rico (US) 15.86 584 Americas Caribbean 2015
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 33.55 18 Americas Caribbean 2012
 Saint Lucia 21.56 39 Americas Caribbean 2012
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 25.61 28 Americas Caribbean 2012
 Trinidad and Tobago 30.88 420 Americas Caribbean 2015
 Turks and Caicos Islands (UK) 6.61 2 Americas Caribbean 2009
 United States Virgin Islands (US) 52.64 56 Americas Caribbean 2010
 Belize 34.40 121 Americas Central America 2014
 Costa Rica 11.77 566 Americas Central America 2015
 El Salvador 108.64 6,656 Americas Central America 2015
 Guatemala 31.21 4,998 Americas Central America 2014
 Honduras 63.75 5,148 Americas Central America 2015
 Mexico 16.35 20,762 Americas Central America 2015 notes
 Nicaragua 11.49 675 Americas Central America 2012
 Panama 11.38 447 Americas Central America 2015
 Bermuda (UK) 6.45 4 Americas Northern America 2015
 Canada 1.68 604 Americas Northern America 2014
 Greenland (Denmark) 12.46 7 Americas Northern America 2015
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France) 15.94 1 Americas Northern America 2009
 United States 4.88 15,696 Americas Northern America 2015
 Argentina 6.53 2,837 Americas South America 2015
 Bolivia 12.40 1,270 Americas South America 2012
 Brazil 26.74 55,574 Americas South America 2015
 Chile 3.59 638 Americas South America 2014
 Colombia 26.50 12,782 Americas South America 2015 notes
 Ecuador 8.23 1,309 Americas South America 2014
 French Guiana (France) 13.17 30 Americas South America 2009
 Guyana 19.42 149 Americas South America 2015
 Paraguay 9.29 617 Americas South America 2015
 Peru 7.16 2,247 Americas South America 2015
 Suriname 10.68 58 Americas South America 2015
 Uruguay 8.42 289 Americas South America 2015
 Venezuela 57.15 17,778 Americas South America 2015
 Kazakhstan 4.84 853 Asia Central Asia 2015
 Kyrgyzstan 5.12 304 Asia Central Asia 2015
 Tajikistan 1.44 117 Asia Central Asia 2013
 Turkmenistan 4.20 225 Asia Central Asia 2015
 Uzbekistan 2.99 893 Asia Central Asia 2015
 China 0.74 10,083 Asia Eastern Asia 2014 notes
 Hong Kong 0.30 22 Asia Eastern Asia 2015
Templat:Country data Macao 0.17 1 Asia Eastern Asia 2015
 North Korea 4.41 1,110 Asia Eastern Asia 2015
 Japan 0.31 395 Asia Eastern Asia 2014
 Mongolia 7.23 214 Asia Eastern Asia 2015
 South Korea 0.74 372 Asia Eastern Asia 2014
 Taiwan 0.82 192 Asia Eastern Asia 2015
 Brunei 0.49 2 Asia South-Eastern Asia 2013
 Cambodia 1.84 268 Asia South-Eastern Asia 2011
 East Timor 3.69 39 Asia South-Eastern Asia 2010
 Indonesia 0.50 1,277 Asia South-Eastern Asia 2014
 Laos 6.87 467 Asia South-Eastern Asia 2015
 Malaysia 1.92 540 Asia South-Eastern Asia 2010
 Myanmar 2.42 1,304 Asia South-Eastern Asia 2015
 Philippines 9.84 9,756 Asia South-Eastern Asia 2014
 Singapore 0.25 14 Asia South-Eastern Asia 2015
 Thailand 3.51 2,387 Asia South-Eastern Asia 2015
 Vietnam 1.52 1,358 Asia South-Eastern Asia 2011
 Afghanistan 6.55 1,948 Asia Southern Asia 2012 notes
 Bangladesh 2.51 4,035 Asia Southern Asia 2015
 Bhutan 2.75 21 Asia Southern Asia 2014
 India 3.21 41,623 Asia Southern Asia 2014
 Iran 4.12 3,259 Asia Southern Asia 2015
 Maldives 0.85 3 Asia Southern Asia 2013
   Nepal 2.27 639 Asia Southern Asia 2014
 Pakistan 7.81 13,846 Asia Southern Asia 2012 notes
 Sri Lanka 2.91 598 Asia Southern Asia 2013
 Armenia 2.45 74 Asia Western Asia 2015
 Azerbaijan 2.45 236 Asia Western Asia 2014
 Bahrain 0.54 7 Asia Western Asia 2011
 Cyprus 1.29 15 Asia Western Asia 2015
 Georgia 2.68 108 Asia Western Asia 2014
 Iraq 8.0 2,628 Asia Western Asia 2012 notes
 Israel 1.36 110 Asia Western Asia 2015 notes
 Jordan 2.00 144 Asia Western Asia 2013
 Kuwait 1.78 61 Asia Western Asia 2012
 Lebanon 3.95 231 Asia Western Asia 2015
 Palestine 0.60 26 Asia Western Asia 2012 notes
 Oman 1.06 34 Asia Western Asia 2011
 Qatar 8.10 181 Asia Western Asia 2015
 Saudi Arabia 1.50 472 Asia Western Asia 2015
 Syria 2.23 463 Asia Western Asia 2010 notes
 Turkey 4.30 3,216 Asia Western Asia 2012
 United Arab Emirates 0.66 60 Asia Western Asia 2015
 Yemen 6.67 1,703 Asia Western Asia 2013
 Belarus 3.58 340 Europe Eastern Europe 2014
 Bulgaria 1.80 129 Europe Eastern Europe 2015
 Czech Republic 0.75 79 Europe Eastern Europe 2015
 Hungary 1.48 146 Europe Eastern Europe 2014
 Poland 0.74 286 Europe Eastern Europe 2015
 Moldova 3.19 130 Europe Eastern Europe 2014
 Romania 1.49 291 Europe Eastern Europe 2015
 Russia 11.31 16,232 Europe Eastern Europe 2015
 Slovakia 0.88 48 Europe Eastern Europe 2015
 Ukraine 4.36 1,988 Europe Eastern Europe 2010
 Denmark 0.99 56 Europe Northern Europe 2015
 Estonia 3.20 42 Europe Northern Europe 2015
 Finland 1.60 88 Europe Northern Europe 2015
 Iceland 0.91 3 Europe Northern Europe 2015
 Ireland 0.64 30 Europe Northern Europe 2015
 Latvia 4.11 81 Europe Northern Europe 2015
 Lithuania 5.98 172 Europe Northern Europe 2015
 Norway 0.56 29 Europe Northern Europe 2014 notes
 Sweden 1.15 112 Europe Northern Europe 2015
 United Kingdom 0.92 594 Europe Northern Europe 2014
 Albania 2.28 117 Europe Southern Europe 2015
 Andorra 0.00 0 Europe Southern Europe 2015
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.50 57 Europe Southern Europe 2015
 Croatia 0.87 37 Europe Southern Europe 2015
 Greece 0.85 93 Europe Southern Europe 2015
 Italy 0.78 469 Europe Southern Europe 2015
 Kosovo 1.60 30 Europe Southern Europe 2015
 Malta 0.96 4 Europe Southern Europe 2015
 Montenegro 2.72 17 Europe Southern Europe 2015
 Portugal 0.97 100 Europe Southern Europe 2015
 San Marino 0.00 0 Europe Southern Europe 2011
 Serbia 1.13 100 Europe Southern Europe 2015
 Slovenia 1.21 25 Europe Southern Europe 2015
 Spain 0.66 303 Europe Southern Europe 2015
 Macedonia 1.59 33 Europe Southern Europe 2014
 Austria 0.51 44 Europe Western Europe 2015
 Belgium 1.95 220 Europe Western Europe 2015
 France 1.58 1,017 Europe Western Europe 2015
 Germany 0.85 682 Europe Western Europe 2015
 Liechtenstein 0.00 0 Europe Western Europe 2015
 Luxembourg 0.72 4 Europe Western Europe 2014
 Monaco 0.00 0 Europe Western Europe 2008
 Netherlands 0.61 104 Europe Western Europe 2015
 Switzerland 0.69 57 Europe Western Europe 2015
 Australia 0.98 236 Oceania Australasia 2015
 New Zealand 0.91 41 Oceania Australasia 2014
 Fiji 2.97 26 Oceania Melanesia 2012
 New Caledonia (France) 3.29 8 Oceania Melanesia 2009
 Papua New Guinea 10.42 713 Oceania Melanesia 2010
 Solomon Islands 3.77 19 Oceania Melanesia 2008
 Vanuatu 2.13 6 Oceania Melanesia 2015
 Guam (US) 2.49 4 Oceania Micronesia 2011
 Kiribati 7.50 8 Oceania Micronesia 2012
 Marshall Islands 4.68 2 Oceania Micronesia 2013
Templat:Country data Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 4.67 5 Oceania Micronesia 2015
 Nauru 1.31 x Oceania Micronesia 2012
 Palau 3.11 1 Oceania Micronesia 2012
 Cook Islands 3.06 1 Oceania Polynesia 2012
 French Polynesia (France) 0.38 1 Oceania Polynesia 2009
 Niue 3.07 x Oceania Polynesia 2012
 Samoa 3.15 6 Oceania Polynesia 2013
 Tonga 0.95 1 Oceania Polynesia 2012
 Tuvalu 20.28 2 Oceania Polynesia 2012


Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Negara bahagian[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Australia[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Amerika Syarikat[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ The main table in this article uses only the latest homicide data that UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) has published at UNODC Statistics Online. It has some 2013, 2014, and 2015 data for some countries. See the homicide submenu of the Crime and Criminal Justice menu. Click on "Homicide counts and rates (2000-2015)". Choose region or the whole world. Download the PDF or Excel files. Or run the report in your browser. Check the box to open in a new tab so that the table is created without the intrusive sidebar. It takes awhile to load, and there may be no indicator at first. Save the page to save future loading time. The 2013 PDF full report (Global Study on Homicide) has a methodological annex (pages 109ff) and a statistical annex (pages 121ff). The statistical annex has detailed charts for homicide counts and rates by country with data from 2000–2012. Use the "rotate view" command in your PDF reader. Map 7.2 on page 112 is a world map showing the homicide count for each country or territory. Page 21 states estimated total homicides of 437,000 worldwide. Figures 1.1 and 1.2 (pages 21 and 22) have exact rates and counts by regions. Figure 1.3 on page 23 is a bar chart of homicide rates for the subregions. Figure 1.16 on page 34 shows timeline graphs by subregion.
  2. ^ Richards, Patsy (27 May 1999). "Homicide statistics, research paper 99/56" (PDF). London, UK: House of Commons of the United Kingdom library, Social and general statistics section.  See page 7 for section called "Definition of the offence of homicide". See page 29 for table of nations and homicide rates for the years 1994-97. It also has further info on how homicide is defined across countries.
  3. ^ Harris, Anthony R.; Stephen H. Thomas; Gene A. Fisher; David J. Hirsch (May 2002). "Murder and medicine: the lethality of criminal assault 1960–1999" (fee required). Homicide studies. 6 (2): 128–166. doi:10.1177/1088767902006002003. 
  4. ^ Fry, Don. Believing the news. ISBN 978-0-935742-11-4. 
  5. ^ Vizzard, William J. Shots in the dark. ISBN 978-0-8476-9560-7. 
  6. ^ Global Burden of Armed Violence Report (PDF) (report). Geneva, Switzerland: Geneva Declaration Secretariat. September 2008. m/s. 67ff. ISBN 978-2-8288-0101-4. data from 2004-2007 . The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.
  7. ^ Intentional homicide count and rate per 100,000 population, by country/territory (2000-2012). Data (in spreadsheet format) for UNODC report titled "Global Study on Homicide 2013". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Linked from Global Study on Homicide - Data: UNODC Homicide Statistics 2013
  8. ^ 2011 Global Study on Homicide: Trends, Contexts, Data. "data from 2010 or latest available year". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Vienna, Austria.
  9. ^ Dearden, Jack; Jones, Warwick (PDF). Homicide in Australia: 2006-07 National Homicide Monitoring Program annual report (Laporan). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. m/s 113. http://www.aic.gov.au/documents/0/B/6/%7B0B619F44-B18B-47B4-9B59-F87BA643CBAA%7Dfacts11.pdf.
  10. ^ Homicide Statistics: 2011 Australian Government report (Laporan). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. http://www.aic.gov.au/statistics/homicide.aspx. Diperolehi 2016-02-15.
  11. ^ (PDF) Recorded Crime-Victims (Laporan). Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics. http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/990A014955F3818DCA2577360017E331/$File/45100_2009.pdf. Diperolehi 2016-02-15.
  12. ^ "Canada Summary Tables". Statistics Canada. Dicapai 2016-12-03. 
  13. ^ Murder rate for 2015 and 2016 calculated with statistics provided by the National System of Public Security and the 2015 Census published by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography. "2015 Census". National Institute of Statistics and Geography. Dicapai 28 April 2017. 
  14. ^ Murder rate for 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 calculated with statistics provided by the National System of Public Security and the 2010 Census published by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography. "2010 Census". National Institute of Statistics and Geography. Dicapai 28 April 2017. 
  15. ^ "Ordinary Crime Statistics 2010" (PDF). National System of Public Security. Dicapai 28 April 2017. 
  16. ^ "Ordinary Crime Statistics 2011" (PDF). National System of Public Security. Dicapai 28 April 2017. 
  17. ^ "Ordinary Crime Statistics 2012" (PDF). National System of Public Security. Dicapai 28 April 2017. 
  18. ^ "Ordinary Crime Statistics 2013" (PDF). National System of Public Security. Dicapai 28 April 2017. 
  19. ^ "Ordinary Crime Statistics 2014" (PDF). National System of Public Security. Dicapai 28 April 2017. 
  20. ^ "Ordinary Crime Statistics 2015" (PDF). National System of Public Security. Dicapai 28 April 2017. 
  21. ^ "Ordinary Crime Statistics 2016" (PDF). National System of Public Security. Dicapai 28 April 2017. 
  22. ^ "State-by-state and National Crime Estimates by Year(s)". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Dicapai 2016-02-15. 
  23. ^ "UNODC Homicide Statistics". Universidad de Puerto Rico. 
  24. ^ "Homicide Trends 2003–2008". UNODC. Dicapai 2016-02-15. 

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