Sistem sekolah asrama peribumi Kanada

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Indigenous children working at long desks
Anak-anak peribumi dalam suatu kelas di Sekolah Asrama Indian Katolik Rom di Fort Resolution, NWT

Sistem sekolah asrama masyarakat peribumi Kanada (Inggeris: Indian residential school system,[1] Perancis: pensionnats indiens[2]) merupakan rangkaian sekolah asrama yang diwajibkan ke atas masyarakat-masyarakat peribumi asli serata Kanada[5] dibiayai Jabatan Hal Ehwal Indian kerajaan negara tersebut bersama pihak gereja-gereja Kristian dengan tujuan menyingkirkan budaya anak-anak peribumi ini sambil mengasimilasikan mereka ke dalam budaya Kanada yang dominan keEropahan.[6][7][8] :42

Selama lebih dari seratus tahun keberadaan sistem ini, sekitar 150,000 kanak-kanak ditempatkan di sekolah kediaman di seluruh negara.[9] :2–3 Menjelang tahun 1930-an, sekitar 30 peratus kanak-kanak peribumi asli dipercayai bersekolah asrama.[10] Jumlah kematian yang berkaitan dengan sekolah masih belum diketahui kerana rekod yang tidak lengkap; sebanyak antara 3,200 hingga lebih dari 30,000 orang anak kecil yang dianggarkan terkorban akibat layanan dalam sistem ini.[11][12][13]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Indian has been used because of the historical nature of the article and the precision of the name. It was, and continues to be, used by government officials, Indigenous peoples and historians while referencing the school system. The use of the name also provides relevant context about the era in which the system was established, specifically one in which Indigenous peoples in Canada were homogeneously referred to as Indians rather than by language that distinguishes First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples. Use of Indian is limited throughout the article to proper nouns and references to government legislation.
  2. ^ Miller, J. R. (10 Oktober 2012). "Pensionnats indiens au Canada". L'Encyclopédie canadienne. Historica Canada. Dicapai pada 1 Julai 2021.
  3. ^ "14.12 Elimination of Racial and Ethnic Stereotyping, Identification of Groups". Translation Bureau (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Public Works and Government Services Canada. 2017. Dicapai pada April 30, 2017.
  4. ^ McKay, Celeste (April 2015). "Briefing Note on Terminology". University of Manitoba. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada October 25, 2016. Dicapai pada April 30, 2017.
  5. ^ Indigenous has been capitalized in keeping with the style guide of the Government of Canada.[3] The capitalization also aligns with the style used within the final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada and the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. In the Canadian context, Indigenous is capitalized when discussing peoples, beliefs or communities in the same way European or Canadian is used to refer to non-Indigenous topics or people.[4]
  6. ^ "The Residential School System". Indigenous Foundations. UBC First Nations and Indigenous Studies. Dicapai pada April 14, 2017.
  7. ^ Luxen, Micah (June 24, 2016). "Survivors of Canada's 'cultural genocide' still healing". BBC. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada July 25, 2016. Dicapai pada June 28, 2016.
  8. ^ Milloy, John S. (1999). A National Crime: The Canadian Government and the Residential School System 1879–1986. University of Manitoba Press. ISBN 0-88755-646-9.
  9. ^ "Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future: Summary of the Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada" (PDF). National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. May 31, 2015. Dicapai pada 30 May 2021.
  10. ^ "Residential Schools Overview". University of Manitoba. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada April 20, 2016. Dicapai pada April 14, 2017.
  11. ^ Tasker, John Paul (May 29, 2015). "Residential schools findings point to 'cultural genocide', commission chair says". CBC News. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada May 18, 2016. Dicapai pada July 1, 2016.
  12. ^ Smith, Joanna (December 15, 2015). "Truth and Reconciliation Commission's report details deaths of 3,201 children in residential schools". Toronto Star. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada August 26, 2016. Dicapai pada November 27, 2016.
  13. ^ Moran, Ry (October 5, 2020). "Truth and Reconciliation Commission". The Canadian Encyclopedia.