Tajul muluk

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Tajul muluk atau ilmu tajul merujuk kepada suatu sistem geomansi yang pernah diamalkan dalam kalangan masyarakat Melayu di kedua-dua negara Malaysia dan Indonesia zaman dahulu, Para dukun atau bomoh yang mengamalkan sistem ini menerapkan prinsip-prinsip metafizikal dan geomantik dalam merancang tapak pembangunan dan/atau pembinaan di atas bangunan tersebut.

Latar belakang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama ilmu ini datangnya daripada suatu buku yang dituliskan untuk kaum kerabat kesultanan Aceh iaitu Taj-al-Mulk (Bahasa Arab: تاج المُلْك‎ - "mahkota raja-raja"). Ia turut mendapat nama sebagai ilmu tajul muluk atau ilmu tajul sahaja.

Sejarah berkaitan asal-usul ilmu ini tidak pernah dicatakan namun ia diperhatikan mempunyai unsur-unsur budaya India boleh difahamkan sebagai hasil pengaruh Hindu-Buddha semasa agama-agama itu tersebar luas dan dipegang kuat dalam kerajaan-kerajaan Asia Tenggara pada zaman dahulu. Ada yang percaya ia dipengaruhi vastu sastra atau feng shui yang pernah diamalkan secara tradisi di Semenanjung Melayu.

Walter William Skeat, seorang pegawai kerajaan British dalam bukunya Malay Magic ("Sihir Melayu", 1900) menulis bahawa amalan ilmu tajul sering diamalkan penduduk tempatan (sekurang-kurangnya pada zamannya):

Even in the making of roads through the forest it would appear that sacrificial ceremonies are not invariably neglected. On one occasion I came upon a party of Malays in the Labu jungle who were engaged in making a bridle-track for the Selangor Government. A small bamboo censer, on which incense had been burning, had been erected in the middle of the trace ; and I was informed that the necessary rites (for exorcising the demons from the trace) had just been successfully concluded.[1]

Naiknya kesedaran pendidikan agama dalam kalangan masyarakat Asia Tenggara pada tahun 1980s-an menyebabkan sesetengah ciri budaya Melayu yang berakar daripada kepercayaan animistik dan Hindu-Buddha semakin ditegah dan dilupakan. Amalan tajul muluk kini dianggap sebagai suatu perkara khurafat lama, malah buku-buku berkaitan topik adakalanya diharamkan terbitannya di Malaysia.

Peraturan dan syarat[sunting | sunting sumber]

Jenis tanah yang ditentukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Untung atau balanya tanah sesebuah tapak rumah bergantung kepada beberapa faktor iaitu warna, rasa dan bau. auspiciousness of a location is determined by the colour, taste and smell of the soil, as well as the formation of its surface. In general, the colours of the soil from best to worst are white, red, yellow, grey and black (the Malay language also categorizes brown as a shade of yellow). Soil which is greenish-yellow, fragrant and tart-tasting will ensure an abundance of gold and silver unto the third generation. If the soil is red and sour, the dweller will be loved by their family. White soil with a sweet smell and taste is said to bring wealth and happiness. Foul-smelling earth of the wrong colour and texture will bring sickness and poverty. Soil that is full of holes will cause the occupants to die poor.

Ciri permukaan tanah juga dipertimbangkan: tanah rata sesuai untuk pembinaan rumah, kota ataupun dusun manakala tanah yang berbukit atau berlubang ditegah sama sekali. Sebaik-baik permukaan tanah kononnya ialah tanah yang rendah pada sebelah utara dan tinggi di sebelah selatan yang dipercayai membawa keamanan kepada penghuni rumah. Tanah yang rendah di barat dan tinggi di tumur juga dianggap memabwa tuah. Tanah yang tidak didudukkan pada kawasan berarah sedemikian dipercayai akan membawa kemiskinan dan kematian. Rumah yang mencondong dari kawasan barat daya dikatakan akan menyebabkan penghuni rumah kehilangan sara hidup, rumah yang mencondong dari barat pula dipercayai membawa maut kepada tuan rumah. Rumah yang mencondong dari barat dipercayai akan menyebabkan penghuni rumah membazir habis harta mereka.[2]

Upacara pendudukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sebaik sahaja tapak binaan dibersihkan, dukun atau bomoh mula membakar kemenyan bagi mengasapi persekitaran. Dia kemudiannya memotong buluh berukuran sedepa yang dicacakkan ke dalam tanah bersama setimba air. Kemenyan dibakar lagi sambil beberapa mantera khas dibaca dukun tersebut. Bekas air dan kayu diperiksa pada fajar keesokan harinya - jika baldi tersebut ditumphahkan ataupun batang buluh dipendekkan, maka tapak tersebut dianggap ada bala; jika air bekas itu bertambah sehingga melimpah ruah dan batang buluh dipanjangkan maka kawasan tersebut dianggap membawa tuah. Setelah kawasan binaa yang sesuai telah dibina, sebuah lubang besar dikorek sebagai tapak tiang ibu. Tujuh butir beras dimasukkan ke dalam lubang tersebut besertakan dengan mantera tertentu sebelum tiang seri dimasukkan ke dalam lubang tersebut. If any of the rice grains are missing the next day, the site has negative energy. It is important to note however that an area which is bad for one family may be good for another since the ritual is based on the matriarch's armspan.

Satu cara yang lain melibatkan penfsiran [[mimpi]: dukun meletakkan empat batang kayu di tengah tapak yang sudah dibersihkan lalu menyeru nama mana-mana semangat atau dewa. Dukun mengambil segenggam tanah lalu membacakan mantera berikut:

Hai anak Menteri Guru
Yang duduk empat penjuru alam
Aku memohonkan tanah ini
Jikalau baik, tunjukkan alamat baik
Jikalau jahat, tunjukkan alamat jahat

Tanah yang digenggam ini dibalut dengan kain putih, diasapi kemenyan serta diletakkan di bawah bantal tuan rumah. Dua bait terakhir mantera di atas dibacakan berulang kali sebelum tidur. Jika si penghuni bermimpi buruk, maka rumah tidak boleh dibina atas tapak ini. Jika mimpi baik, maka empat penujur tapak itu dipacakkan dengan kayu. Suatu dahan mati diambil dan dikambuskan dnegan tanah sebelum dibakar. Abu-abu yang terhasil dari pembaakran ini disapu dan ditutup, dengan pembacaan suatu mantera lainnya:

Hai, segala orang yang memegang tanah ini empat penjuru alam
Kama aku hendak berbuat rumah
Jikalau baik, tunjukkan alamat baik
Jikalau jahat, tunjukkan alamat jahat

Abu yang ditutupi itu akan dibuka semula di mana suatu tanda kononnya akan diberikan atas alamat baik atau buruknya tapak rumah yang ingin didirikan.

Mendirikan tiang seri atau tiang ibu[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bangunan dan rumah Melayu lama mempunyai suatu tiang utama di tengah binaan bernama tiang seri di mana ia dipercayai dihuni suatu "semangat rumah"; tiang ini kadangkalanya dihiasi keris pusaka keluarga berbalut kain kuning. The construction of any building begins by digging a hole for this central post, accompanied by the recitation of a charm. The best time of day for this is 7 a.m. The workers must ensure that their shadows do not fall on the hole or on the post itself, or illness will follow. Bahan-bahan tertentu akan dimasukkan ke dalam lubang ini seperti kayu sepang, kayu arang, besi sekerap, timah, duit syiling tembaga, kepala kapak yang patah atau buah keras (buah gorek). Kepala, kakiatau darah haiwan korban turut akan dimasukkan bagi memuaskan jembalang tanah atau puaka yang dikatakan menghuni lubang itu; seekor ayam, kambing atau kerbau akan dikorbankan bergantung kepada tahap "keras"nya semangat hutan yang didekati mereka, namun sebiji telur sahaja sudah cukup jika puaka yang didikati itu kecil. Among the natives of ancient Borneo the victim of this sacrifice would have been human, and the Malay custom of killing an animal for the purpose arose from what was once human sacrifice. As recently as the beginning of the 20th century, the Malaysian government would bury human skulls under the foundation of any large structure.

A number of methods are used to ascertain whether the hole is in a propitious location. In one example a white cup is filled with water, fumigated with incense, and left in the hole overnight. If the cup is still full the next day or has live insects inside, it is a good sign. If the insects are dead or the water has lessened, it is a bad omen. Alternatively, one could wait until everyone has left the area before picking up three clods of soil, holding them over incense, and reciting a certain mantera or mantra. The soil must be taken home without ever turning to look back. Upon arrival, the earth is placed under the occupant's pillow before sleeping. If they have a bad dream, one of the clods is thrown away. This process continues until it results in a good dream, when the clod of earth which induced the dream is placed in the hole and serves as the tiang seri pole's foundation.

Suatu mantera akan dibacakan ketika tiang seri didirikan, sebagai contoh:

Hai Raja Guru, Maharaja Guru, daripada tajar menyenseng Engkaulah anak Betara Guru Hai hantu tanah, benah tanah Aku tahu asal kau jadi: Jembalang tanah Daripada kilat sabung-menyabung Undur kau dari sini ke laut yang dalam Aku tahu asal kau jadi: Ke rimba yang sunyi Daripada embun setitik Antara aku dengan engkau, aku tahu asal kau jadi

Length of the threshold[sunting | sunting sumber]

As with the Chinese bagua and the guardians of Jambudvipa in Indian culture, Malay astrology and geomancy also uses eight points of divination. Known as the "eight beasts", each one corresponds to an animal possessing its own characteristics. The eight beasts regulate the length of a house's threshold. This is measured in a unit called depa, the length of the house-mistress's armspan. After measuring off a depa on a piece of string, the string is folded into three before one-third of its length is cut off. The remainder is folded into eight and reduced to one-seventh. The remaining seventh is checked against the threshold's length, and the number of times it is contained therein determines which animal it corresponds to. If the measurement is unlucky, the threshold would be cut shorter. The ominous significance of the eight beasts is often illustrated in rhyme. An example, recorded by Walter William Skeat,[1] reads as follows:

1.Dragon
"A dragon of bulk, a monster dragon
Is this dragon that turns round month by month
Wherever you go you will be safe from stumbling-blocks
And all who meet you will be your friends"
2. Dairy cow
"There is the smoke of a fire in the forest
Where Che Ali is burning lime
They were milking the young dairy-cow
And in the midst of the milking it sprawled and dropped dead"
3. Lion
"Lion of courage, lion of valour
Is the lion gambolling at the end of the Point
The luck of this house will be lasting
Bringing prosperity from year to year"
4. Dog
"The wild dog, the jackal
Barks at the deer from night to night
Whatever you do will be a stumbling-block
In this house men will stab one another"
5. Cow
"The big cow from the middle of the clearing
Has gone to the deep forest to calve there
Great luck will be your portion
Never will you cease to be prosperous"
6. Donkey
"The ass within the fort
Carries grass from morn to eve
Whatever you pray for will not be granted
Though big your capital, the half will be lost"
7. Elephant
"The king's big riding-elephant
Has its tusks covered with amalgam
Good luck is your portion
No harm or blemish will you suffer"
8. Crow
"A black crow soaring by night
Has perched on the house of the great Magic Prince
Great indeed is the calamity which has happened
Within the house its master lies dead"
Binatang yang delapan
English Malay
Dragon Naga The luckiest of the beasts
Dairy-cow Sapi The house's owner will die
Lion Singa The owner will be safe and wealthy
Dog Anjing Occupants will argue with each other
Drought-cow Lembu The owner will be rich and held in high regard by others
Donkey Keldai Owner won't be able to hold onto money, and wishes won't materialize
Elephant Gajah The owner will be successful in all their endeavors
Crow Gagak Worst of luck. Brings sickness, loss and death

House height[sunting | sunting sumber]

The rules of a house's height are also determined by the matriarch's armspan. Ideally the main pillar should be a round number (e.g. 5 depa) but the actual measurement usually contains a fraction (e.g. five and two-persepuluh depa). Depending on the amount of extra length, there would be a different result.

House height rules (petua tinggi rumah)
Fraction of extra height Istilah khusus
Satu persepuluh depa tinggal tangga The house will always be relocated
Dua persepuluh depa asap kelam Indicates sadness or illness
Tiga persepuluh depa singa sempurna Brings blessings
Empat persepuluh depa anjing kekurangan Occupants will constantly argue with each other
Lima persepuluh depa kuda ketinggian Someone will reach a high post
Enam persepuluh depa gagak kepatukan Indicates sickness or death
Tujuh persepuluh depa harimau pahlawan The son will be a warrior
Lapan persepuluh depa naga keperbuan Wards off hardship and illness
Sembilan persepuluh depa neraca timbangan Someone will become village leader
Angka genap ular cintamani Great luck, named after a legendary snake believed to bring good fortune

Malay village houses were built so that they could be disassembled and rebuilt when the situation demanded it such as war, floods or famine. Some have noted that these rules consider the number four unlucky, just as in Chinese superstition.

Direction of the door[sunting | sunting sumber]

The direction that the house's door faces is also said to play a part in determining the occupants' well-being. The worst direction for the door to face is south, which brings bad career luck. A door which faces the west is said to bring knowledge or encourages the coming of someone well-learned, especially in matters of religion. This is probably a reference to the fact that foreigners, particularly the Indian Muslims who introduced Islam in the region, sailed to the Malay Peninsula from the west. A door that faces east ensures many grandchildren and a life of tranquility. A north-facing door brings wealth.

See also[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Walter William Skeat (1965). Malay Magic: Being an introduction to the folklore and popular religion of the Malay Peninsula. Frank and Cass, Co Ltd.
  2. ^ Roland Werner (2002). Royal Healer.