Toman Iran

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Toman Iran
Toman
Iran AH1314 (c.1896) 10 Toman.jpg
Syiling emas 10 toman, 1314H (s. 1896M), menggambarkan Mozaffar ad-Din, shah dinasti Qajar
Jenis mata wang
Subunit
 ​110000Dinar (bekas)
 ​110Deman
Wang kertas
 Kerap digunakan1,000; 2,000; 5,000; 10,000; 50,000; dan 100,000
Duit syiling
 Kerap digunakan15, ​12, 1, 2, 5, 10, dan 25
Pengguna Iran
Pengeluaran
Bank pusatIran
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Toman Iran (Bahasa Parsi: تومان‎, translit. tomān, disebut [tomɑn]; daripada bahasa Mongolia tomen 'unit sepuluh ribu',[1][2][a] lihat unit tersebut dipanggil tumen) ialah superunit mata wang rasmi Iran, rial. Satu toman sama dengan sepuluh ten rial. Walaupun rial mata wang rasmi, rakyat Iran menggunakan toman dalam kehidupan harian.[8]

Pada asalnya, toman terdiri daripada 10,000 dinar. Antara tahun 1798 dengan tahun 1825, toman juga dipecah bagi kepada lapan rial, setiap 1,250 dinar. Pada tahun 1825, qiran diperkenalkan, bernilai 1,000 dinar atau satu persepuluh toman.

Pada tahun 1932, rial diganti dengan qiran pada tara, dengan 1 toman sama dengan 10 rial. Pada 7 Disember 2016, kerajaan Iran meluluskan panggilan oleh bank pusat Iran untuk mengganti rial Iran dengan denominasi toman yang lebih dikenali dalam bahasa percakapan dan sejarah.[9] Pada awal 2019, berikutan hiperinflasi rial, bank pusat membuat suatu usul baru, mencadangkan mata wang tersebut didenominasikan semula dengan memperkenalkan toman baru dengan nilai 10,000 rial.[8]

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  1. ^ Menurut Lee Ki-moon, seorang profesor linguistik di Universiti Kebangsaan Seoul, perkataan 'Tumen' dijumpai dalam bahasa Altaik (sebuah keluarga bahasa yang diusulkan, kini dilihat meluas sebagai diragui)[3][4][5][6] ialah "sudah pasti pinjaman daripada bahasa-bahasa Tocharia".[7]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Fragner, Bert (1986). "Social and Internal Economic Affairs". Dalam Jackson, Peter; Lockhart, Laurence (para penyunting). The Cambridge History of Iran (Vol. 6). Cambridge University Press. m/s. 557. ISBN 978-0521200943. The unit of reckoning was the Tūmān (from the Mongol Tümen, i.e. 10,000), the equivalent of 10,000 dīnārs.
  2. ^ Album, Stephen; Bates, Michael L.; Floor, Willem (1992). "COINS AND COINAGE". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VI, Fasc. 1. halaman 14–41. (...) of Transoxania (near modern Dushanbe), for 1,000 Tomans (Tūmān or "Toomān"< Mong. Toman “10,000,” originally designating a value of 10,000 dinars) of copper coins (Folūs) per year. Missing or empty |title= (bantuan)
  3. ^ "While 'Altaic' is repeated in encyclopedias and handbooks most specialists in these languages no longer believe that the three traditional supposed Altaic groups, Turkic, Mongolian and Tungusic, are related." Lyle Campbell & Mauricio J. Mixco, A Glossary of Historical Linguistics (2007, University of Utah Press), pg. 7.
  4. ^ "When cognates proved not to be valid, Altaic was abandoned, and the received view now is that Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic are unrelated." Johanna Nichols, Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time (1992, Chicago), pg. 4.
  5. ^ "Careful examination indicates that the established families, Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic, form a linguistic area (called Altaic)...Sufficient criteria have not been given that would justify talking of a genetic relationship here." R.M.W. Dixon, The Rise and Fall of Languages (1997, Cambridge), pg. 32.
  6. ^ "...[T]his selection of features does not provide good evidence for common descent" and "we can observe convergence rather than divergence between Turkic and Mongolic languages--a pattern than is easily explainable by borrowing and diffusion rather than common descent", Asya Pereltsvaig, Languages of the World, An Introduction (2012, Cambridge) has a good discussion of the Altaic hypothesis (pp. 211-216).
  7. ^ Ki-moon, Lee. "The Silk Road And The Korean Language". Seoul National University: 5. Lastly, I would like to add a comment on ‘zh-mun’ (thousand) in Middle Korean. This 'zh-mun' is quite similar to the word in Altai languages meaning 'ten thousand.' In Jurchen, 'ten thousand' was called 'tumen.' In 'Yongbi Och'onga' ("eulogy of the foundation of the Yi Dynasty") (1, 8), there is a footnote that ‘ ’ ( tumen) of ' ' (the Tuman river of today) came from the Jurchen word meaning 'ten thousand.' In Manchu, ' ' (ten thousand) is also 'tumen'. These are a borrowing from the Mongolian word ‘tumen' (ten thousand). ‘Tumen’ (ten thousand) was also in Old Turkic. This 'tumen' in these Altaic languages is certainly a borrowing from Tocharian (Clauson 1972). In Tocharian A, there is 'tman,' in Tocharian B 'tmane', 'tumane'. Petikan journal memerlukan |journal= (bantuan)
  8. ^ a b Maziar Motamedi (29 January 2019). "Can a New Currency End Tehran's Economic Woes?". ForeignPolicy.com.
  9. ^ Iran considers currency change

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