Universiti Johns Hopkins
Jika anda ingin menilai rencana ini, anda mungkin mahu menyemak di terjemahan Google. Walaubagaimanapun, jangan menambah terjemahan automatik kepada rencana, kerana ini biasanya mempunyai kualiti yang sangat teruk.
Sumber-sumber bantuan: Pusat Rujukan Persuratan Melayu.
|Moto||Veritas vos Liberabit
Moto dalam bahasa Inggeris
|Kebenaran akan membebaskan anda
(The Truth Will Set You Free)
|Pembiayaan||AS $1.98 bilion|
|Presiden||Ronald J. Daniels|
|Provos||Lloyd B. Minor|
|3,100 (penuh masa)|
|15,000 (penuh masa)|
|Warna||Kencana lama & Sable
Columbia blue & Hitam
|Olahraga||Division I Lacrosse
NCAA Division III
Universiti Johns Hopkins, (bahasa Inggeris: The Johns Hopkins University) adalah sebuah universiti penyelidikan swasta terletak di Baltimore, Maryland, Amerika Syarikat. Johns Hopkins juga mengekalkan kampus sepenuh masa di Maryland, Washington, D.C., Itali, China, dan Singapura. Universiti Johns Hopkins mempunyai hopsital dan sekolah perubatan bergabung. Ia adalah salah satu dari empat belas ahli pengasas Persatuan Universiti Amerika.
Universiti ini dinamakan bersempena Johns Hopkins, yang meninggalkan $7 juta dalam wasiat 1873nya untuk mengasas universiti dan Hospital Johns Hopkins. Pada waktu itu, ini adalah pewasiatan bersifat dermawan terbesar dalam sejarah A.S., bersamaan $131 juta lebih dalam tahun 2006.[meragukan ] Universiti ini dibuka pada 22 Februari 1876, dengan sasaran tertera "Penggalakan penyelidikan…dan kemajuan cendekiawan individu, yang dengan kecemerlangan mereka akan memajukan sains yang mereka buru, dan masyarakat di mana mereka menghuni."
Johns Hopkins adalah universiti A.S. pertama untuk menggunakan model universiti Jerman dibangunkan oleh Wilhelm von Humboldt dan Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher. Johns Hopkins adalah universiti A.S. pertama untuk mengajar melalui seminar, berbanding hanya melalui syarahan, dan juga universiti A.S. pertama untuk memberikan suatu jurusan prasiswazah (dibandingkan dengan suatu kurikulum seni liberal yang asli). Oleh itu, Johns Hopkins adalah model untuk kebanyakan universiti penyelidikan besar di Amerika Syarikat, khususnya Universiti Chicago. Menurut National Science Foundation (NSF), Johns Hopkins melakukan $1.68 bilion dalam penyelidikan sains, perubatan dan kejuruteraan dalam tahun fiskal 2008. NSF telah menempatan universiti ini #1 di kalangan institusi akademik A.S. dalam jumlah belanja penyelidikan dan pembangunan untuk tahun ke-30 berturut-turut, dan ia di kalangan institusi paling dipetik di dunia.
Pada 2009, Johns Hopkins telah mengijazahkan lime belas pemenang Hadiah Nobel, meletakkan alumninya ke-8 dalam pengeluaran Hadiah Nodel di kalangan universiti Amerika (di belakang Yale dan di hadapan Princeton) dan ke-11 tertinggi di seluruh dunia.[perlu rujukan]
- 1 Sejarah
- 2 Campuses and divisions
- 3 Campus sustainability
- 4 Academics
- 5 Faculty and research
- 6 Johns Hopkins University Press
- 7 Student life
- 8 Notable alumni, faculty and staff
- 9 The university in popular culture
- 10 Galeri gambar
- 11 Rujukan
- 12 Pautan luar
Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]
Gambaran keseluruhan[sunting | sunting sumber]
Universiti Johns Hopkins telah diasaskan pada Januari 22, 1876 oleh para perintis pendidikan yang meninggalkan peranan tradisional kolej Amerika dan forged a new era of modern research universities dengan berfokus pada pengembangan ilmu, penidikan siswazah, dan menyokong penyelidikan fakulti. Presiden pertama universiti adalah Daniel Coit Gilman. Mottonya dalam bahasa Latin adalah Veritas vos liberabit – "Kebenaran akan membebaskan anda."
Asal unsul nama[sunting | sunting sumber]
Nama pertama yang ganjil pendermawan Johns Hopkins adalah nama keluarga nenek moyangnya, Margaret Johns, yang berkahwin dengan Gerard Hopkins. Mereka menamakan anak lelaki mereka Johns Hopkins, dan namanya diwariskan pada cucu lelaki mereka his name, pengasas universiti.
Dalam suatu alamat permulaan pada Kelas 2001 siswazah, presiden universiti William R. Brody telah mempunyai yang berikut untuk mengatakan pasal nama itu: "Pada 1888, hanya 12 tahun selepas universiti diasaskan, Mark Twain mengarang tentang universiti ini dalam sebuah surat ke seorang kawan. Dia berkata: Beberapa bulan yang lalu saya telah diberitahu bahawa Universiti Johns Hopkins telah memberikan asaya sebuah sarjana. Saya swajarnya menganggap ini mendirikan saya seorang Ahli Fakulti, dan oleh itu saya bermula membantu sebanyak mungkin. Saya memberitahu mereka saya mempercayai mereka adalah secara sempurna layak untuk menjalan sebah kolej sejauh cadang-cabang lebih tinggi pendidikan dikhuatiri, tetapi apa yang mereka memerlukan adalah sedikit bantuan si dan sana dari seorang komersial yang beramal. Saya berkata orang ramai adalah sensitive dengan sedikit benda, dan mereka tidak mempunyai keyakinan dalam sebuah kolej yang tidak tahu mengeja nama . Lebih dari sekurun kemudian, kita berterusan More than a century later, we continue to bestow diplomas upon individuals of outstanding capabilities and great talent. And we continue to spell Johns with an 's' ".
Milton Eisenhower, a president of the university, was once invited to speak to a convention in Pittsburgh. Making a common mistake, the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as "President of John Hopkins." Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh."
Early years[sunting | sunting sumber]
In 1873 Johns Hopkins, a childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland. At that time this fortune, generated primarily from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States. The new board searched the nation for appropriate models of higher education, however finding none to their liking, they opted for an entirely different model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level. It owed its inspiration not to America's higher educational system but to that of contemporary Germany.
By following the Germanic university example, the board moved higher education in the United States away from a focus on teaching either revealed or applied knowledge to a concentration on research, the scientific discovery of new knowledge. This made Johns Hopkins the genesis of the modern research university in the United States. The university was intended to be national in scope for a country divided in the aftermath of the American Civil War. Therefore, the university's official inauguration took on great significance: 1876 was the nation's centennial year and February 22 was George Washington's birthday.
The Gilman period[sunting | sunting sumber]
Johns Hopkins viability depended on the board of trustees' choice for the first president, Daniel Coit Gilman, who had been recruited away from the presidency of the University of California. Gilman launched what many at the time considered to be an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and research. He dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusive: "The best teachers are usually those who are free, competent, and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," he stated. To implement his educational plan, Gilman recruited internationally known luminaries such as the biologist Henry Newell Martin; the Greek scholar Basil Gildersleeve; the classicist Charles D. Morris; the economist Richard T. Ely; and the chemist Ira Remsen, who became the second president of the university in 1901.
Gilman thus abandoned the traditional roles of the American college and forged a new era of modern research universities by focusing on the expansion of knowledge, graduate education, and support of faculty research. To Gilman, Johns Hopkins existed not for the sake of God, the state, the community, the board, the parents, or even the students, but for knowledge. Therefore, faculty who expanded knowledge were rewarded. Coupled with this focus was the concentration on graduate education and the fusion of advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineering. Hopkins consequently became the national trendsetter in doctoral programs and the host for numerous scholarly journals and associations with the founding of the first university press in 1878. With the completion of the Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889 followed by the opening of the medical school in 1893, the university's research focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of academic medicine, including William Osler, William Halsted, Howard Kelly, and William Welch. During this period Hopkins also made history by becoming the the first medical school to admit women on an equal basis as men and require a Bachelors degree to gain enterance, based on the efforts of Mary E. Garrett who had also endowed the school at Gilman's request.
In his will and in the instructions that he gave to the trustees of the university and the hospital, Johns Hopkins requested that both institutions be built upon the vast grounds of his Baltimore estate, Clifton. When Daniel Coit Gilman assumed the presidency of the university, he decided that it was more important to use the university's endowment for other purposes, such as recruiting faculty and students, than for the construction of buildings for the two institutions, and declared that it was more important to "build men, not buildings." Also, in his will Johns Hopkins stipulated that none of the money he left behind should be used for the construction of buildings, only interest incurred from the principal could be used for this purpose. Unfortunately, stocks in The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from which most of the interest would have been generated became virtually worthless soon after Hopkins's death because of mismanagement in the company. Therefore the university's first home was in Downtown Baltimore and plans were made to move the university to Clifton in the future. Gilman's decision to not locate the university where Hopkins wanted became the only major criticism of his presidency. In the early 1900s the university outgrew the buildings available to it and the trustees began to search for a new home. Developing the entirety of Clifton for the university was out of the financial reach of the university at the time, and Johns Hopkins' beautiful estate was bought for one million dollars by the city and became a public park. In the end, the 140-acre estate in north Baltimore known as Homewood was purchased as the university's new campus with assistance from prominent Baltimore citizens.
Civil rights[sunting | sunting sumber]
During his lifetime Johns Hopkins was a prominent abolitionist who supported Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. After his death Johns Hopkins' memory was reported to be a decisive factor in opening the doors of Johns Hopkins University to both its first African American student, a graduate student in physics, astronomy and mathematics, Kelly Miller, and the first three African American physicians to Maryland's Medical and Chirurgical Society MedChi. Harvard trained physician Whitfield Winsey was the first African American member of this organization and of another local medical society that later merged with it. These physicians could attend meetings because meetings were held on Johns Hopkins' campus. As the memory of Johns Hopkins waned and trustees like King died, the institutions he endowed became more like so many other institutions in the city where Johns Hopkins had made his wealth, particularly in terms of race. On March 15, 1892, it is stated in the Johns Hopkins University chronology that an administrator hired by Gilman recommended that the hospital should have a "separate ward for colored patients". Johns Hopkins Hospital subsequently became a segregated facility. Yet, Johns Hopkins' separate but equal stance was still evident when it came to these segregated wards: "Special care will be taken to see that the heating and ventilation apparatus is as perfect as possible. A sun balcony will be erected on each floor on the east side, for convalescents, while a sun bay-window will be constructed at the south end of the south wing. On each floor there will be a dining room, kitchen, lavatory and bath-rooms...The building will be fireproof throughout."
As segregation began to be increasingly reflected within the Johns Hopkins institutions, it affected pay, hiring and promotions and until today patients in these segregated wards and those employed in the lower rungs of the service industries have the longest and most continuous history within the Johns Hopkins Institutions. Johns Hopkins' students, physicians, administrators and staff of African descent have a much shorter history within these institutions, and most are still living today, including the first African undergraduate, Frederick Scott and one of the two first graduates of the medical school, "British-trained Nigerian", James Nabwangu. He and an African-American, Robert Gamble, graduated in 1967.
The first African American instructor, laboratory supervisor was Vivien Thomas who also invented and developed research instruments, served as an assistant in surgery to surgeon Alfred Blalock, and worked closely with Blalock and Helen Taussig in developing and conducting the first successful blue baby operation. The doors of the Johns Hopkins Institutions, and of Maryland's state medical societies were largely closed to students and professionals of African descent until after the 1940s, and more so, the 1960s and 1970s. African Americans and women were labeled "The Uninvited" in the second major history of Johns Hopkins University.
Women's rights[sunting | sunting sumber]
The most well known struggle of women was that led by daughters of trustees of the university, Mary E. Garrett, M. Carey Thomas, Mamie Gwinn, and Elizabeth King, and Julia Rogers. They donated funds, undertook the effort in raising the funds needed to open the medical school, and required Hopkins' officials to agree to their stipulation that women would be able to obtain a medical education at Hopkins. Still this stipulation did not apply to the rest of the schools at the university founded over a decade earlier. Other graduate schools were eventually opened to women by the university's second president Ira Remsen in 1907 despite the fact that in 1882 Christine Ladd-Franklin had already met the requirements for her PhD in mathematics (the first woman to do so in any subject at Hopkins), though the trustees had denied her the degree and had refused to change the policy about admitting women at the time; her degree was consequently awarded to her in 1926, 44 years later. In 1889, the nursing school opened and accepted women and men as students and in 1893 Florence Bascomb became the university's first female Ph.D.
The decision to admit of women at undergraduate level however was not considered until the late 1960s. The policy change was eventually implemented in October 1969, and in the fall of 1970, 90 female students, five of them African Americans, become undergraduates at Johns Hopkins University. In the academic year 1970–1971, 4.7% of students in the Arts and Sciences programs were women. In the year 1985–1986 the proportion of female students in the Arts and Sciences programs had increased to around 38%. Currently, the undergraduate population is 47% female and 53% male.
Modern times[sunting | sunting sumber]
Hopkins is known for a range of ground breaking programs. The Johns Hopkins University Press, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press in continuous operation. Along with the hospital, Hopkins established one of the nation's oldest schools of nursing in 1889. The school of medicine was the nation's first coeducational, graduate-level medical school and the prototype for academic medicine which emphasized bedside learning, research projects, and laboratory training. In 1909, the university was among the first to start adult continuing education programs and in 1916 it founded the first school of public health in the country. Programs in international studies and the performing arts were established in 1950 and 1977 when the Nitze School of Advanced International Studies in Washington D.C and the Peabody Institute in Baltimore became divisions of the university.
In terms of leadership, the legacy begun by Gilman has continued among the university's presidents through the years. Among them, Milton S. Eisenhower, brother of Dwight Eisenhower, led Johns Hopkins during the 1950s and 1960s when the university's income tripled, endowment doubled, ambitious building projects were undertaken, and strong ties with Washington, D.C. were developed. Because of his contributions, Eisenhower was one of two men named President Emeritus. Steven Muller, who served as president from 1972 until 1990, is the only other one awarded this title - and along with Gilman is one of two to be named president of both the Johns Hopkins Hospital and the university.
Though privately endowed, Johns Hopkins University embodies what Clark Kerr calls the "federal grant university", as it is often the most prolific in federal research and development expenditures. This also shows the priorities of federal grant authorities, as the school's humanities programs do not attract research funding commensurate with that attracted by medicine, public health, engineering, and physics;[petikan diperlukan] despite this, programs in the humanities are still highly ranked. The huge infusion of federal funding aids the university in supplementing its educational presence in Baltimore with the economic role of being the city's single largest employer.
Campuses and divisions[sunting | sunting sumber]
|Main Campuses & Divisions|
(Medical Institutions Campus)
|Downtown Baltimore||Washington D.C.||Laurel, Maryland|
|School of Arts and Sciences
|School of Education
|School of Engineering
|School of Nursing
|School of Medicine
|School of Public Health
|School of Business
|School of Advanced International Studies
|Applied Physics Laboratory
Homewood[sunting | sunting sumber]
The original main university campus was in downtown Baltimore City. However, this location did not permit room for growth and the trustees began to look for a place to move. Eventually, they would relocate to the estate of Charles Carroll of Carrollton and Homewood House, a wedding gift from Charles to his son Charles Jr.
The park-like main campus of Johns Hopkins, Homewood, is set on 140 acres (0.57 km²) in the northern part of Baltimore. The architecture was modeled after the Georgian-inspired Federalist style of Homewood House. Most newer buildings resemble this style, being built of red brick with white marble trim, but lack the details. Homewood House was later used for administrative offices but now is preserved as a museum.
As a part of the donation, Hopkins was required to donate part of the land for art. As a result, the Baltimore Museum of Art, which is not part of the university, is situated next to the University's campus, just south-east of Shriver Hall.
The Decker Gardens, bordered by the Greenhouse, Nichols House and the Johns Hopkins Club, were originally known as the Botanical Gardens and were used by members of the Department of Biology to grow plants for research. By the early 1950s, the gardens no longer served an educational purpose, and in 1958, when Nichols House was built as the president's residence, they were completely re-landscaped with aesthetic criteria in mind. In 1976, the gardens were done over again, and named for trustee Alonzo G. Decker, Jr. and members of his family in appreciation for their generosity to Hopkins.
The statue in the middle of the pool, the Sea Urchin, was sculpted by Edward Berge. It stood in Mount Vernon Place, near the Washington Monument, for 34 years before being replaced by a 7'10" copy, which fit in better with its monumental surroundings. Frank R. Huber, the man who left the city the money to make the copy, asked that the original be given to Paul M. Higinbotham, who donated it to the university. North of the campus, also on Charles Street, we find the Evergreen House, one of Hopkins' museums.
In 1997, the university purchased the vacant 200,000 square foot former Eastern High School, immediately across from Memorial Stadium on East 33rd Street, one mile east of Homewood. It reopened in 2001, largely occupied by administrative offices.
A second campus expansion called Charles Commons was completed in September 2006, is located across Charles St from Homewood, at 33rd Street between Charles and St. Paul Streets. The approximately 350,000 kp (33,000 m2) development includes housing for approximately 618 students, with supporting amenity spaces; a central dining facility and specialty dining area with seating capacity of approximately 330; an approximately 29,000 kp (2,700 m2). Book store run by Barnes and Noble College Division.
The Decker Quadrangle development constitutes the last large building site on the contiguous Homewood campus of the Johns Hopkins University, making it the most important project on campus since the development of the two original quadrangles. In this first phase, the project includes a visitors and admissions center, a computational sciences building , and an underground parking structure, creating a new quadrangle, south of Garland Hall, named in honor of Alonso G. and Virginia G. Decker. Importantly, the project establishes a new public entrance for the campus and recognizes the potential for future growth of campus activities sited across Wyman Park Drive.
Recently, the university announced a $73 million renovation of Gilman Hall, the academic centerpiece of the Homewood Campus. The renovation will include updating all classrooms in the building, as well as a full replacement of the infrastructure of the building. Gilman hall, superficially renovated in the 1980s will now include a movie theater and a large atrium, with a glass roof. The atrium will have a sky-walk from the entrance of the building to the Hutzler Undergraduate Reading Room and will contain the university's premier archaeological collection. The project is slated for completion for the 2010–2011 academic year.
In early December 2008, the Trustees proposed the construction of a new library costing $30 million. The new structure will augment the existing library, a 185,000-square-foot facility built in 1964 and partially renovated in 1998 that will for the most part not change. The design firm for the project has not been selected, but university officials hope to complete the project by 2012.
The Johns Hopkins University, working with Collegetown Development Alliance, a joint venture team composed of Struever Brothers, Eccles & Rouse and Capstone Development recently teamed up to develop a mixed use project featuring student housing, a central dining facility and a major campus book store.
Divisions[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences: Located at the university’s Homewood campus, the Krieger School is the core institution of the university and offers undergraduate and graduate programs, with more than 60 undergraduate majors and minors and more than 40 full-time and part-time graduate programs.
- G.W.C. Whiting School of Engineering: The Whiting School is located on the main Homewood campus of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, and offers undergraduate and graduate engineering programs.
- School of Education: Originally established in 1909 as The School of Professional Studies in Business and Education, the divisions of Education and Business became separate schools in 2007.
East Baltimore (medical institutions)[sunting | sunting sumber]
The campus in East Baltimore and is home to the School of Medicine, the Bloomberg School of Public Health, and the School of Nursing. Collectively known as Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (JHMI) campus, it comprises several city blocks spreading from the original Johns Hopkins Hospital building and its trademark dome. The School of Medicine is associated with clinical practice at Johns Hopkins Hospital.
Divisions[sunting | sunting sumber]
- School of Medicine: The School of Medicine is based at the university's Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore with Johns Hopkins Hospital. The School of Medicine is widely regarded as one of the best medical schools and biomedical research institutes in the world.[petikan diperlukan]
- School of Nursing: The School of Nursing, is located in East Baltimore and is affiliated with Johns Hopkins Hospital and the School of Medicine.
- Bloomberg School of Public Health: The Bloomberg School was founded in 1916, is the first and largest public health school in the world. It has consistently been ranked the number one school of public health by U.S. News & World Report.
Downtown Baltimore[sunting | sunting sumber]
Downtown Baltimore is home to the Peabody Conservatory of Music located on East Mount Vernon Place and the main campus of the Carey Business School located on Charles Street.
Divisions[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Carey Business School: The Carey Business School was established in 2007, incorporating divisions of the former School of Professional Studies in Business and Education.
- Peabody Institute: founded in 1857, is the oldest continuously active music conservatory in the United States; it became a division of Johns Hopkins in 1977. The Conservatory retains its own student body and grants its own degrees in musicology, though both Hopkins and Peabody students may take courses at both institutions.
Washington, D.C.[sunting | sunting sumber]
The Washington, D.C. campus on Massachusetts Avenue includes one of the main divisions of the university, the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) and branches of the Krieger School of Arts and Sciences (Advanced Academic Programs) and the Carey Business School.
Division[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) is located in the Washington D.C. campus near Dupont Circle. SAIS is devoted to international studies, particularly international relations, diplomacy, and economics. SAIS has full-time international campuses in Bologna, Italy and Nanjing, China. Founded in 1943, SAIS became a part of the university in 1950. In a 2005 survey 65% of respondents ranked SAIS as the nation's top Master's Degree program in International Relations.
Laurel, Maryland[sunting | sunting sumber]
Division[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL): The APL specializes in research for the U.S. Department of Defense, NASA and other government and civilian research agencies. It has developed more than 100 biomedical devices, many in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. It is also linked to the Space Telescope Science Institute located on the Homewood campus which controls, analyzes, and collects data from the Hubble Space Telescope.
Domestic[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Columbia, Maryland Center (Branches of The Carey Business School and The School of Education)
- Montgomery County, Maryland Campus (Offers part-time Programs in Biosciences, Engineering, Business & Education)
- Washington, D.C. (Branches of The Carey Business School and The Krieger School of Arts and Sciences' Advanced Academic Programs (AAP))
International[sunting | sunting sumber]
- The SAIS Bologna Center, Italy
- The SAIS Hopkins-Nanjing Center for Chinese and American Studies, China
- Yong Siew Toh Conservatory of Music (Collaboration between the Peabody Institute and the National University of Singapore)
Campus sustainability[sunting | sunting sumber]
Johns Hopkins University has implemented a significant number of sustainability initiatives. Energy retrofits in certain buildings have resulted in energy conservation of over 50 percent. Carbon emissions are currently being inventoried and electric vehicles are used for some campus transportation needs. Dining services managers prioritize the purchasing of locally sourced produce and seafood, and organic food is being integrated into the menu. In addition, the smaller cafés around campus sell exclusively organic, shade-grown coffees. There is currently a small pilot composting program on the undergraduate campus. The University is currently pursuing LEED certification for several new and existing buildings. Retrofits include a green roof deck, experimentation with waterless urinals and low-flow shower heads, and upgraded fluorescent lighting that has reduced lighting load on one campus by over 40 percent. Similar lighting retrofits are underway at all other campuses. In 2004, one campus completed a water conservation retrofit that annually saves over eight million gallons of water. The university's students have also contributed significantly to several environmental initiatives including, setting up the JHU recycling program, hosting a national "Greening" conference, launching a transportation shuttle service between campuses, and making the campus more bike-friendly. In 2009, the Sustainable Endowments Institute named Johns Hopkins a Campus Sustainability Leader on its College Sustainability Report Card with a grade of "A-", the highest grade awarded.
Academics[sunting | sunting sumber]
Johns Hopkins is a large, highly-residential, majority post-graduate research university. The full-time, four year undergraduate program is "most selective" with low transfer-in and a high graduate co-existence. The university is one of fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities (AAU); it is also a member of the Consortium on Financing Higher Education (COFHE) and the Universities Research Association (URA).
Student body[sunting | sunting sumber]
Johns Hopkins U. received 1,155 Early Decision (First choice) applications in the 2009-2010 cycle, up more than 10% from the previous year.  JHU received 16,006 total applications for the 2008–2009 academic year. The undergraduate programs enrolled 4,591 students and granted 1,464 degrees in 2007. 14,848 students applied for admissions to the undergraduate program for the 2007–2008 academic year, 3,603 were admitted (24%), and 1,206 enrolled (33%). 82% of admitted students graduate in the top tenth of their high school class and the inter-quartile range on the SAT reading was 660-760, math was 690-780, and writing was 670-760. 97% of freshmen rematriculated after the first year, 84% of students graduated in 4 years and 91% graduated in 6 years.
Rankings[sunting | sunting sumber]
The 2009 The Global University Ranking (GUR) ranked Johns Hopkins #9 worldwide.
For medical and public health research U.S. News and World Report ranked the School of Medicine #2 and has consistently ranked the Bloomberg School of Public Health #1 in the nation. The School of Nursing was ranked #4 nationally among peer institutions. The Times Higher Education Supplement ranked Johns Hopkins University #3 in the world for biomedicine and life sciences. Hopkins ranks #1 nationally in receipt of federal research funds and the School of Medicine is #1 among medical schools in receipt of extramural awards from the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Although no formal rankings exist for International Relations, a study conducted by the Institute for the Theory and Practice of International Relations at the College of William & Mary examined graduate international relations programs throughout the United States, interviewing over 1,000 professionals in the field, with the results subsequently published in the November/December 2005 issue of Foreign Policy magazine. One of study's questions asked: "What do you consider the top five terminal masters programs in international relations for students looking to pursue a policy career?" From the study, 65% of respondents named Johns Hopkins University-SAIS as being the top-ranked program. SAIS received the most votes, followed by Georgetown (Walsh), Harvard (Kennedy), Tufts (Fletcher), and Columbia (SIPA). In 2007, Foreign Policy magazine produced the same study, and while SAIS remained one of the top-ranked programs, it moved to second position as Georgetown (Walsh) received the most votes.
The university's graduate programs in the areas of Art History, Biological & Biomedical Sciences, Engineering (Biomedical, Electrical & Environmental), Human Development & Family Studies, Health Sciences, Humanities, Political Theory, Physical & Mathematical Sciences and International Affairs & Development all rank among the top-10 of their respective disciplines.
Libraries[sunting | sunting sumber]
The Johns Hopkins University Library system houses more than 3.6 million volumes. It includes ten main divisions: the Sheridan Libraries at Homewood, the Medical Institutions Libraries, the School of Nursing Library, Abraham M. Lilienfeld Library at the Bloomberg School, the Peabody Institute Library, the Carey Business School and School of Education libraries, the School of Advanced International Studies Libraries (Sydney R. and Elsa W. Mason Library and Bologna Center Library), the R.E. Gibson Library at the Applied Physics Laboratory Library and other minor satellite locations, as well as the archives.
The Milton S. Eisenhower Library (called "MSE" by students), located on the Homewood campus, is the main library. It houses over 2.6 million volumes and over 20,000 journal subscriptions. The Eisenhower Library is a member of the university's Sheridan Libraries encompassing collections at the Albert D. Hutzler Reading Room (called "The Hut" by students) in Gilman Hall, the John Work Garrett Library at Evergreen House, and the George Peabody Library at Mount Vernon Place. Together these collections provide the major research library resources for the university, serving Johns Hopkins academic programs worldwide. The library was named for Milton S. Eisenhower, former president of the university and brother of former U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower.
Only two of the MSE library's six stories are above ground; the rest are beneath, though architects designed the building so that every level has windows and natural light. The design accords with a bit of traditional campus lore which says no structure on campus can be taller than Gilman Hall, the oldest academic building. There is no written rule regarding building height, however, and the library's design was chosen for architectural and aesthetic reasons when it was finally built in the 1960s. In December 2008, it was announced that a new addition would be constructed directly to the south of the MSE library. The six-and-a-half-story expansion will be named the Brody Learning Commons in honor of University President William R. Brody and will function as a "collaborative learning space". It is scheduled to be completed by 2012.
Faculty and research[sunting | sunting sumber]
Johns Hopkins has a very high level of research activity. The opportunity to be involved in important research is one of the distinguishing characteristics of an undergraduate education at Johns Hopkins. About 80 percent of the university's undergraduates engage in some form of independent research during their four years, most often alongside top researchers in their fields. Johns Hopkins receives more dollars in federal research grants than any other university in the United States. Thirty-three (33) Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the university as alumni or present or former faculty members. It boasts a wide spectrum in terms of its academic strengths, particularly in art history, biological and natural sciences, biomedical engineering, creative writing, English, history, economics, international studies, medicine, music, neuroscience, nursing, political theory, public health, public policy, and the Romance languages.
Between 1999 and 2009, Johns Hopkins was among the most cited institutions in the world. Having attracted nearly 1,222,166 citations and producing 54,022 papers under its name, it ranks #3 globally behind Harvard University and Max Planck Society with the highest total citations to their papers published in Thomson Reuters-indexed journals over all 22 fields in the database in America.
In FY2000, Johns Hopkins received $95.4 million dollars in research grants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), making it the leading recipient of NASA funding for research and development. In FY2002, Hopkins became the first university to cross the $1 billion threshold on either list, recording $1.14 billion in total research and $1.023 billion in federally sponsored research that year. To date, no other institution has reached that mark. In FY2008 Johns Hopkins University performed $1.68 billion in science, medical and engineering research, making it the leading U.S. academic institution in total R&D spending for the 30th year in a row, according to a the National Science Foundation (NSF) ranking. The university also ranked #1 on the NSF's separate list of federally funded research and development, spending $1.42 billion in FY2008 on research supported by such agencies as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), NASA, the NSF and the Department of Defense.
Institusi dan Pusat Kajian[sunting | sunting sumber]
Johns Hopkins University Press[sunting | sunting sumber]
The Johns Hopkins University Press is the publishing division of the Johns Hopkins University. It was founded in 1878 and holds the distinction of being the oldest continuously running university press in the United States. To date the Press has published more than 6,000 titles and currently publishes 65 scholarly periodicals and over 200 new books each year. Since 1993, the Johns Hopkins University Press has run Project MUSE, a large online collection of over 250 full-text, peer-reviewed journals in the humanities and social sciences. The Press also houses the Hopkins Fulfilment Services (HFS), which handles distribution for a number of university presses and publishers. Taken together, the three divisions of the Press - Books, Journals (including MUSE) and HFS - make it one of the largest of America's university presses.
Student life[sunting | sunting sumber]
The blueprints for a new programming board called The Hopkins Organization for Programming ("The HOP") were drawn up during the summer and fall of 2006.
In addition Charles Village, the region of North Baltimore surrounding the university, has undergone several restoration projects, and the university has gradually bought the property around the school for additional student housing and dormitories. The Charles Village Project, scheduled for completion in 2008, brought new commercial spaces to the neighborhood. The project included Charles Commons, a new, modern residence hall that includes a Barnes & Noble and a Starbucks. A Chipotle Mexican Grill and Starbucks have moved in, and the university itself has installed a new Einstein Bros. Bagels franchise in Charles Street Market.
Hopkins has also invested heavily in improving campus life for its students with creation in 2001 of an arts complex, the Mattin Center; and a three-story sports facility, the O'Connor Recreation Center. The large on-campus dining facilities at Homewood were renovated in the summer of 2006, and the caterer was switched from Sodexho to Aramark.
Hopkins has also advertised the "Collegetown" atmosphere it shares with neighboring institutions, including Loyola College, UMBC, Goucher College, and Towson University, as well as the proximity of downtown Baltimore's Inner Harbor.
The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender student organization, The Diverse Sexuality and Gender Alliance, affectionately called DSAGA, at Hopkins is well known. Annually DSAGA organizes and oversees the Awareness Days Program. This program is a series of events and speakers with the focus on LGBTA inclusivity and awareness.
Annually, the Johns Hopkins Spring Fair is held on the homewood campus over a three day weekend in mid to late April. Food, arts and crafts, and non-profit vendors, along with a popular musical act and various other activities attract nearly 25,000 people from the greater Baltimore-Washington area. The Spring Fair is planned and run entirely by Johns Hopkins students, making it the largest entirely student-run fair in the country.
Housing[sunting | sunting sumber]
On-campus housing is required for all freshmen and sophomores at Johns Hopkins, with exceptions for commuter students who live close to campus. Juniors and seniors typically reside off-campus in nearby apartments or row houses. Housing is not guaranteed for all four years at Johns Hopkins.
Freshmen housing is centered around Freshman Quad which consists of three major residence hall complexes: The Alumni Memorial Residences (AMR I and AMR II), Building A and Building B. AMR I was built in 1923 and AMR II in 1954, dedicated to Hopkins Alumni who died in World Wars I and II. Together they are divided into fourteen houses: Adams, Baker, Clark, Gildersleeve, Griffin, Hollander, Jennings, Lazear, Royce, Sylvester, Vincent, Willard, Wilson and Wood. The first eight houses can be found in AMR II and the last six in AMR I. While each house has its own entrance from outside, there are no dividers indoors that distinguish the houses from one another. In 1983, Buildings A and B were added to Freshmen Quad. To date, they have not yet been dedicated.
Freshmen are also housed in Wolman Hall on the other side of North Charles Street from Homewood. Sophomores are housed in McCoy Hall, across the street from Wolman Hall. Both buildings were previously apartment buildings that were bought by the university during the 1960s when enrollment at Johns Hopkins drastically increased. Both were refurbished in 1991 so that their initial capacity was more than doubled.
Sophomores may also live in the University owned Bradford Apartments, Homewood Apartments, or the Charles Commons Building, the university housing building which was officially opened in 2006. Charles Commons is a building complex reserved entirely for upperclassmen on 33rd Street, between North Charles and St. Paul Street. It is comprised of two towers connected by a bridge and houses 618 students and it includes a ballroom, laundry room, exercise facility, game room and lounges. On the ground floor of Charles Commons is the Johns Hopkins University Bookstore and the Homewood Branch of the Federal Credit Union. The opening of Charles Commons was seen as an important step toward insuring housing for juniors and seniors who want it.
Whenever there is an overflow of students who are required to live in on-campus housing, several buildings on North Charles Street are leased out by the university. At full capacity, all of Johns Hopkins dormitory buildings can house approximately 60% of undergraduates. Fortunately, there are many privately-owned apartment buildings around Homewood that are usually filled with Hopkins upperclassmen, so despite the lack of university-owned dormitories, housing is not particularly difficult to attain.
The University does not provide any Greek housing, though most fraternities maintain private residences off-campus.
Fraternities and Sororities[sunting | sunting sumber]
The Johns Hopkins University Office of Greek Life recognizes thirteen fraternities and seven sororities, which include as members approximately 20% of the student body. Greek life has been a part of the University culture since 1877, when Beta Theta Pi fraternity became the first Greek letter organization to form a chapter on campus. Sororities did not begin colonizing at Hopkins until 1982.
As of Fall 2009, 769 students were active members of one of the Johns Hopkins University fraternities or sororities and the All-Greek Average GPA was 3.29, above the average GPA for all Johns Hopkins University Undergraduates.
All Johns Hopkins fraternities and sororities belong to one of four Councils: the North-American Interfraternity Conference, the National Panhellenic Conference, the National Pan-Hellenic Council and the Multicultural Council.
The Inter-Fraternity Council includes eleven fraternities:
- ΑΔΦ - Alpha Delta Phi fraternity, chapter founded 1889.
- ΑΕΠ - Alpha Epsilon Pi fraternity, Psi chapter founded 1996. Jewish interest.
- ΒΘΠ - Beta Theta Pi fraternity, Alpha Chi chapter founded 1877.
- ΛΦΕ - Lambda Phi Epsilon fraternity, chapter founded 1994. Asian-American interest.
- ΦΔΘ - Phi Delta Theta fraternity, Maryland Delta chapter founded 2009.
- FIJI - Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, Beta Mu chapter founded 1891.
- ΦΚΨ - Phi Kappa Psi fraternity, Maryland Alpha chapter founded 1879.
- ΠΚΑ - Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity, Iota Tau chapter founded 1994.
- ΣΑΕ - Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity, chapter founded 1994.
- ΣΧ - Sigma Chi fraternity, Kappa Upsilon chapter founded 2002.
- ΣΦΕ - Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity, Maryland Alpha chapter founded 1929.
The National Panhellenic Conference includes three sororities:
- ΑΦ - Alpha Phi sorority, Zeta Omicron chapter founded 1982.
- ΚΚΓ - Kappa Kappa Gamma sorority, Eta Epsilon chapter founded 1999.
- ΦM - Phi Mu sorority, Gamma Tau chapter founded 1982.
The National Pan-Hellenic Council includes two historically African-American groups:
- ΑΦΑ - Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity, Sigma Sigma chapter, unknown founding date.
- ΣΓP - Sigma Gamma Rho sorority, chapter founded 2009.
The Multicultural Council includes four groups:
- αΚΔΦ - alpha Kappa Delta Phi sorority, associate chapter founded 1997. Asian-American interest.
- ΔΞΦ - Delta Xi Phi sorority, Lambda chapter founded 2003. Multicultural interest.
- INΔ - Iota Nu Delta fraternity, chapter founded 2008. South Asian interest.
- ΣΟΠ - Sigma Omicron Pi sorority, Lambda chapter founded 2002. Asian-American interest.
Delta Phi Fraternity, also known as St. Elmo's, maintains a chapter exclusive to students at Johns Hopkins, though it is not recognized by the University's Office of Greek Life.
Recruitment for Inter-Fraternity Council and Panhellenic Conference fraternities and sororities takes place during the spring semester for freshmen, though some groups recruit upperclassmen during the fall semester. All students who wish to participate in Recruitment must have completed one semester in college and must be in good academic standing. National Pan-Hellenic and Multicultural fraternities and sororities may recruit freshmen in the fall semester.
Many of the fraternities maintain houses off campus, but none of the sororities do. There are unconfirmed press reports of a state "Brothel Law" prohibiting the cohabitation of more than eight women which may pose a barrier to such all-female housing units. The Johns Hopkins News-Letter even reported the existence of such a law in 2001. Snopes.com reports that such laws do not exist. Only Sigma Phi Epsilon owns a residence officially zoned by the City of Baltimore for use as a fraternity house.
Student publications[sunting | sunting sumber]
Hopkins has many publications that are produced entirely by students. The Johns Hopkins News-Letter, founded in 1896, is the oldest continuously published weekly college newspaper in the nation. The Hopkins Donkey is a political newspaper with a Democratic perspective on international, national and state-wide political topics. The Carrollton Record is a political newspaper with an American conservative perspective on campus and city-wide politics. Epidemic Proportions is the university's public health research journal, designed to highlight JHU research and field work in public health. Combining research and scholarship, the journal seeks to capture the breadth and depth of the JHU undergraduate public health experience. Thoroughfare, Zeniada and j.mag are literary magazines. Prometheus is the undergraduate philosophy journal. Frame of Reference is an annual magazine that focuses on film and film culture. The New Diplomat is the multi-disciplinary international relations journal. Foundations is the undergraduate history journal. Américas is the Latin American Studies journal. Argot is the undergraduate anthropology journal. The Triple Helix is the university's journal to address issues concerning science, law and society.
The Black & Blue Jay is among the nation's oldest campus humor magazines. It was founded in 1920. According to The Johns Hopkins News-Letter, it was the magazine's name which led the News-Letter to first use the moniker Blue Jays to refer to a Hopkins athletic team in 1923. While the magazine enjoyed popularity among students, it received repeated opposition from the university administration, reportedly for its vulgar sense of humor. In October 1934, Dean Edward R. Berry removed financial support for the magazine; without funding, the magazine continued under the name The Blue Jay until Berry threatened to expel the editors in 1939. The magazine had a revival in 1984, and has published intermittently since then.
Notable alumni, faculty and staff[sunting | sunting sumber]
Nobel laureates[sunting | sunting sumber]
As of 2009, there have been 33 Nobel Laureates affiliated with the University. Johns Hopkins considers laureates who attended the university as undergraduate students, graduate students or were members of the faculty as affiliated laureates. Woodrow Wilson, who received his Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins in 1886, was the first Johns Hopkins-affiliated laureate, winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919. Four Nobel Prizes were shared by Johns Hopkins laureates: George Minot and George Whipple won the 1934 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser won the 1944 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith won the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Eighteen Johns Hopkins laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, more than any other category. Twenty-three laureates were members of the Johns Hopkins faculty, five laureates received their Ph.D. at Johns Hopkins, eight laureates received their M.D. at Johns Hopkins, and two laureates, Francis Peyton Rous and Martin Rodbell, received their undergraduate degrees at Johns Hopkins.
Presidents of the university[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Daniel Coit Gilman, May 1875 - August 1901
- Ira Remsen, September 1901 - January 1913
- Frank Goodnow, October 1914 - June 1929
- Joseph Sweetman Ames, July 1929 - June 1935
- Isaiah Bowman, July 1935 - December 1948
- Detlev Bronk, January 1949 - August 1953
- Lowell Reed, September 1953 - June 1956
- Milton S. Eisenhower, July 1956 - June 1967
- Lincoln Gordon, July 1967 - March 1971
- Milton S. Eisenhower, March 1971 - January 1972
- Steven Muller, February 1972 - June 1990
- William C. Richardson, July 1990 - July 1995
- Daniel Nathans, June 1995 - August 1996
- William R. Brody, August 1996 - February 2009
- Ronald J. Daniels, March 2009 - Present
The university in popular culture[sunting | sunting sumber]
Galeri gambar[sunting | sunting sumber]
|Wikimedia Commons mempunyai media berkaitan: Universiti Johns Hopkins.|
Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Setakat 30 Jun 2009. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2009 Endowment Market Value and Percentage Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2008 to FY 2009" (PDF). 2009 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments. National Association of College and University Business Officers. Dicapai pada 11 Februari 2010.
- "At a Glance". Johns Hopkins University. Dicapai pada 2009-04-15.
- "Hopkins Admissions". Johns Hopkins University. 2007-03-05. Dicapai pada 2009-04-15.
- jhu.edu (2007). "Nobel Prize Winners". Dicapai pada 2009-06-11.
- "A Brief History of JHU". The Johns Hopkins University. Dicapai pada 2009-08-28.
- "On Campus: Johns Hopkins University". The Baltimore Sun. Dicapai pada 2009-11-14.
- "Johns Hopkins Magazine". Johns Hopkins University. 2007. Dicapai pada 2009-01-01.
- "Mengikuti jejak Universiti Johns Hopkins di Baltimore, 15 institusi A.S. datang untuk mentakrifkan universiti penyelidikan A.S. ..."
Arizona State University president Michael Crow (2002). "Inaugural Address: "A New U.S. University"". Arizona State University. Dicapai pada 2009-08-28. Parameter
|month=tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan)
- "Johns Hopkins First in R&D Expenditures for 30th Year". Johns Hopkins University. Dicapai pada 2009-10-06.
- "2009 The Most-Cited Institutions Overalll, 1999-2009". ScienceWatch.com. 2009. Dicapai pada 2009-09-17.
- Headlines@Hopkins. "Commencement 2001". Dicapai pada 2007-02-14.
- Laura Vozzella (2006-12-15). "Cheesecake on the Tart Side". The Baltimore Sun. Dicapai pada 2007-01-10.: "University spokesman Dennis O'Shea checked with Ross Jones, who was Eisenhower's assistant. And Jones confirmed it... Ross told O'Shea: 'I remember him telling me about it first thing after he got back. He was tickled with himself for picking up on it so quickly with that response. And then it became a legend! He would love the fact that it still has legs.'"
-  Medicine in Maryland 1752-1920
- http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/hmn/w98/sea.html In a Sea of White Faces
- http://www.jhu.edu/~jhumag/1107web/women2.html "A Timeline of Women at Hopkins"
- http://members.ucan-network.org/jhu | U-CAN: Johns Hopkins University :: Page 1
- "OnlineEastern HS Renovations in Full Swing". The Gazette. The Johns Hopkins University. November 6, 2000, VOL. 30, NO. 10.
- "Computational Science and Engineering Building (CSEB)". Johns Hopkins University. Dicapai pada 2007-10-27.
- "Johns Hopkins to Renovate Gilman Hall". Johns Hopkins University. Dicapai pada 2007-04-14.
- "Johns Hopkins Announces Learning Commons". Johns Hopkins University. Dicapai pada 2008-12-12.
- "Krieger School of Arts & Sciences". Johns Hopkins University. 2006. Dicapai pada 2006-12-06.
- "U.S. News & World Report: Best Public Health Graduate Schools Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. 2008. Dicapai pada 2009-01-17.
- Peterson, Susan; Michael J. Tierney, Daniel Maliniak (2005). "Teaching and Research Practices, Views on the Discipline, and Policy Attitudes of International Relations Faculty at U.S. Colleges and Universities" (PDF). Petik menggunakan parameter
|coauthors=dikecam (bantuan); Parameter
|month=tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan)The study's results also appeared in Foreign Policy (magazine) Nov/Dec 2005.
- "2008 JHU Sustainability Initiatives". Johns Hopkins University. 2008. Dicapai pada 2008-05-25. Ralat petik: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "2008_JHU_Sustainability_Initiatives" defined multiple times with different content
- "2007 National Sustainability Report" (PDF). Endowments Institute of America. 2007. Dicapai pada 2007-01-24.
- "College Sustainability Report Card 2009". Sustainable Endowments Institute. Dicapai pada 2009-06-19.
- "Carnegie Classifications - Johns Hopkins University". Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Dicapai pada 2008-12-05.
- "Applicants Apply in Record Numbers". Johns Hopkins University. 2009–20010. Dicapai pada 2009-01-05.
- "Common Data Set" (PDF). Johns Hopkins University. 2007–2008. Dicapai pada 2008-12-05.
- "Top 200 World Universities". Times Higher Education. 2008. Dicapai pada 2008-12-24.
- "Top 500 World Universities". Shanghai Jiao Tong University. 2009. Dicapai pada 2009-11-18.
- "America's Best Colleges 2009: National Universities Rankings". U.S. News and World Report. 2009. Dicapai pada 2009-08-20.
- "America's Best Graduate Schools 2007: Top Medical Schools". Dicapai pada 2006-08-28.
- "U.S. News & World Report: Best Public Health Graduate Schools Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. 2009. Dicapai pada 2009-01-17.
- "U.S. News & World Report: Best Nursing Graduate Schools Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. 2008. Dicapai pada 2009-01-17.
- "Top Universities QS World University Rankings 2008: Life Sciences and Biomedicine". Times Higher Education. 2008. Dicapai pada 2009-03-09.
- "Johns Hopkins University Facts at a Glance". JHU. 2009. Dicapai pada 2008-04-12.
- "2007 Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index: Johns Hopkins University". The Chronicle of Higher Education. 2006. Dicapai pada 2009-01-17.
- "FSP Index Top Performing Individual Programs". Academic Analytics. 2008. Dicapai pada 2008-12-22.
- "American Library Association Fact Sheet". ALA. 2007. Dicapai pada 2007-04-26.
- "Johns Hopkins Gazette". Johns Hopkins University. 2008. Dicapai pada 2008-12-26.
- "Johns Hopkins News Release - JHU". Johns Hopkins University. 2001. Dicapai pada 2007-01-01.
- The Johns Hopkins University: Nobel Prize Winners
- "JHU #1 recipient of [[NASA]] research grants: "Dollars From Heaven: NASA-funded research small but vital"". Johns Hopkins University. Dicapai pada 2009-06-25. Konflik URL–pautanwiki (bantuan)
- "About the Press". Johns Hopkins University Press. Dicapai pada 14 January 2006.
- "Charles Commons". Dicapai pada 2006-08-07.
- Turning, Robert (2010). "Greek Grade Information, Fall 2009". Office of Student Development and Programming, Johns Hopkins University. Dicapai pada 2010-02-17.
- Patnaik, Payal (2009-04-16). "Theta to be disbanded indefinitely". Johns Hopkins News-Letter. Dicapai pada 2009-05-21.
- Saxe, Lindsay (2001-09-14). "A Strange Law Exists in Maryland". Johns Hopkins News-Letter. Dicapai pada 2006-11-22.
- Mikkelson, Barbara (2003-10-07). "House of the Writhing Son". Snopes.com. Dicapai pada 2006-11-22.
- “With the publication of the first of The Black and Blue Jay in November 1920“
Sean DiGiovanna; Wendell O'Brien & Charlene Mendoza. "Records of The Black and Blue Jay/The Blue Jay". The Ferdinand Hamburger Archives, The Milton S. Eisenhower Library. Dicapai pada 2006-08-07. Petik menggunakan parameter
- Kwon, Yong (1997-09-25). "Where did they get that darn Blue Jay?". The Johns Hopkins News-Letter. Dicapai pada 2006-08-07.
- Krut-Landau, Raphael (2006-11-02). "The Black and Blue Jay returns to campus with a vengeance". The Johns Hopkins News-Letter.
- "Nobel Prize Winners". Johns Hopkins University. Dicapai pada 2009-03-14.
- "Nobel Peace Prize 1919". Nobel Foundation. Dicapai pada 2009-01-24.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934". Nobel Foundation. Dicapai pada 2009-03-13.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944". Nobel Foundation. Dicapai pada 2009-03-13.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978". Nobel Foundation. Dicapai pada 2009-03-13.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981". Nobel Foundation. Dicapai pada 2009-03-13.