Wanita penghibur

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Wanita penghibur
Nama bahasa Cina
Tulisan Cina Tradisional慰安婦
Tulisan Cina Ringkas慰安妇
Nama bahasa Jepun
Kanji慰安婦
Hiraganaいあんふ
Nama alternatif bahasa Jepun
Kanji従軍慰安婦
Nama bahasa Korea
Hangul위안부
Hanja慰安婦

Wanita penghibur merujuk kepada wanita dan gadis yang dipaksa menjadi hamba seks oleh Tentera Darat Imperial Jepun di wilayah diduduki tentera tersebut sebelum dan sepanjang berlakunya Perang Dunia Kedua.[1][2][3]

Nama "para wanita" adalah terjemahan dari Jepun ianfu (慰安婦),[4] eufemisme untuk "pelacur(s)".[5] Anggaran berbeza tentang berapa banyak wanita yang terlibat, dengan nombor yang terdiri dari serendah 20,000 (oleh Jepang sejarah Ikuhiko Kesilapan[6]) untuk setinggi 360,000 410,000 (oleh seorang ulama Cina[7]); perangkaan yang tepat sedang diteliti dan masih diperdebatkan.[8] Kebanyakan wanita ini datang dari negara-negara yang diduduki, termasuk Korea, China, dan Filipina.[9] Kaum wanita turut digunakan dalam "stesen keselesaan" dari Burma, Thailand, Indochina Perancis, Tanah Melayu, Taiwan, Hindia Timur Belanda, Timor Portugis dan lain-wilayah yang diduduki pihak Jepun di Asia Pasifik.[10][11][12] Terdapat juga segelintir wanita asal Eropah telah juga terlibat dari Belanda[13] dan Australia dengan anggaran 200-400 dari Belanda itu sendiri.[14]

Menurut wawancara dengan saksi, wanita-wanita muda diculik dari rumah mereka di negara-negara jajahan Jepun. Dalam banyak kasus, ada daripada kaum ini juga ditipu dengan janji-janji kerja di kilang-kilang atau restoran-restoran; sekali diambil, mereka telah dipenjarakan di stesen keselesaan dalam negara mereka dan di luar negara.[15]

Antara mangsa yang dikenali[sunting | sunting sumber]

Beberapa mangsa perhambaan ini telah memberanikan diri menceritakan nasib mereka :-

  • Hindia Belanda – Jan Ruff O'Herne (1923–); Ellen van der Ploeg (1923-2013)[16]
  • KoreaKil Won-ok (ja) (1928–); Kim Hak-Sun(1924-1997);[17] Lee Yong-su (1929–);[18] Sing Sin-Do (1922–);[19] Yoo Hee-nam (1927–)[20]
  • Filipina – Rosa Henson (1927-97); Pemulihan Felias (1928–)[21]
  • Taiwan – Liu Huang A-tao (1923-2011)[22]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ The Asian Women's Fund. "Who were the Comfort Women?-The Establishment of Comfort Stations". Digital Museum The Comfort Women Issue and the Asian Women's Fund. The Asian Women's Fund. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada August 7, 2014. Dicapai August 8, 2014. 
  2. ^ The Asian Women's Fund. "Hall I: Japanese Military and Comfort Women". Digital Museum The Comfort Women Issue and the Asian Women's Fund. The Asian Women's Fund. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada March 15, 2013. Dicapai August 12, 2014. The so-called 'wartime comfort women' were those who were taken to former Japanese military installations, such as comfort stations, for a certain period during wartime in the past and forced to provide sexual services to officers and soldiers. 
  3. ^ Argibay, Carmen (2003). "Sexual Slavery and the Comfort Women of World War II". Berkeley Journal of International Law. 
  4. ^ Soh, C. Sarah (2009). The Comfort Women: Sexual Violence and Postcolonial Memory in Korea and Japan. University of Chicago Press. m/s. 69. ISBN 0-226-76777-9. It referred to adult female (fu/bu) who provided sexual services to "comfort and entertain" (ian/wian) the warrior... 
  5. ^ Fujioka, Nobukatsu (1996). 污辱の近現代史: いま、克服のとき [Attainder of modern history] (dalam bahasa Japanese). Tokuma Shoten. m/s. 39. 慰安婦は戦地で外征軍を相手とする娼婦を指す用語(婉曲用語)だった。 (Ianfu was a euphemism for the prostitutes who served for the Japanese expeditionary forces outside Japan) 
  6. ^ Asian Women's Fund, halaman 10–11
  7. ^ Huang, Hua-Lun (2012). The Missing Girls and Women of China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: A Sociological Study of Infanticide, Forced Prostitution, Political Imprisonment, "Ghost Brides," Runaways and Thrownaways. McFarland. m/s. 206. ISBN 0-7864-8834-4. Although Ianfu came from all regions or countries annexed or occupied by Japan before 1945, most of them were Chinese or Korean. Researchers at the Research Center of the Chinese Comfort Women Issue of Shanghai Normal University estimate that the total number of comfort women at 360,000 to 410,000. 
  8. ^ Rose 2005, halaman 88
  9. ^ "Women and World War II – Comfort Women". Womenshistory.about.com. Dicapai March 26, 2013. 
  10. ^ Coop, Stephanie (23 Disember 2006). "Japan's Wartime Sex Slave Exhibition Exposes Darkness in East Timor". Japan Times. Diarkibkan daripada asal pada March 26, 2009. Dicapai 29 Jun 2014. 
  11. ^ YOSHIDA, REIJI (April 18, 2007). "Evidence documenting sex-slave coercion revealed". The Japan Times. Dicapai June 29, 2014. 
  12. ^ Reuters 2007-03-05.
  13. ^ "Documents detail how Imperial military forced Dutch females to be 'comfort women'". Japan Times. 7 October 2013. 
  14. ^ http://www.janbanning.com/comfort-woman-ellen-van-der-ploeg-passed-away/
  15. ^ Yoshimi 2000, halaman 100–101, 105–106, 110–111;
    Fackler 2007-03-06;
    BBC 2007-03-02;
    BBC 2007-03-08.
  16. ^ Jan, Banning. ""Comfort Woman" Ellen van der Ploeg passed away". Jan Banning. Ellen van der Ploeg, 84, from the Netherlands. During World War II, she lived with her family in the former Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). Between 1943 and 1946, date at which she was liberated, Ellen lived in five different internment camps. When she was working in one of the camps, she was turned over to a comfort station by the Imperial Japanese forces. Soldiers would cut her food rationing if she did not work hard enough. They also ignored orders to use condoms, which led to her contracting a venereal disease. 
  17. ^ "Former 'Comfort Women' Hold 1,000th Protest at Japanese Embassy". The Chosun Ilbo. Dicapai 12 September 2013. 
  18. ^ "WWII 'comfort woman' demands apology from Japan". Washington Times. 
  19. ^ "Comfort Woman Film Touches Japan". The Korea Times. Diarkibkan daripada asal pada 26 December 2013. Dicapai 12 September 2013. 
  20. ^ "Former Korean 'comfort woman' prepares lawsuit against Japan". Korea Times. 
  21. ^ "The hidden battle of Leyte : the picture diary of a girl taken by the Japanese military / Remedios Felias". filipinaslibrary.org.ph. FILIPINAS HERITAGE LIBRARY. Dicapai 6 August 2017. 
  22. ^ "Profile: Taiwanese former 'comfort woman' dies before apology". Taipei Times. 2011-09-06. Dicapai 2011-09-22.