Hoki di Sukan Olimpik Musim Panas

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Hoki di Sukan Olimpik Musim Panas
Field hockey pictogram.svg
Badan Pentadbiran
Acara 2 (lelaki: 1; wanita: 1)
Sukan
1896 1900 1904 1908 1912 1920
1924 1928 1932 1936 1948 1952
1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976
1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000
2004 2008 2012 2016 2020
Pemenang pingat

Hoki diperkenalkan di Sukan Olimpik Musim Panas sebagai pertandingan lelaki pada Sukan 1908 di London, dengan enam pasukan termasuk empat dari United Kingdom Great Britain dan Ireland.

Hoki telah dikeluarkan daripada Sukan Olimpik di Sukan 1924 Paris kerana kekurangan struktur sukan antarabangsa. Persekutuan Hoki Antarabangsa (FIH, Fédération Internationale de Hockey) ditubuhkan di Paris tahun itu sebagai tindak balas kepada peninggalan bidang hoki. Untuk hoki lelaki menjadi satu ciri kekal di Sukan Olimpik akan datang, Sukan 1928 di Amsterdam.

Bagi tempoh masa yang panjang, India menguasai Sukan Olimpik, memenangi pingat emas lelaki dalam tujuh daripada lapan Sukan Olimpik 1928-1964.

Sejak tahun 1968, beberapa pasukan dari seluruh dunia telah melihat kejayaan pingat emas pada Sukan Olimpik. Sejak tahun 1968, beberapa negara di Hemisfera Selatan telah memenangi pelbagai pingat dalam hoki lelaki dan wanita, termasuk Australia, New Zealand, Argentina dan Zimbabwe. Sekumpulan utama pasukan dari Hemisfera Utara telah datang dari Belanda dan dari Jerman.

Pada masa ini, Sepanyol telah muncul dalam kejohanan Olimpik lelaki yang paling banyak tanpa berjaya memenangi pingat emas lelaki, setelah memenangi perak tiga kali dalam 1980, 1996, 2008 dan gangsa sekali dalam 1960. Australia sebelum ini bertanding dalam Sukan Olimpik 11 tanpa memenangi emas sebelum berbuka coretan mereka di 2004.


Lelaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ringkasan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tahun Tuan Rumah Perlawanan Akhir Penentuan Tempat Ketiga
Juara Jaringan Naib Juara Tempat Ketiga Jaringan Tempat Keempat
1908
Butiran
United Kingdom
London
Bendera United Kingdom
Great Britain

(England)
8–1 Bendera United Kingdom
Great Britain
(Ireland)
Bendera United Kingdom
Great Britain
(Scotland)
Bendera United Kingdom
Great Britain
(Wales)
[1]
1912 Sweden
Stockholm
Tiada Kejohanan Hoki Tiada Kejohanan Hoki
1920
Butiran
Belgium
Antwerp
Bendera United Kingdom
Great Britain
[2] Bendera Denmark
Denmark
Bendera Belgium
Belgium
[2] Bendera Perancis
Perancis
1924 Perancis
Paris
Tiada Kejohanan Hoki Tiada Kejohanan Hoki
1928
Butiran
Belanda
Amsterdam
Bendera India
India
3–0 Bendera Belanda
Belanda
Bendera Jerman
Jerman
3–0 Bendera Belgium
Belgium
1932
Butiran
Amerika Syarikat
Los Angeles
Bendera India
India
[3] Bendera Jepun
Jepun
Bendera Amerika Syarikat
Amerika Syarikat
[3]
1936
Butiran
Jerman
Berlin
Bendera India
India
8–1 Bendera Jerman
Jerman
Bendera Belanda
Belanda
4–3 Bendera Perancis
Perancis
1948
Butiran
United Kingdom
London
Bendera India
India
4–0 Bendera United Kingdom
Great Britain
Bendera Belanda
Belanda
1–1
(4–1)
(Penalti)
Bendera Pakistan
Pakistan
1952
Butiran
Finland
Helsinki
Bendera India
India
6–1 Bendera Belanda
Belanda
Bendera United Kingdom
Great Britain
2–1 Bendera Pakistan
Pakistan
1956
Butiran
Australia
Melbourne
Bendera India
India
1–0 Bendera Pakistan
Pakistan
Bendera Jerman
Pasukan Bersatu Jerman[4]
3–1 Bendera United Kingdom
Great Britain
1960
Butiran
Itali
Rom
Bendera Pakistan
Pakistan
1–0 Bendera India
India
Bendera Sepanyol
Sepanyol
2–1 Bendera United Kingdom
Great Britain
1964
Butiran
Jepun
Tokyo
Bendera India
India
1–0 Bendera Pakistan
Pakistan
Bendera Australia
Australia
3–2
(Masa tambahan)
Bendera Sepanyol
Sepanyol
1968
Butiran
Mexico
Bandar Mexico
Bendera Pakistan
Pakistan
2–1 Bendera Australia
Australia
Bendera India
India
2–1 Bendera Jerman Barat
Jerman Barat
1972
Butiran
Jerman
Munich
Bendera Jerman Barat
Jerman Barat
1–0 Bendera Pakistan
Pakistan
Bendera India
India
2–1 Bendera Belanda
Belanda
1976
Butiran
Kanada
Montreal
Bendera New Zealand
New Zealand
1–0 Bendera Australia
Australia
Bendera Pakistan
Pakistan
3–2 Bendera Belanda
Belanda
1980
Butiran
Rusia
Moscow
Bendera India
India
4–3 Bendera Sepanyol
Sepanyol
Flag of the Soviet Union
Kesatuan Soviet
2–1 Bendera Poland
Poland
1984
Butiran
Amerika Syarikat
Los Angeles
Bendera Pakistan
Pakistan
2–1
(Masa tambahan)
Bendera Jerman Barat
Jerman Barat
Bendera United Kingdom
Great Britain
3–2 Bendera Australia
Australia
1988
Butiran
Korea Selatan
Seoul
Bendera United Kingdom
Great Britain
3–1 Bendera Jerman Barat
Jerman Barat
Bendera Belanda
Belanda
2–1 Bendera Australia
Australia
1992
Butiran
Sepanyol
Barcelona
Bendera Jerman
Jerman
2–1 Bendera Australia
Australia
Bendera Pakistan
Pakistan
4–3 Bendera Belanda
Belanda
1996
Butiran
Amerika Syarikat
Atlanta
Bendera Belanda
Belanda
3–1 Bendera Sepanyol
Sepanyol
Bendera Australia
Australia
3–2 Bendera Jerman
Jerman
2000
Butiran
Australia
Sydney
Bendera Belanda
Belanda
3–3
(5–4)
(Penalti)
Bendera Korea Selatan
Korea Selatan
Bendera Australia
Australia
6–3 Bendera Pakistan
Pakistan
2004
Butiran
Greece
Athens
Bendera Australia
Australia
2–1
(Masa tambahan)
Bendera Belanda
Belanda
Bendera Jerman
Jerman
4–3
(Masa tambahan)
Bendera Sepanyol
Sepanyol
2008
Butiran
Republik Rakyat China
Beijing
Bendera Jerman
Jerman
1–0 Bendera Sepanyol
Sepanyol
Bendera Australia
Australia
6–2 Bendera Belanda
Belanda
2012
Butiran
United Kingdom
London
Bendera Jerman
Jerman
2–1 Bendera Belanda
Belanda
Bendera Australia
Australia
3–1 Bendera United Kingdom
Great Britain
2016
Butiran
Brazil
Rio de Janeiro
Bendera Argentina
Argentina
4 – 2 Bendera Belgium
Belgium
Bendera Jerman
Jerman
1 – 1
(4 – 3)
(Penalti)
Bendera Belanda
Belanda

Kemunculan pasukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pasukan 1908 1920 1928 1932 1936 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 2016 Jumlah
 Afghanistan - - - - 6th 8th - 11th - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3
 Argentina - - - - - 5th - - - - 14th 14th 11th - - 8th 11th 9th 8th 11th - 10th 1st 11
 Australia - - - - - - - 5th 6th 3rd 2nd 5th 2nd - 4th 4th 2nd 3rd 3rd 1st 3rd 3rd 6th 15
 Austria - - 9th - - 8th 7th - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3
 Belgium - 3rd 4th - 9th 5th 9th 7th 11th 11th 9th 10th 9th - - - - - - - 9th 5th 2nd 14
 Brazil - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12th 1
 Kanada - - - - - - - - - 13th - - 10th - 12th 11th - - 10th - 10th - 11th 7
 China - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11th - - 1
Komanwel Negara-Negara Merdeka CIS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10th - - - - - - 1
 Cuba - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5th - - - - - - - - - 1
 Denmark - 2nd 5th - 10th 11th - - 16th - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5
 Jerman Timur - - - - - - - - - - 11th - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
 Mesir - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12th - - 12th - - - 2
 England 1st - 1
 Finland - - - - - - 9th - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
 Perancis 6th 4th 5th - 4th 8th 11th - 10th - 10th 12th - - - - - - - - - - - 9
 Great Britain - 1st - - - 2nd 3rd 4th 4th 9th 12th 6th - - 3rd 1st 6th 7th 6th 9th 5th 4th 9th 17
 Jerman 5th - 3rd - 2nd - 5th - 1st 4th 5th 3rd 1st 1st 3rd 11
 Hong Kong - - - - - - - - - 15th - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
 Hungary - - - - 8th - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
 India - - 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 2nd 1st 3rd 3rd 7th 1st 5th 6th 7th 8th 7th 7th - 12th 8th 20
 Ireland 2nd - 10th 2
 Itali - - - - - - 11th - 13th - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2
 Jepun - - - 2nd 7th - - - 14th 7th 12th - - - - - - - - - - - - 5
 Kenya - - - - - - - 10th 7th 6th 8th 13th - - 9th 12th - - - - - - - 7
 Korea Selatan - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10th - 5th 2nd 8th 6th 8th - 6
 Malaysia - - - - - - - 9th - 9th 15th 8th 8th - 10th - 9th 11th 11th - - - - 9
 Mexico - - - - - - - - - - 16th 16th - - - - - - - - - - - 2
 Belanda - - 2nd - 3rd 3rd 2nd - 9th 7th 5th 4th 4th - 6th 3rd 4th 1st 1st 2nd 4th 2nd 4th 18
 New Zealand - - - - - - - 6th 5th 13th 7th 9th 1st - 7th - 8th - - 6th 7th 9th 7th 12
 Pakistan - - - - - 4th 4th 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 3rd - 1st 5th 3rd 6th 4th 5th 8th 7th - 16
 Poland - - - - - - 6th - 12th - - 11th - 4th - - - - 12th - - - - 5
 Scotland 3rd - 1
 Singapura - - - - - - - 8th - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
 Afrika Selatan - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10th - 10th 12th 11th - 4
 Kesatuan Soviet# - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3rd - 7th - 2
 Sepanyol - - 7th - - 11th - - 3rd 4th 6th 7th 6th 2nd 8th 9th 5th 2nd 9th 4th 2nd 6th 5th 17
 Switzerland - - 7th - 5th 5th 7th - 15th - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5
 Tanzania - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6th - - - - - - - - - 1
 Uganda - - - - - - - - - - - 15th - - - - - - - - - - - 1
 Jerman Bersatu - 3rd 7th 5th - 3
 Amerika Syarikat - - - 3rd 11th 11th - 12th - - - - - - 11th - - 12th - - - - - 6
 Wales 3rd - 1
 Jerman Barat - 4th 1st 5th - 2nd 2nd - 5
 Zimbabwe - - - - - - - - - 11th - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
Jumlah 6 4 9 3 11 13 12 12 16 15 16 16 11 6 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 258
# = negeri yang mempunyai sejak berpecah kepada dua atau lebih negara-negara bebas

India adalah satu-satunya pasukan telah bertanding di hampir setiap Perlawanan Olimpik, kecuali hanya tiga edisi; 44 pasukan telah bertanding dalam sekurang-kurangnya satu Perlawanan Olimpik.

Wanita[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ringkasan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tahun Tuan Rumah Perlawanan Akhir Penentuan Tempat Ketiga
Juara Jaringan Naib Juara Tempat Ketiga Jaringan Tempat Keempat
1980
Butiran
Rusia
Moscow
Bendera Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
[5] Bendera Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
Flag of the Soviet Union
Kesatuan Soviet
[5] Bendera India
India
1984
Butiran
Amerika Syarikat
Los Angeles
Bendera Belanda
Belanda
[6] Bendera Jerman Barat
Jerman Barat
Bendera Amerika Syarikat
Amerika Syarikat
(10–5)
(Penalti) [7]
Bendera Australia
Australia
1988
Butiran
Korea Selatan
Seoul
Bendera Australia
Australia
2–0 Bendera Korea Selatan
Korea Selatan
Bendera Belanda
Belanda
3–1 Bendera United Kingdom
Great Britain
1992
Butiran
Sepanyol
Barcelona
Bendera Sepanyol
Sepanyol
2–1
(Masa tambahan)
Bendera Jerman
Jerman
Bendera United Kingdom
Great Britain
4–3 Bendera Korea Selatan
Korea Selatan
1996
Butiran
Georgia (negara)
Atlanta
Bendera Australia
Australia
3–1 Bendera Korea Selatan
Korea Selatan
Bendera Belanda
Belanda
0–0
(4–3)
(Penalti)
Bendera United Kingdom
Great Britain
2000
Butiran
Australia
Sydney
Bendera Australia
Australia
3–1 Bendera Argentina
Argentina
Bendera Belanda
Belanda
2–0 Bendera Sepanyol
Sepanyol
2004
Butiran
Greece
Athens
Bendera Jerman
Jerman
2–1 Bendera Belanda
Belanda
Bendera Argentina
Argentina
1–0 Bendera Republik Rakyat China
China
2008
Butiran
Republik Rakyat China
Beijing
Bendera Belanda
Belanda
2–0 Bendera Republik Rakyat China
China
Bendera Argentina
Argentina
3–1 Bendera Jerman
Jerman
2012
Butiran
United Kingdom
London
Bendera Belanda
Belanda
2–0 Bendera Argentina
Argentina
Bendera United Kingdom
Great Britain
3–1 Bendera New Zealand
New Zealand

Kemunculan pasukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pasukan 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 Jumlah
 Argentina - - 7th - 7th 2nd 3rd 3rd 2nd 6
 Australia - 4th 1st 5th 1st 1st 5th 5th 5th 8
 Austria 5th - - - - - - - - 1
 Belgium - - - - - - - - 11th 1
 Kanada - 5th 6th 7th - - - - - 3
 Czechoslovakia# 2nd - - - - 1
 China - - - - - 5th 4th 2nd 6th 4
 Jerman - 2nd 6th 7th 1st 4th 7th 6
 Great Britain - - 4th 3rd 4th 8th - 6th 3rd 6
 India 4th - - - - - - - - 1
 Jepun - - - - - - 8th 10th 9th 3
 Korea Selatan - - 2nd 4th 2nd 9th 7th 9th 8th 7
 Belanda - 1st 3rd 6th 3rd 3rd 2nd 1st 1st 8
 New Zealand - 6th - 8th - 6th 6th 12th 4th 6
 Poland 6th - - - - - - - - 1
 Afrika Selatan - - - - - 10th 9th 11th 10th 4
 Kesatuan Soviet# 3rd - - - 1
 Sepanyol - - - 1st 8th 4th 10th 7th - 5
 Amerika Syarikat - 3rd 8th - 5th - - 8th 12th 5
 Jerman Barat - 2nd 5th - 2
 Zimbabwe 1st - - - - - - - - 1
Jumlah 6 6 8 8 8 10 10 12 12 80
# = negeri yang mempunyai sejak berpecah kepada dua atau lebih negara-negara bebas

Australia dan Belanda adalah satu-satunya pasukan telah bertanding di hampir setiap Perlawanan Olimpik, kecuali hanya satu edisi; 21 pasukan telah bertanding dalam sekurang-kurangnya satu permainan Olimpik.

Pungutan Pingat[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pasukan Hoki India di Olimpik Berlin 1936, menewaskan Jerman 8-1 pada perlawanan akhir
Ked. Negara Emas Perak Gangsa Jumlah
1 India India (IND)* 8 1 2 11
2 Belanda Belanda (NED) 5 5 6 16
3 Australia Australia (AUS) 4 3 5 12
4 Jerman Jerman (GER) 4 2 2 8
5 Pakistan Pakistan (PAK) 3 3 2 8
6 Great Britain Great Britain (GBR) 3 2 6 11
7 Sepanyol Sepanyol (ESP) 1 3 1 5
8 Jerman Barat Jerman Barat (FRG) 1 3 0 4
9 New Zealand New Zealand (NZL) 1 0 0 1
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (ZIM) 1 0 0 1
11 Korea Selatan Korea Selatan (KOR) 0 3 0 3
12 Argentina Argentina (ARG) 0 2 2 4
13 China China (CHN) 0 1 0 1
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia (TCH) 0 1 0 1
Denmark Denmark (DEN) 0 1 0 1
Jepun Jepun (JPN) 0 1 0 1
17  Kesatuan Soviet (URS) 0 0 2 2
Amerika Syarikat Amerika Syarikat (USA) 0 0 2 2
19 Belgium Belgium (BEL) 0 0 1 1
Jerman Pasukan Bersatu Jerman (EUA) 0 0 1 1
Jumlah 31 31 32 94

* Termasuk 3 pingat emas sebagai British India

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Tidak ada perlawanan pingat gangsa untuk 1908 Olimpik di London.
  2. ^ a b The 1920 tournament was played in a round-robin format, so there were no gold medal or bronze medal matches. Ralat petik: Invalid <ref> tag; name "round" defined multiple times with different content
  3. ^ a b Only three teams participated in the 1932 tournament, so they played a round-robin format.
  4. ^ The Unified Team of Germany was the combined team from West Germany and East Germany that competed together at the Olympic Games from 1956 to 1964. Then each country sent independent teams from 1968 to 1988.
  5. ^ a b Round-robin format play in 1980 for women's tournament Ralat petik: Invalid <ref> tag; name "moscow" defined multiple times with different content
  6. ^ Round Robin format use in 1984 women's tournament
  7. ^ The final standings show both the United States and Australia were tied in points and had same margin in goal difference (both having scored 9 goals and conceded 7 goals), therefore a penalty stroke competition was played to decide the bronze medal winner, with the United States winning.