Peratusan mengundi

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Para mengundi berbaris di luar stesen mengundi Baghdad semasa Pilihan raya Iraq 2005. Peratusan mengundi telah didapati tinggi di sebalik merebaknya kekhuatiran mengenai keganasan.
Siri Pengundian
Sebahagian siri Politik dan Pilihan raya
Portal Politik   sunting

Peratusan mengundi merupakan satu peratusan pengundi yang membuang undi di dalam sebuah pilihan raya. Selepas pertambahan sebanyak beberapa dekad, di sana terdapat satu corak peratusan pengundian yang menurun di dalam kebanyakan negara-negara demokrasi yang duah didirikan semenjak 1960-an. Pada umumnya, peratusan yang rendah mungkin disebabkan kekecewaan, perselisihan pendapat, atau puas hati. Pengundian yang rendah selalunya dikira sebagai satu peristiwa yang tidak dikehendaki, dan terdapat banyak perbahasan terhadap faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan berlakunya peratusan mengundi yang rendah dan bagaimana cara untuk mempertingkatkannya. Di sebalik kajian yang signifikan terhadap isu-isu tersebut, para sarjawan telah dibahagikan kepada alasan-alasan di sebalik penurunan berkenaan. Penyebabnya mungkin berpunca daripada satu kumpulan ekonomi, demografi, budaya, teknologi, dan faktor-faktor institusi yang luas. Terdapat banyak usaha untuk menaikkan peratusan mengundi dan menggalakkan pengundian.

Nota kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Franklin, Mark N. "Electoral Engineering and Cross National Turnout Differences." British Journal of Political Science. 1999
  • Kanazawa, Satoshi. "A Possible Solution to the Paradox of Voter Turnout." The Journal of Politics.
  • Lijphart, Arend. "Unequal Participation: Democracy's Unresolved Dilemma." American Political Science Review. vol. 91 (March 1997): 1–14. p. 12
  • McDonald, Michael and Samuel Popkin. "The Myth of the Vanishing Voter." American Political Science Review. 2001.
  • Niemi, Richard G. and Herbert F. Weisberg. eds. Controversies in Voting Behavior. Washington, D.C: CQ Press, 2001.
  • Norris, Pippa. Elections and Voting Behaviour: New Challenges, New Perspectives. Aldershot: Ashgate, Dartmouth, 1998.
  • Rose, Richard, ed. Electoral Participation: A Comparative Analysis. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1980.
  • Wolfinger, Raymond E. and Steven J. Rosenstone. 1980. Who Votes? New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Wolfinger, R., Glass, D., Squire, P.(1990). Predictors of electoral turnout:an international comparison. Policy Studies Review, 9(3), p551–574, 24p
  • Highton, B. (1997, May). Easy registration and voter turnout. The Journal of Politics, 59(2), pp. 565–575.

Bacaan lanjutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

alphabetical by title and work

  • Charles Q. Choi (November 2007). "The Genetics of Politics". Scientific American (Print) (Scientific American, Inc.). pp. 18,21. "...the desire to vote or abstain from politics might largely be hardwired into our biology" 
  • Philip Lampi (2008-05-29). "A New Nation Votes: American Elections Returns 1787–1825". Digital Collections and Archives. Tufts University. Diperolehi pada 2008-06-24. "A New Nation Votes is a searchable collection of election returns from the earliest years of American democracy." 
  • "The Power Report". makeitanissue.org.uk. The Power Inquiry. 2007-01-19. Diperolehi pada 2008-06-24. "The Power Commission was established to discover what is happening to our democracy. It sought to establish why people were disengaging from formal democratic politics in Britain and how these trends could be reversed." 
  • "Voter Turnout". ElectionGuide. International Foundation for Electoral Systems. Diperolehi pada 2008-06-24. "...ElectionGuide is the most comprehensive and timely source of verified election information and results available online." 
  • "Voter Turnout". FairVote. Voting and Democracy Research Center. Diperolehi pada 2008-06-24. "Voter Turnout is a fundamental quality of fair elections and is generally considered to be a necessary factor for a healthy democracy." 
  • "Voter Turnout". International IDEA website. International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. 2008-06-16. Diperolehi pada 2008-06-23. "The International IDEA Voter Turnout Website contains the most comprehensive global collection of political participation statistics available." 
  • Michael McDonald (2008-04-01). "Voter Turnout". United States Elections Project. Diperolehi pada 2008-06-24. "Statistics on voter turnout presented here show that the much-lamented decline in voter participation is an artifact of the way in which it is measured." 
  • Rhonda Parkinson (2007-03-01). "Voter Turnout in Canada". Maple Leaf Web. Diperolehi pada 2008-06-23. "Since the 1980s, voter turnout in federal elections has fallen sharply." 


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