Bani Quraizah

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Bani Quraizah (Bahasa Arab: بني قريظة; بنو قريظة‎ ialah kaum Yahudi yang tinggal di oasis Yathrib sehingga abad ketujuh Masihi. Pada Februari/Mac 627 M, pembelotan mereka sewaktu Perang Ahzab membawa kepada pengepungan penempatan mereka selama 25 hari dan berakhir dengan Bani Quraizah menyerah kalah.[1] Bani Quraizah enggan menerima hukuman Nabi Muhammad (SAW) dan meminta dihakimi Bani Aws (juga dieja 'Auws'), sekutu mereka. Nabi Muhammad bersetuju dan meminta kaum Aws menghakimi Bani Quraizah. Ketua-ketua Bani Quraizah dikumpulkan dan ditanya Aws apakah hukuman bagi seorang pengkhianat mengikut agama orang Quraizah. Mereka xmenundukkan kepala dan menyatakan bahawa mengikut kitab Taurat, hukumannya hukum bunuh. Justeru, atas perintah Sa'd bin Mu'adh (Ketua kaum Aws), orang lelaki Bani Quraizah dihukum bunuh, sementara wanita dan kanak-kanak dijadikan hamba.[2] Terdapat banyak perbahasan tentang berapa ramai orang Quraizah dibunuh: ada yang mengatakan seramai 400-900 orang lelaki dipenggal kepala, [3] sementara Hadis menyatakan dengan tanpa memberi bilangan, kesemua orang lelaki termasuk seorang wanita dibunuh.[4]

Dikatakan kaum Yahudi tiba di Hijaz ekoran Peperangan Rom-Yahudi, dan memperkenalkan ilmu pertanian yang meletakkan mereka dalam kedudukan kuat dari segi budaya, ekonomi dan politik.[5][6] Namun, dalam abad kelima, Bani Aws dan Bani Khazraj, dua suku kaum Arab yang tiba dari Yaman, menjadi berkuasa.[7] Apabila kedua-dua puak Arab ini bertelagah, kaum Yahudi yang sekarang menjadi klien[6][8] atau sekutu Arab[7], menyokong pihak berlainan, dengan Quraizah menyokong Aws.[9]

Dalam tahun 622 M Nabi Muhammad (SAW) tiba di Yathrib dari Makkah dan menggubal Sahifat al-Madinah antara pihak yang bertelagah di Yathrib (yang ditukar nama kepada Madinah).[5][10][11] Sementara bandar madinah itu sendiri berperang dengan Quraisy Makkah, ketegangan antara penduduk arab dan yahudi meningkat.[9]

Pada tahun 627 M, apabila Quraisy dan sekutu mereka pengepung Madinah dalam Perang Ahzab, Bani Quraizah melanggar perjanjian mereka dengan orang Islam dan mula berbincang dengan pihak Quraisy.[12] Berikutan itu, kaum Quraizah dituduh sebagai pengkhianat dan dikepung pula oleh orang Islam.[13][14] Bani Quraizah dikalahkan dalam pengepungan itu dan menyerah diri. selepas diadili oleh hakim pilihan mereka sendiri, orang lelaki Bani Quraizah dihukum bunuh dan dipenggal kepala, sementara wanita dan kanak-kanak dijadikan hamba.[13][14][14][15][16][17] Namun demikian, ada penulis yang mencabar gambaran ini dengan menyatakan ia direka atau diperbesar-besarkan.[18][19][20]




Tak patot nih

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ List of Battles of Muhammad
  2. ^ Emerick, Yahiya. "Muhammad" (Critical Lives Series), 2002, pp 225-226
  3. ^ Arafat, W.N. "New Light on the Story of Banu Qurayza and the Jews of Medina," Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1976, pp 100-107
  4. ^ Sunan Abu Dawud, Buku 14, Hadis Nombor 2665.
  5. ^ a b Watt, Encyclopaedia of Islam, "Kurayza, Banu".
  6. ^ a b Peters, Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, p. 192f.
  7. ^ a b Watt, Encyclopaedia of Islam, "Al-Madina".
  8. ^ Encyclopedia Judaica, "Qurayza".
  9. ^ a b Watt, "Muhammad", in: The Cambridge History of Islam.
  10. ^ Firestone, Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam, p. 118, 170. For opinions disputing the early date of the Constitution of Medina, see e.g., Peters, Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, p. 119.
  11. ^ Alford Welch, Encyclopaedia of Islam, "Muhammad".
  12. ^ Watt, Muhammad, Prophet and Statesman, p. 170-176.
  13. ^ a b Peterson, Muhammad: the prophet of God, p. 125-127.
  14. ^ a b c Ramadan, In the Footsteps of the Prophet, p. 140f.
  15. ^ Hodgson, The Venture of Islam, vol. 1, p. 191.
  16. ^ Brown, A New Introduction to Islam, p. 81.
  17. ^ Lings, Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, p. 229-233.
  18. ^ Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, p. 754.
  19. ^ Arafat, "New Light on the Story of Banu Qurayza and the Jews of Medina", p. 100-107. Arafat relates the testimony of Ibn Hajar, who denounced this and other accounts as "odd tales" and quoted Malik ibn Anas, a contemporary of Ibn Ishaq, whom he rejected as a "liar", an "impostor" and for seeking out the Jewish descendants for gathering information about Muhammad's campaign with their forefathers.
  20. ^ Nemoy, "Barakat Ahmad's "Muhammad and the Jews"", p. 325. Nemoy is sourcing Ahmad's Muhammad and the Jews.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

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  • Brown, Daniel W., A New Introduction to Islam. Blackwell Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-631-21604-9
  • Firestone, Reuven, Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam. Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-512580-0
  • Guillaume, Alfred, The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah. Oxford University Press, 1955. ISBN 0-19-636033-1
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  • Lings, Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, p. 229-233.
  • Meril, Josef W., Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge, 2005. ISBN 0-415-96690-6.
  • Muir, William, A Life of Mahomet and History of Islam to the Era of the Hegira, vol. 3. London: Smith, Elder & Co, 1861.
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  • Paret, Rudi, Mohammed und der Koran. Geschichte und Verkündigung des arabischen Propheten.
  • Peters, Francis E., Muhammad and the Origins of Islam. State University of New York Press, 1994. ISBN 0-7914-1875-8.
  • Peters, Francis E., Islam. A Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press, 2003.
  • Peterson, Daniel C., Muhammad: the prophet of God. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans, 2007.
  • Ramadan, Tariq, In the Footsteps of the Prophet. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • Rodinson, Maxime, Muhammad: Prophet of Islam, Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2002. ISBN 1-86064-827-4
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Rujukan am[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Encyclopaedia of Islam. Ed. P. Bearman et al., Leiden: Brill, 1960-2005.
  • Encyclopedia Judaica (CD-ROM Edition Version 1.0). Ed. Cecil Roth. Keter Publishing House, 1997. ISBN 965-07-0665-8
  • Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam. Ed. Hamilton A. R. Gibb, Johannes Hendrik Kramers. Leiden:Brill, 1953.
  • Handwörterbuch des Islam. Ed. A. J. Wensinck, J. H. Kramers. Leiden: Brill, 1941.

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Lecker, Michael, "On Arabs of the Banū Kilāb executed together with the Jewish Banū Qurayza", in: Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 19 (1995), p. 69.
  • Newby, Gordon Darnell, A History of the Jews of Arabia: From Ancient Times to Their Eclipse Under Islam (Studies in Comparative Religion). University of South Carolina Press, 1988.
  • Lewis, Bernard, The Jews of Islam. Princeton University Press, 2004.
  • Lewis, Bernard, The Political Language of Islam, University of Chicago Press, 1991.
  • Nemoy, Leon, "Barakat Ahmad's "Muhammad and the Jews"", in: The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, vol. 72, No. 4. (April 1982), p. 325.
  • Rubin, Uri, "The Assassination of Kaʿb b. al-Ashraf", Oriens 32 (1990), p. 65-71.
  • Serjeant, R. B., "The "Sunnah Jami'ah, Pacts with the Yathrib Jews, and the "Tahrim" of Yathrib: Analysis and Translation of the Documents Comprised in the So-Called Constitution of Medina", in: Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 41 (1978), p. 1-42.
  • Stillman, Norman, The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America (1979). ISBN 0-8276-0198-0