Tujuh Keajaiban Dunia Purba

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Tujuh Keajaiban Dunia Purba (dari kiri ke kanan, atas ke bawah): Piramid Besar Giza, Taman Hanging Babylon, Kuil Artemis, Patung Zeus di Olympia, Makam di Halicarnassus, Colossus Rhodes, dan Mercusuar Alexandria
Garis masa dan peta Tujuh Keajaiban. Tarikh dalam warna hijau berani dan merah gelap adalah pembinaan dan kemusnahan masing-masing.

Tujuh Keajaiban Dunia Purba ialah senarai pembinaan klasik yang diberikan oleh pelbagai penulis dalam buku panduan atau puisi yang terkenal di kalangan pelancong Helenik purba.[1][2] Walaupun senarai itu, dalam bentuknya sekarang, tidak menstabilkan hingga Renaissance, senarai pertama tujuh keajaiban yang pertama kali dari abad ke-1 SM. Senarai asal mengilhamkan versi yang tidak terhitung sejak zaman, sering menyenaraikan tujuh kemasukan. Daripada Tujuh Keajaiban yang asal, hanya satu—Piramid Besar Giza (juga dikenali sebagai Piramid Khufu, selepas firaun yang membinanya), yang tertua dalam keajaiban kuno-tetap kekal utuh. Patung Raksasa Rhodes, Rumah Api Iskandariah, Makam di Halicarnassus, Kuil Artemis dan Patung Zeus semuanya musnah. Lokasi dan takdir terakhir Taman Tergantung tidak diketahui, dan ada spekulasi bahawa mereka mungkin tidak wujud sama sekali.[3][4][5][6]

Keajaiban[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama Tarikh pembinaan Pembina Tarikh kemusnahan Punca kemusnahan Lokasi moden
Great Pyramid of Giza 2584 – 2561 BC Egyptians Masih wujud, majoriti façade hilang Giza Necropolis, Egypt
29°58′45.03″N 31°08′03.69″E / 29.9791750°N 31.1343583°E / 29.9791750; 31.1343583 (Great Pyramid of Giza)
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
(existence unresolved)[7]
s. 600 BC (evident) Babylonians or Assyrians After 1st century AD Unknown Hillah or Nineveh, Iraq
32°32′08″N 44°25′39″E / 32.5355°N 44.4275°E / 32.5355; 44.4275 (Hanging Gardens of Babylon)
Temple of Artemis at Ephesus s. 550 BC; and again at 323 BC Greeks, Lydians 356 BC (by Herostratus)
AD 262 (by the Goths)
Arson by Herostratus, plundering Near Selçuk, Turkey
37°56′59″N 27°21′50″E / 37.94972°N 27.36389°E / 37.94972; 27.36389 (Temple of Artemis at Ephesus)
Statue of Zeus at Olympia 466 – 456 BC (temple)
435 BC (statue)
Greeks 5th – 6th centuries AD Disassembled and reassembled at Constantinople; later destroyed by fire Olympia, Greece
37°38′16.3″N 21°37′48″E / 37.637861°N 21.63000°E / 37.637861; 21.63000 (Statue of Zeus at Olympia)
Mausoleum at Halicarnassus 351 BC Greeks,[8][9] Persians, Carians 12th – 15th century AD Earthquakes Bodrum, Turkey
37°02′16″N 27°25′27″E / 37.0379°N 27.4241°E / 37.0379; 27.4241 (Mausoleum at Halicarnassus)
Colossus of Rhodes 292 – 280 BC Greeks 226 BC 226 BC Rhodes earthquake Rhodes, Greece
36°27′04″N 28°13′40″E / 36.45111°N 28.22778°E / 36.45111; 28.22778 (Colossus of Rhodes)
Lighthouse of Alexandria s. 280 BC Greeks, Ptolemaic Egyptians AD 1303 – 1480 1303 Crete earthquake Alexandria, Egypt
31°12′50″N 29°53′08″E / 31.21389°N 29.88556°E / 31.21389; 29.88556 (Lighthouse of Alexandria)

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Bibliotheca Historica, Books I-V. 2.11.5: Perseus Project, Tufts University. 
  2. ^ Clayton, Peter A.; Price, Martin (2013-08-21). The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Routledge. m/s. 158. ISBN 9781136748097. Dicapai 25 November 2016. 
  3. ^ "History of the Past: World History". 
  4. ^ Paul Lunde (May–June 1980). "The Seven Wonders". Saudi Aramco World. Diarkibkan daripada asal pada 2009-10-13. Dicapai 2009-09-12. 
  5. ^ Clayton, Peter; Martin J. Price (1990). The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Routledge. m/s. 4. ISBN 978-0-415-05036-4. 
  6. ^ Biographical Dictionary Volume III (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 1843. m/s. 48. Dicapai 25 November 2016. 
  7. ^ There is some conjecture as to whether the Hanging Gardens actually existed, or were purely legendary (see Finkel, Irving (1988) “The Hanging Gardens of Babylon,” In The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, Edited by Peter Clayton and Martin Price, Routledge, New York, pp. 38 ff. ISBN 0-415-05036-7).
  8. ^ Kostof, Spiro (1985). A History of Architecture. Oxford: Oxford University Press. m/s. 9. ISBN 0-19-503473-2. 
  9. ^ Gloag, John (1969) [1958]. Guide to Western Architecture (edisi Revised). The Hamlyn Publishing Group. m/s. 362. 

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Clayton, Peter A., and Martin Price. The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. New York: Dorset, 1989.
  • Deliyannis, Deborah Mauskopf. “The mausoleum of Theoderic and the Seven Wonders of the World.” Journal of Late Antiquity 3, no. 2 (2010): 365-85.
  • D'Epiro, Peter, and Mary Desmond Pinkowish. What Are the Seven Wonders of the World? and 100 Other Great Cultural Lists. New York: Anchor Books/Doubleday, 1988.
  • Jordan, Paul. The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Harlow, UK: Longman, 2002.
  • Mueller, Artur. The seven wonders of the world: Five thousand years of culture and history in the ancient world. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968.
  • Romer, John, and Elizabeth Romer. The Seven Wonders of the World: A History of the Modern Imagination. 1st American ed. New York: Henry Holt, 1995.

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]