Volkssturm

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.
Lompat ke: pandu arah, cari
Volkssturm
Volkssturm marching, November 1944
Perbarisan Volkssturm, November 1944
Aktif 18 Oktober 1944–1945
Negara Jerman Nazi
Cawangan Parti Nazi
Komander
Komander
ternama
Joseph Goebbels


Volkssturm (Sebutan bahasa Jerman: [ˈfɔlks.ʃtʊɐ̯m], "penggempur rakyat"[1][2]adalah militia kebangsaan Jerman pada tahun terakhir Perang Dunia II. Ia telah ditubuhkan, bukan oleh Tentera Darat tradisi Jerman, tetapi oleh Parti Nazi atas arahan Adolf Hitler dan kewujudannya hanya di umumkan secara rasmi pada 18 Oktober 1944.[3] Ia mengerah lelaki yang berumur antara 13 dan 60 tahun yang sudah tidak berkhidmat dalam beberapa unit tentera sebagai sebahagian daripada Pasukan Kawalan Tempatan (Home Guard) Jerman. Merangkumi satu usaha terakhir dan seruan keperwiraan untuk pertahanan, Volkssturm terdiri daripada salah satu komponen terakhir Perang Total yang diisytiharkan oleh Menteri Propaganda Joseph Goebbels, sebahagian daripada usaha Nazi untuk mengatasi kekuatan tentera musuh-musuh mereka melalui semangat kuat kenegaraan.[4]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Negara lain:

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Fritz (2004). Endkampf: Soldiers, Civilians, and the Death of the Third Reich, p. ix.
  2. ^ Kershaw (2011). The End: The Defiance and Destruction of Hitler's Germany, 1944-1945, pp. 86-88.
  3. ^ Burleigh (2001). The Third Reich: A New History, p. 786.
  4. ^ Kershaw (2001). Hitler: 1936-1945, Nemesis, pp. 713-714.

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Benz, Wolfgang (2007). A Concise History of the Third Reich. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  • Bessel, Richard (2010). Germany 1945: From War to Peace. New York: Harper Perennial.
  • Burleigh, Michael (2001). The Third Reich: A New History. New York: Hill and Wang.
  • Duffy, Christopher (2002). Red Storm on the Reich: The Soviet March on Germany, 1945. Edison, NJ: Castle Books.
  • Fritz, Stephen G. (2004). Endkampf: Soldiers, Civilians, and the Death of the Third Reich. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
  • Guderian, Heinz (2001) [1952]. Panzer Leader. New York and Boston: Da Capo Press.
  • Herzstein, Robert E. (1986). The War That Hitler Won: Goebbels and the Nazi Media Campaign. St Paul, MN: Paragon House.
  • Hildebrand, Klaus (1984). The Third Reich. Florence, KY: Routledge.
  • Irving, David (1991) [1977]. Hitler’s War and the War Path. London: Focal Point Publications.
  • Kater, Michael H. (2004). Hitler Youth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Kershaw, Ian (2001). Hitler: 1936-1945, Nemesis. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
  • Kershaw, Ian (2011). The End: The Defiance and Destruction of Hitler's Germany, 1944-1945. New York: Penguin Books.
  • Kissel, Hans (1962). Der Deutsche Volkssturm 1944/45: Eine territoriale Miliz im Rahmen der Landesverteidung.. Frankfurt am Main: Verlag E. S. Mittler und Sohn.
  • Le Tissier, Tony (2008). Berlin Battlefield Guide: Third Reich & Cold War. South Yorkshire: Pen & Sword Military.
  • Le Tissier, Tony (2003). Death was our Companion: The Final Days of the Third Reich. Stroud: Sutton Publishing.
  • Massaquoi, Hans J. (1990). Destined to Witness: Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
  • Moorhouse, Roger (2012). Berlin at War. New York: Basic Books.
  • Sorge, Martin K. (1986). The Other Price of Hitler's War: German Military and Civilian Losses Resulting from World War II. New York: Greenwood Press.
  • Trevor-Roper Hugh R. (1964). Blitzkrieg to Defeat. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  • Yelton, David K. (2002). Hitler's Home Guard: Volkssturmmann Western Front 1944-45. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
  • Yelton, David K. (2003). "The SS, NSDAP, and the Question of Volkssturm Expansion". In Steinweis, Alan E., and Daniel Rogers, The Impact of Nazism: New Perspectives on the Third Reich and Its Legacy. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Ziemke, Earl F. (1968). Stalingrad to Berlin: The German Defeat in the East. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Military History, U.S. Army.

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]