Pancaragam berbaris secara umumnya ialah sekumpulan pemuzik yang terdiri dari pemain alat muzik dan kadangkala pasukan penari/pengawal yang biasanya membuat pertunjukan di kawasan terbuka dan melakukan jenis perbarisan (dan kemungkinan sebarang pergerakan lain) sambil bermain alat muzik mereka. Peralatan yang dimainkan biasanya terdiri dari alat bras, tiup kayu dan genderang. Kebanyakan perbarisan pancaragam mengenakan sejenis pakaian seragam (sering kali gaya tentera) yang termasuk nama atau simbol sekolah atau pertubuhan, shako, pith helmet, jambul bulu hiasan, sarung tangan, dan kadangkala sarung tangan besi, sasy, dan/atau mantel.
Pancaragam berbaris sering kali dikelaskan menurut fungsi dan gaya pertunjukan yang mereka persembahkan. Sebagai tambahan kepada persembahan perbarisan tradisional, kebanyakan perbarisan alat muzik ini turut membuat persembahan padang di upacara istimewa (seperti sambutan hari kemerdekaan) atau pertandingan. Pancaragam berbaris turut membuat persembahan konsert dalam bangunan (sebagai tambahan kepada tugas "pep band") yang memainkan banyak lagu, tradisi, dan gaya dari persembahan luaran.
Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]
Pancaragam berasal dari pancaragam tentera. Ketika ahli muzik menjadi kurang penting bagi mengarah pergerakan tentera di medan perang, pancaragam berubah kepada peranan istiadat - tahap perantaraan yang memberikan memberikan sebahagian peralatan dan muzik bagi pancaragam adalah pancaragam moden, yang juga berasal dari tradisi tentera.
Kebanyakan tradisi tentera kekal dalam pancaragam moden. Pancaragam yang berbaris dalam formasi sering kali diperintah untuk "betulkan baris (dress their ranks)" dan "cover down their files". Mereka mungkin disuruh "jaga sedia (attention)", dan diberi perintah "pusing ke belakang (about face)" dan "jalan ke hadapan (forward march)". Pakaian seragam pancaragam berbaris juga menyamai pakaian seragam tentera.
Selain polis dan tentera, pancaragam baris moden sering kali dikaitkan dengan permainan sukan, terutama semasa separuh masa. Persembahan pancaragam baris semasa separuh masa sukan dilakukan semasa perlawanan sukan bola sepak Amerika oleh Marching Illini dari Universiti Illinois pada 1907 semasa permainan menentang Universiti Chicago.
Satu lagi ciptaan yang muncul sekitar masa yang sama dengan persembahan di tengah padang dam perbarisan dalam formasi adalah lagu tempur (fight song). Lagu tempur universiti seringkali dikaitkan dengan pancaragam universiti. Many of the more recognizable and popular fight songs are widely utilized by high schools across the country. Three university fight songs commonly used by high schools are the University of Michigan's "The Victors", the University of Notre Dame's "Victory March", and the United States Naval Academy's "Anchors Aweigh".
Other changes in marching band have been:
- adoption of the tradition by secondary schools (high schools, junior high schools, and middle schools)
- the addition of a dance team and baton twirlers/majorettes
- the addition of color guard members
Since the inception of Drum Corps International in the 1970s, many marching bands that perform field shows have adopted changes to the activity that parallel developments with modern drum and bugle corps. These bands are said to be corps-style bands. Changes adopted from drum corps include:
- marching style: instead of a traditional high step, drum corps tend to march with a fluid roll step to keep musicians' torsos completely still (see below)
- the adaptation of the flag, rifle, and sabre units into "auxiliaries", who march with the band and provide visual flair by spinning and tossing flags or mock weapons and using dance in the performance
- moving marching timpani and keyboard percussion into a stationary sideline percussion section ("pit"), which has since incorporated many different types of percussion instruments
- marching band competitions are judged using criteria similar to the criteria used in drum corps competitions, with emphasis on individual aspects of the band (captions for music performance, visual performance, percussion, guard (auxiliary), and general effect are standard).
Jenis pancagam berbaris[sunting | sunting sumber]
Marching bands are categorized based on primary function, instrumentation, and style - although many organizations may fill multiple roles.
Military Bands[sunting | sunting sumber]
Military bands and Corps of Drums were historically the first marching bands. Instrumentation varies, but generally contains brass, percussion, and woodwinds. Given their original purpose, military marching bands typically march in a forward direction with straight lines. Music is performed at a constant tempo to facilitate the steady marching of the entire military group with which the band is playing.
Active duty military marching bands often perform in parades with other military units and march in the same manner as other military personnel. Due to a lack of competition venues, military personnel, and interest, almost all military marching bands have disappeared from schools in the United States; two notable exceptions are the Fightin' Texas Aggie Band from Texas A&M and the Highty-Tighties of the Virginia Tech Corps of Cadets. There is also a pocket of about 80 high school military marching bands in East Texas, influenced by the Aggie Band in nearby College Station. They have formed the National Association of Military Marching Bands in order to preserve the tradition of military marching.
Bugle bands are a subset of military bands that use non-valved instruments, typically B flat bugles. Some bugle bands, such as the Burgess Hill Marching Youth, extend their range by using instruments like the jaghorn. In the UK, traditional youth bands compete on the Traditional Youth Marching Bands Association (TYMBA) circuit. TYMBA was established in the 1980s to cater specifically to youth bands executing military-style drill and music.
Parade Bands[sunting | sunting sumber]
Parade bands generally play marches. Instrumentation varies, and can contain anything from bagpipes or fifes and drums to full wind and percussion sections. Many military and veterans' organizations have their own parade bands.
Show Bands[sunting | sunting sumber]
Show bands primarily perform on fields (for example, a football field) and serve the purpose of providing entertainment during sporting events, going to competitions (especially at the high school level), and occasionally performing at parades and other events. During football games, they normally perform their field show before the game and at halftime (and sometimes after the game as well). Depending on the type of show band, the instrumentation can contain entirely brass instruments and percussion instruments, and may or may not use woodwinds or a percussion pit. The show design also depends on the type of show band. For example, a typical college half-time show is designed for the entertainment of the audience, whereas a competitive high school marching band might be more concerned with showing off their musical and visual abilities to the judges.
Carnival Bands[sunting | sunting sumber]
Carnival bands are a UK variant of show bands. Carnival bands typically march in time to the music, and may also participate in parades and competitions. They contain brass and percussion, but may or may not use woodwinds. The main competition body for carnival bands is the Carnival Band Secretaries League.
Scramble Bands[sunting | sunting sumber]
Scramble bands are a variation on show bands. They generally do not march in time with the music, but, as their name implies, scramble from design to design and often incorporate comedic elements into their performances. Most of the bands in the Ivy league use this style.
Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]
- "Marching Illini Firsts". http://www.bands.uiuc.edu/MI/tradition-firsts.php. Capaian 2006-12-15.
- "Scramble Bands". http://www.princeton.edu/~puband/about/scramble.html. Capaian 2008-05-08.
Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Irish Marching Bands Association
- Bands of America
- Mid-America Competing Band Directors Association
- John Philip Sousa Foundation
- Drum Corps International (DCI)
- Carnival Band Secretaries League (CBSL)
- Compendium of College Marching Bands
- BYBA British Youth Band Association
- TYMBA Traditional Youth Marching Band Association
- National Association of Military Marching Bands