Pride and Prejudice
|Pengarang||Jane Austen (asalnya diterbitkan di bawah pseudonym, "seorang wanita.")|
|Penerbit||T. Egerton, Whitehall|
|Tarikh terbitan||28 Januari 1813|
|Jenis media||Cetakan (Kulit buku keras & Kulit buku lembut)|
|Didahului oleh||'Sense and Sensibility'|
|Diikuti oleh||'Mansfield Park'|
Pride and Prejudice pertama kali diterbitkan pada 28 Januari 1813, adalah salah satu novel Jane Austen yang terkenal. Ia merupakan salah satu komedi romentik dalam novel sejarah dan pembukaannya adalah salah satu barisan-barisan termasyhur dalam kesusasteraan Inggeris—"Ia adalah suatu kebenaran sedunia yang diketahui, yang seorang lelaki berada dan bernasib baik, semestinya mempunyai keinginan beristeri."
Manuskripnya pertama kali ditulis di antara 1796 dan 1797, dan pada awalnya berjudul Tanggapan Pertama, tetapi tidak pernah diterbitkan bawah tajuk itu. Selepas diteliti semula, ia telah diterbitkan pada 28 Januari 1813. Seperti sebelumnya, Sense and Sensibility, dan Northanger Abbey, ia dikarang di Steventon Rectory.
Ringkasan jalan cerita [sunting]
Pn. Bennet amat gembira mendengar berita ketibaan seorang lelaki bujang "yang amat kaya" berjiranan. En. Bingley telah menyewakan estate Netherfield di mana dia merancang untuk tinggal secara sementara bersama dua adik-beradik perempuannya, Cik Bingley dan Pn. Hurst, dan suami adik-beradik perempuannya, En. Hurst. Tidak lama kemudian, Bingley dan pestanya, yang termasuk kawan karibnya Fitzwilliam Darcy, menghadiri sebuah ball awam di kampung Meryton. Pada mulanya, Darcy is admired for his fine figure and income of £10,000 a year. However, he is soon regarded contemptuously as the villagers become disgusted with his pride. This is brought home to the Bennet family when Elizabeth Bennet overhears Darcy decline Bingley's suggestion that he dance with her. Bingley, on the other hand, proves highly agreeable, dancing with many of the eligible ladies in attendance and showing his decided admiration for Jane Bennet. Eager to encourage this highly advantageous match, Mrs Bennet attempts to push Jane and Bingley together at every opportunity.
Shortly after the ball, Mr Collins, a cousin who will inherit the Bennet estate because of an entail, visits the family. Collins, a pompous buffoon of a clergyman whose idea of a pleasant evening is reading to his female cousins from Fordyce's Sermons, delights in dropping the name of his great patroness, Lady Catherine de Bourgh, with great frequency. Following Lady Catherine's imperious suggestion that he marry, Collins has decided to make amends for his role in his cousins' future impoverishment by marrying one of them. Mr Collins proposes to Elizabeth but she refuses him pointblank. Although Mrs Bennet tries to promote the marriage, Elizabeth, advocated by her father, will not have him. Meanwhile, Elizabeth is introduced to Mr. Wickham, a pleasing, amiable officer in the regiment. Wickham informs her that he had known Mr Darcy his entire life, but was dealt a serious wrong after the death of Darcy's father. After the tale is told, Elizabeth begins to harbour a strong prejudice against Mr Darcy.
After Elizabeth rejects Mr Collins, he hurriedly marries her best friend, Charlotte Lucas, and Elizabeth is invited to visit the newlyweds. While she is staying with them, Darcy visits his aunt, Lady Catherine de Bourgh, at the adjoining estate, Rosings. Elizabeth and Darcy are therefore thrown daily into each other's company. Elizabeth's charms eventually entrance Mr Darcy, leading him to finally declare his love for her "against his own will" and his desire to marry her in spite of her objectionable family. Surprised and insulted by Darcy's high-handed method of proposing, as well as having recently learnt that Darcy convinced Bingley to sever ties with Jane and still contemptuous of Darcy's supposed wrongs against Wickham, Elizabeth refuses him in no uncertain terms, saying that he is "the last man in the world whom [she] could ever be prevailed on to marry." The next day, Darcy intercepts Elizabeth on her morning walk and hands her a letter before coldly taking his leave. In the letter, Darcy justifies his actions regarding his interference in Bingley and Jane's relationship, and reveals his history concerning Mr Wickham and Wickham's true nature. The letter sheds a new light on Darcy's personality for Elizabeth and she begins to reconsider her opinion of him, particularly in the case of Wickham.
Later, while on holiday with her aunt and uncle, the Gardiners, Elizabeth is persuaded to visit nearby Pemberley, Darcy's estate, but only goes because she is told he is away. She is therefore mortified when she bumps into him unexpectedly while on a tour of the grounds. However, his altered behaviour towards her - distinctly warmer from their last meeting - and his polite and friendly manner towards her aunt and uncle begins to persuade Elizabeth that underneath his pride lies a true and generous nature. Her revised opinion of Darcy is supported through meeting his younger sister Georgiana, a gentle-natured and shy girl whom Darcy lovingly dotes upon.
Just as her relationship with Darcy starts to thaw, Elizabeth is horrified by news that, in her absence, her headstrong younger sister Lydia has attracted Wickham's attentions and eloped with him. When the family investigates, they learn that Wickham resigned his commission to evade gambling debts. When told of this by Elizabeth, Darcy takes it upon himself to find Wickham and bribe him into marrying Lydia, but keeps this secret from Elizabeth and her family. Elizabeth accidentally learns of Darcy's involvement from Lydia's careless remarks, later confirmed by Mrs Gardiner. This final act completes a reversal in Elizabeth's sentiments, and she begins to regret having turned down Darcy's earlier proposal of marriage.
Lady Catherine discovers Darcy's feelings for Elizabeth, threatening her long cherished ambition for him to marry her own daughter. She pays Elizabeth an unannounced visit and brusquely tries to intimidate her into refusing such an engagement. Unfortunately, Catherine's visit serves to consolidate Elizabeth's intentions. Furthermore, Lady Catherine visits Darcy later, and relates the entire conversation to him, leading Darcy to the conviction that marrying Elizabeth is possible.
The book ends with two marriages: Jane and Bingley, as well as Darcy and Elizabeth. While the Bennets go their separate ways, both couples live happily ever after.
Watak-watak dalam Pride and Prejudice [sunting]
The following is a listing of the more significant characters of the novel.
Elizabeth Bennet [sunting]
Elizabeth Bennet adalah seorang protagonist dalam buku novel ini. Elizabeth adalah anak kedua dari lima anak perempuan Encik dan Puan Bennet, dan adalah seorang yang cantik berusia dua puluh tahun sewaktu cerita ini bermula. Tambahannya dengan menjadi kegemaran bapanya, Elizabeth dicirikan sebagai seorang yang wajar dan bijak. Dikelabui oleh kelakuan Darcy yang tidak peramah secara terbuka, Elizabeth pada mulanya memegang perasaan benci terhadap Darcy. Akan tetapi, dia mendapati bahawa Darcy memperbaikikan diri pada perkenalan, lebih dari apa yang dia sangkakan.
Fitzwilliam Darcy [sunting]
Fitzwilliam Darcy adalah watak pusat lelakinya dan keminatan cinta Elizabeth kedua dalam novel ini. Dia seorang lelaki 28 tahun yang bijak, kaya, sangat kacak dan pendiam, yang sering kelihatan sombong pada orang yang tidak dikenali tetapi mempunyai sifat jujur dan baik hati. Pada mulanya, dia menganggap Elizabeth orang darjat bawah untuk dia, tidak berbaloi pada perhatiannya; tetapi dia mendapati bahawa, melainkan kecondongannya, dia tidak boleh menolak perasaannya untuk Elizabeth. Permulaan pernikahannya ditolak keraka kesombongannya dan prasangka Elizabeth terhadapnya. Walaubagaimanapun, pada penghujung cerita novel, dia mendapati dirinya mengongsikan rumahnya, Pemberley dari Derbyshire, dengan isteri barunya, Elizabeth.
Mr. Bennet [sunting]
Mr. Bennet adalah bapa Elizabeth dan ketua keluarga Bennet. Seorang lelaki berbudi English dengan sebuah estet di Hertfordshire, dia telah berkahwin dengan Puan Bennet dan mempunyai lima anak perempuan. Malangnya, hartanya entailed ke seorang keturunan lelaki, bermakna ia hanya dapat diwarisi oleh pewaris terdekat lelakinya (En. Collins). En. Bennet adalah seorang lelaki yang berbudi dan ganjil yang hanya memberikan perasaan lucu dari isterinya yang "gelisah" dan tiga anak perempuan yang "bodoh" --Mary, Kitty dan Lydia. Dia lebih dekat dengan Jane dan terutamanya Elizabeth, anak keduanya dan yang terwajar. Dia lebih suka keseorangan di bilik belajarnya, melalaikan tugas memeliharakan anak-anaknya, yang membawa ke berdekatan-bencana.
Mrs Bennet [sunting]
Mrs. Bennet is the querulous, excitable and ill-bred wife of Mr. Bennet and mother of Elizabeth and her sisters. Her main concern in life is seeing her daughters married well to wealthy men, so that they will be taken care of following Mr. Bennet's death. However, her foolish nature and frequent social faux pas often impede her efforts towards this end.
Jane Bennet [sunting]
Jane Bennet is the eldest Bennet sister. She is twenty-two years old at the start of the novel, and is generally considered to be the most beautiful amongst her sisters. The depth of her feelings is difficult to discern by those who do not know her well, due to her reserved manner and pleasantness to all. She is incapable of suspecting the worst of people, seeing only the good. She falls in love with Charles Bingley, and is devastated when he abruptly breaks off their developing relationship without explanation. Eventually however, the misunderstanding on his part is cleared up and she accepts his hand in marriage. Together, they live at Netherfield for about a year before moving to a new estate in Derbyshire and a mere 30 miles away from her favorite sister and sister's husband.
Lydia Bennet [sunting]
Lydia Bennet is the youngest of the Bennet sisters. Fifteen years old when the narrative begins, Lydia is extremely flirtatious, naive, headstrong and reckless. She is described as being idle and indulging in frivolous pursuits, especially chasing after the officers stationed at Meryton. Her father often calls her 'silly'. She is seduced by Mr Wickham and runs away with him without much thought for the consequences to her family, but Mr Wickham is convinced to marry her by Mr Darcy.
Charles Bingley [sunting]
Charles Bingley is the closest friend of Mr Darcy, despite the differences in their personalities. He is an outgoing, extremely good-natured, and wealthy young man who leases property near the Bennets' estate at the beginning of the novel. Unlike many of those in his circle, he is approachable and mingles easily in company the others consider beneath them. He is attracted to Jane Bennet, who reciprocates his feelings but is too shy and reserved to fully express them.
William Collins [sunting]
William Collins is the 25-year-old cousin of Mr Bennet. A clergyman, he is the closest male relation to the Bennet family, and as such stands to inherit Longbourn on Mr Bennet's death. Collins is a pompous, narrow-minded sycophant who is excessively devoted and flattering to his patroness, Lady Catherine de Bourgh. Advised by Lady Catherine to find a wife, he initially eyes Jane, only to instantly transfer his affections to Elizabeth upon learning of Jane's impending match with Mr Bingley. After being rejected by his second choice, he proposes to Charlotte Lucas, who accepts him.
George Wickham [sunting]
George Wickham is the enemy of Mr Darcy. He is a dashing, charming and handsome young soldier who attracts the attention of Elizabeth Bennet. His father was the manager of the Darcy estate, so he grew up with Mr Darcy and his sister and was a favorite of Darcy's since-deceased father. Wickham's charm skillfully conceals a more conniving and dishonorable nature, and there is bitter enmity between him and Darcy due to his attempt to elope with Georgiana Darcy for her substantial inheritance. He later runs off with Lydia Bennet, but is tracked down by Darcy and he marries her where Darcy pays for the marriage.
Mary Bennet [sunting]
Mary Bennet is the most serious of all the Bennet girls, partly because she is the least good looking sister. Mrs Bennet had hoped that she could be persuaded to marry Mr Collins on his next visit, as she found him somewhat interesting, and suitably serious, but otherwise she is not very interested in society, seeing balls as a duty rather than a pleasure.
Kitty Bennet [sunting]
Kitty Bennet (Catherine) although older than her sister Lydia, is somewhat of a sidekick to her. She follows everything that Lydia does, and becomes insanely jealous when only Lydia is invited to go to Brighton with the troops, as she wishes to go herself.
Charlotte Lucas [sunting]
Charlotte Lucas is the neighbour and best friend of Elizabeth. She is 27 years old and, after Mr. Collins proposed to Elizabeth, he then proposed to Charlotte, who instantly accepted as this was most probably her final oppourtunity to get married. Charlotte herself accepted him (thereby losing Elizabeth's respect). She enjoys her marriage by staying away from Mr. Collins as much as possible and taking care of her household and poultry.
Georgiana Darcy [sunting]
Georgiana Darcy is Fitzwilliam Darcy's younger sister. She is immensely pretty and 10 years his junior. Georgiana is quiet and shy but amiable and good natured, and shows great skill at playing the pianoforte. Mr Wickham stole her affections many years before due to knowledge of her great fortune which she will inherit when she comes of age. She was just 15 when it happened, this is a case of dramatic irony due to Lydia's age of 15 and how she develops a relationship with Wickham later in the book.
Penggambaran Kesenian pada dan berkenaan Kebanggaan dan Prasangka [sunting]
Filem, televisyen, dan adaptasi teater [sunting]
Kebanggaan dan Prasangka telah mengakibatkan beberapa adaptasi. Sesetengah versi filem termasuk yang pada 2005 dibintangi oleh Keira Knightley dan Matthew Macfadyen, dan yang pada 1940 dibintangi oleh Greer Garson dan Laurence Olivier. Versi terkenal televisyen termasuk dua oleh BBC: 1995 version dibintangi oleh Jennifer Ehle dan Colin Firth, dan 1980 version dibintangi Elizabeth Garvie dan David Rintoul. First Impressions adalah sebuah versi muzik Broadway.
Karya berkenaan filem dan kesusasteraan [sunting]
Pride and Prejudice telah menginspirasikan beberapa karya. Bride and Prejudice, dibintangi oleh Aishwarya Rai, adalah sebuah adaptasi Bollywood pada novel, sementara Pride and Prejudice (2003) meletakkan buku novel dalam waktu-waktu sezaman. Buku-buku diilhamkan Pride and Prejudice termasuk Mr. Darcy's Daughters (novel) dan The Exploits and Adventures of Miss Alethea Darcy oleh Elizabeth Aston, Pemberley : Or Pride & Prejudice Continued dan An Unequal Marriage: Or Pride and Prejudice Twenty Years Later oleh Emma Tennant, The Book of Ruth oleh Helen Baker dan Mr. Darcy Takes a Wife oleh Linda Berdoll. Buku novel Bridget Jones's Diary oleh Helen Fielding (dan film dibuat darinya) juga secara terusan diilham oleh Pride and Prejudice. Misalnya, protagonist mendapati dirinya memilih di anttara seorang lelaki yang menawan, tetapi jelek dan seorang yang bermulia, tetapi perangai yang kasar bernama En. Darcy, dimainkan oleh Colin Firth. Juga, ibu yang cuba untuk mendapatkan anak perempuannya seorang suami, tetapi bapanya menjadi secara gemilang berasingan dari keseluruhan prosesnya.
Anugerah dan pencalonan [sunting]
- Pada 2003 BBC membuat undian yang amat terbesar untuk "Buku Tergemar UK" yang mana Pride and Prejudice berada di tempat kedua, di belakang The Lord of the Rings.
Pautan luar [sunting]
|Wikisource mempunyai teks asal berkaitan rencana ini:|
- Chronology/Calendar for Pride and Prejudice
- Pride and Prejudice, sebuah eBuku bebas di Projek Gutenberg
- Pride and Prejudice PDF eBook
- Free audiobook from LibriVox
- Filmography of Jane Austen Adaptations
- Pride & Prejudice timeline
- List and map of real and imaginary places in Pride and Prejudice