Taman Negara Yellowstone

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Taman Negara Yellowstone
Air Terjun Yellowstone Hilir di mana Sungai Yellowstone mengalir ke dalam Grand Canyon di Yellowstone
Air Terjun Yellowstone Hilir di mana Sungai Yellowstone mengalir ke dalam Grand Canyon di Yellowstone
Lokasi: Kaunti Park, Wyoming
Kaunti Teton, Wyoming
Kaunti Gallatin, Montana
Kaunti Park, Montana
Kaunti Fremont, Idaho
Koordinat: 44°36′0″U 110°30′0″B / 44.6°U 110.5°B / 44.6; -110.5Koordinat: 44°36′0″U 110°30′0″B / 44.6°U 110.5°B / 44.6; -110.5
Luas: 3,472 batu persegi (8,987 km2) [1]
Lawatan pemeriksaan: 3,295,187 [2]   (pada 2009)
Badan pentadbiran: Perkhidmatan Taman Negara Amerika Syarikat
IUCN Kategori II (Taman Negara)
Didesignasi: 1 Mac, 1872
Tapak Warisan Dunia UNESCO
Jenis: Alam sekitar
Kriteria: vii, viii, ix, x
Designasi: 1978 (Sesi) kedua
No rujukan: 28
Kawasan: Amerika
Taman Negara Yellowstone yang terletak di Amerika Syarikat
Lokasi Taman Negara Yellowstone di USA
Peta caldera
Apa yang ada di bawah caldera?

Taman Negara Yellowstone adalah taman negara pertama di dunia. Ia diwartakan pada 1 Mac 1872 apabila Presiden Amerika Syarikat, Ulysses S. Grant menandatangani satu undang-undang pewartaannya. Ia merupakan sebuah Tapak Warisan Dunia UNESCO.

Geografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kebanyakan taman ini (96%) terletak di Wyoming. Kawasan taman negara ini adalah seluas 8,980 km persegi (3,468 batu persegi) dan lebih besar daripada Rhode Island atau Delaware.

Taman ini terletak di Dataran Tinggi Yellowstone, pada ketinggian purata 2,400 m (8,000 kaki) di atas permukaan laut. Hampir semua sisi dataran tinggi ini bersempadan dengan banjaran pergunungan Tengah Rocky Mountains, yang tingginya 2,700 hingga 3,400 meter (9,000 hingga 11,000 kaki).

Tiga ngarai (lereng gunung) terdalam berada di taman ini dan yang paling terkenal adalah Grand Canyon Yellowstone.

Continental Divide[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Continental Divide of North America runs diagonally through the southwestern part of the Park. This separates the Pacific from Atlantic water drainage areas. The origins of the Yellowstone and Snake Rivers are near each other but on opposite sides of the divide. As a result, the waters of the Snake River flow to the Pacific Ocean, while those of the Yellowstone find their way to the Atlantic Ocean via the Gulf of Mexico.

Geology[sunting | sunting sumber]

Yellowstone is the site of a huge ancient volcano, whose remains are called the Yellowstone Caldera. The caldera is the largest volcanic system in North America.

The cause of the volcano was a hotspot in the Earth's mantle, over which the American continental plate moved. 640,000 years ago a huge volcanic explosion blew 240 cubic miles (1000 km2) of rock and lava into the air. It was 1000 times larger than the Mount St. Helens eruption.[3]

Yellowstone is still geologically active, and is monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey. There is ground movement, geysers and swarms of small earthquakes. The floor of the caldera has been rising, but experts say there is no immediate danger of eruption.[4]

Fauna[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pronghorn are commonly found on the grasslands in the park.
Bison graze near a hot spring
Elk in the Hayden valley of Yellowstone

Yellowstone is widely considered to be the finest megafauna wildlife habitat in the lower 48 states. There are almost 60 species of mammals in the park, including the gray wolf, the threatened lynx, and grizzly bears. Other large mammals include the bison (buffalo), black bear, elk, moose, mule deer, white-tailed deer, mountain goat, pronghorn, bighorn sheep and mountain lion.[1]

Bison[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bison once numbered between 30 and 60 million throughout North America; Yellowstone is one of their last strongholds. Their populations had increased from less than 50 in the park in 1902 to 4,000 by 2003.

The park's bison population reached a peak in 2005 with 4,900 animals. Despite a summer estimated population of 4,700 in 2007, the number dropped to 3,000 in 2008 after a harsh winter and controversial brucellosis management sending hundreds to slaughter.[5] APHIS has stated that with vaccinations and other means, brucellosis can be eliminated from the bison and elk herds throughout Yellowstone.[6]

Wolves[sunting | sunting sumber]

Starting in 1914, the U.S. Congress gave funds for the purposes of "destroying wolves, prairie dogs, and other animals injurious to agriculture and animal husbandry" on public lands. After the wolves were gone from Yellowstone, the coyote became the park's top canine predator. However, the coyote cannot bring down large animals. The result was a great increase in lame and sick megafauna.

A reintroduced gray wolf in Yellowstone

By the 1990s, the Federal government had reversed its views on wolves. In a controversial decision by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, wolves, imported from Canada, were reintroduced into the park. A survey conducted in 2005 showed there were 13 wolf packs, totaling 118 individuals in Yellowstone and 326 in the whole ecosystem.

The recovery of populations throughout the states of Wyoming, Montana and Idaho has been so successful that they are no longer on the endangered species list.[7]

Beruang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kira-kira 600 ekor beruang grizzly hidup di Ekosistem Yellowstone Raya, dengan lebih daripada separuh berada di dalam Yellowstone.[8]

Elk[sunting | sunting sumber]

Jumlah populasi elk lebih daripada 30,000. Ia merupakan populasi spesies mamalia terbesar Yellowstone. Jumlah kawanan di utara menurun dengan mendadak sejak pertengahan tahun 1990-an. Ini mungkin di sebabkan oleh serigala. Selain itu, elk lebih banyak menggunakan kawasan berhutan bagi mengelakkan serigala, dan menjadikan keadaan lebih sukar bagi para penyelidik untuk mengira jumlahnya.[9] Pada musim sejuk, kawanan utara berpindah ke barat ke arah barat daya Montana. Kawanan selatan pula menuju ke arah selatan. Perpindahan kawanan selatan merupakan migrasi mamalia terbesar yang masih wujud di luar Alaska, Amerika Syarikat.

Other predators[sunting | sunting sumber]

In 2003, the tracks of one female lynx and her cub were spotted and followed for over 2 batu (3.2 kilometer). Fecal material and other evidence obtained were tested and confirmed to be those of a lynx. No visual confirmation was made, however. Lynx have not been seen in Yellowstone since 1998, though DNA taken from hair samples showed that lynx were at least passing through the park.[10] Other less commonly seen mammals include the mountain lion and wolverine. The mountain lion has about 25 individuals parkwide.[11] The wolverine is another rare park mammal, and accurate population figures for this species are not known.[12]

Yellowstone is also home to six species of reptiles, such as the painted turtle and Prairie rattlesnake, and four species of amphibians, including the Boreal Chorus Frog.[13]

Ikan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lapan belas spesies ikan hidup di Yellowstone, termasuk trout cutthroat Yellowstone—sejenis ikan yang paling dikehendaki oleh pemancing.[1][14] Trout cutthroat Yellowstone menghadapi beberapa ancaman sejak tahun 1980-an, termasuk kemasukkan secara haram tasik trout ke dalam Tasik Yellowstone, sejenis spesies rempuhan yang memakan trout cutthroat yang lebih kecil.[15][16] Trout cutthroat juga menghadapi kemarau, selain kemasukkan tidak sengaja sejenis parasit—penyakit pusaran—yang mana membunuh anak-anak ikan. Sejak tahun 2001, kesemua spesies ikan sukan asli yang ditangkap di salur air Yellowstone tertakluk kepada undang-undang tangkap dan lepas.[14]

Burung[sunting | sunting sumber]

311 spesies burung telah dilaporkan, hampir separuh darinya membiak di Yellowstone.[1] Setakat tahun 1999, 26 pasang Helang Botak dilaporkan membuat sarang.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "Yellowstone Fact Sheet". National Park Service. August 10, 2006. http://www.nps.gov/yell/planyourvisit/factsheet.htm. Capaian 2010-01-17. 
  2. "History of total annual visits for Yellowstone NP". Park Visitation Report. National Park Service. http://www2.nature.nps.gov/NPstats/select_report.cfm?by=year. Capaian 2008-06-18. 
  3. "Tracking changes in Yellowstone's restless volcanic system". U.S. Geological Survey. January 19, 2006. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs100-03/. Capaian 2007-03-12. 
  4. Lowenstern, Jake (June 2005). "Truth, fiction and everything in between at Yellowstone". Geotimes (American Geologic Institute). http://www.agiweb.org/geotimes/june05/feature_supervolcano.html. Capaian 2007-03-12. 
  5. "Frequently Asked Questions about Bison". Nature and Science. National Park Service. August 9, 2006. http://www.nps.gov/yell/naturescience/bisonqa.htm. Capaian 2007-04-01. 
  6. "Brucellosis and Yellowstone Bison". Brucellosis. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/brucellosis/cattle.htm. Capaian 2007-03-16. [pautan putus]
  7. "Final Rule designating the Northern Rocky Mountain Population of Gray Wolf as a distinct population segment and removing this distinct population segment from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. February 27, 2008. http://www.regulations.gov/fdmspublic/component/main?main=DocumentDetail&o=09000064803cae39. Capaian 2008-06-11. 
  8. Mott, Maryann. "Bald Eagle, Grizzly: U.S. Icons endangered no more?", National Geographic News, July 2, 2004. Dicapai pada 2007-03-19. 
  9. "2006–2007 Winter Count of Northern Yellowstone Elk", National Park Service, January 16, 2007. Dicapai pada 2007-03-19. 
  10. Potter, Tiffany (April 13, 2004). "Reproduction of Canada Lynx discovered in Yellowstone". Nature: Year in Review. National Park Service. http://www2.nature.nps.gov/YearinReview/yir2003/07_E.html. Capaian 2007-03-19. 
  11. "Mountain Lions". National Park Service. July 26, 2006. http://www.nps.gov/yell/naturescience/mtlions.htm. Capaian 2007-03-19. 
  12. Marquis, Amy Leinbach. "Wolverines in Yellowstone". National Parks Conservation Association. http://www.npca.org/magazine/2006/summer/rare_endangered.html. Capaian 2007-03-19. 
  13. "Vital Habitats: Wetlands and Wildlife" (PDF). National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/yell/naturescience/upload/vitalhabitats.pdf. Capaian 2007-03-19. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 "Fishing in Yellowstone National Park". National Park Service. April 4, 2007. http://www.nps.gov/yell/planyourvisit/fishing.htm. Capaian 2007-03-19. 
  15. "The Yellowstone Lake Crisis: Confronting a Lake Trout Invasion" (PDF). National Park Service. 1995. http://www.nps.gov/yell/planyourvisit/upload/laketrout2.pdf. Capaian 2007-03-19. 
  16. Kendall, W. C. (1915). The Fishes of the Yellowstone National Park. Washington D.C.: Department of Commerce, Bureau of Fisheries. m/s. 22–23. 

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Wyoming