Templat:Citation

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The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

If invoked with the right parameters, this template produces output identical to that of the Cite templates, such as {{Cite book}} and {{Cite web}}. The default behavior sometimes differs from that of the Cite templates; for example, this template by default generates anchors for Harvard references whereas the Cite templates do not (although they can be made to do so), and this template by default uses commas to separate some fields that the Cite templates separate with periods (full stops).

The template should be inserted after punctuation, such as a period or comma.

All parameter names are lowercase.

Simple citation[sunting | sunting sumber]

This template gives the most commonly used attributes. You can copy the horizontal form or vertical form below and then add in extra attributes from the full list. Spacing and ordering is irrelevant.

{{Citation |last= |first= |year= |title= |publisher= |publication-place= |page= |url= |accessdate= }}

{{Citation
| last =
| first =
| year =
| title =
| publisher =
| publication-place =
| page =
| url =
| accessdate =
}}
  • last: The author's surname or last name. Don't use with author.
  • first: The author's first or given name(s).
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation, unless |date= specifies both month and year.
  • title: Title of the work. Mandatory for web references.
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press. Not normally included where the publication is a periodical which has its own Wikipedia article (e.g. Newsweek, Billboard).
    • publication-place (or place or location): The city of publication. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. Omit when the publication is a periodical whose name specifies the location (e.g. The New York Times, The Times of India)
  • page: For use when one page is cited. Adds "p." before the page number. Do not use with pages.
  • url: An url of an online location where the item can be found. If the url includes double quotes, these must be encoded as "%22".
    • accessdate: Date[n 1] when the url was accessed.

Example[sunting | sunting sumber]

{{Citation
| last = Turner
| first = Orsamus
| title = History of the pioneer settlement of
Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve
| publisher = William Alling
| place = Rochester, New York
| year = 1851
| id = {{OL|7120924W}}
}}
Turner, Orsamus (1851), History of the pioneer settlement of Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve, Rochester, New York: William Alling, Templat:OL 

Full citation parameters[sunting | sunting sumber]

These can be used for all types of publication except patents. All are optional and indentation is used simply to group related items — these may be mutually exclusive where indicated. Some hyphenated names can also be placed without hyphens.

{{Citation
| author =
| last =
| first =
| author2 =
| last2 =
| first2 =
| author-link =
| author2-link =
| author-separator =
| author-name-separator =
| author-mask =
| display-authors =
| coauthors =
| editor =
| editor-last =
| editor-first =
| editor2 =
| editor2-last =
| editor2-first =
| editor-link =
| editor2-link =
| others =
| publication-date =
| year =
| month =
| origyear =
| title =
| chapter =
| chapter-url =
| contribution =
| contribution-url =
| type =
| journal =
| periodical =
| newspaper =
| magazine =
| work =
| edition =
| series =
| volume =
| issue =
| publisher =
| publication-place =
| place =
| language =
| page =
| pages =
| nopp =
| at =
| id =
| isbn =
| issn =
| oclc =
| pmid =
| pmc =
| bibcode =
| doi =
| doi-inactive =
| url =
| accessdate =
| format =
| archiveurl =
| archivedate =
| quote =
| laysummary =
| laysource =
| laydate =
| separator = ,
| postscript =
| ref =
}}

Parameters[sunting | sunting sumber]

Syntax[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Csdoc documentation/syntax

Templat:Csdoc documentation/coins

Templat:Csdoc documentation/sep comma

Deprecated[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Csdoc documentation/deprecated

Description[sunting | sunting sumber]

Authors[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Csdoc documentation/author

Editors[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Csdoc documentation/editor

Title[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Csdoc documentation/title Templat:Csdoc documentation/chapter Templat:Csdoc documentation/type Templat:Csdoc documentation/language

Date[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Csdoc documentation/date

Periodical[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Csdoc documentation/journal

Publisher[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Csdoc documentation/publisher

Edition, series, volume[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Csdoc documentation/edition Templat:Csdoc documentation/series Templat:Csdoc documentation/volume

In-source locations[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Csdoc documentation/pages

URL[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Csdoc documentation/url

Anchor[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Csdoc documentation/ref2

Identifiers[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Csdoc documentation/id1 Templat:Csdoc documentation/id2

Quote[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Csdoc documentation/quote

Laysummary[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Csdoc documentation/lay

Display options[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Csdoc documentation/display

Examples[sunting | sunting sumber]

Books[sunting | sunting sumber]

Three authors, a volume, and an edition. Ampersand (&) forced before final author's name.
{{Citation
| last1 = Lincoln
| first1 = A.
| last2 = Washington
| first2 = G.
| last3 = Adams
| first3 = J.
| lastauthoramp = yes
| title = All the Presidents' Names
| publisher = The Pentagon
| place = Home Base, New York
| volume = XII
| edition = 2nd
| year = 2007
}}
Lincoln, A.; Washington, G. & Adams, J. (2007), All the Presidents' Names XII (edisi ke-2nd), Home Base, New York: The Pentagon 

Web[sunting | sunting sumber]

Web page
{{Citation
| url = http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov
| title = NPS Focus
| work = National Register of Historic Places
| publisher = [[National Park Service]]
| accessdate = November 30, 2010
}}
NPS Focus, National Register of Historic Places (National Park Service), diperoleh pada November 30, 2010 
Archived page
{{Citation
| url = http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/
academy/space/atmosphere.html
| title = Earth's Atmosphere
| accessdate = October 25, 2007
| publisher = [[National Aeronautics and Space Administration]]
| year = 1995
| author = NASA
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071013232332/
http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| archivedate = October 13, 2007
}}
NASA (1995), Earth's Atmosphere, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, diarkibkan daripada asal pada October 13, 2007, diperoleh pada October 25, 2007 

Journals, newspapers, magazines, or other periodicals[sunting | sunting sumber]

Journal article
{{Citation
| last = Hill
| first = Marvin S.
| title = Joseph Smith and the 1826
Trial: New Evidence and New
Difficulties
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume = 12
| issue = 2
| year = 1976
| pages = 1–8
| url = https://byustudies.byu.edu/
shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf
}}
Hill, Marvin S. (1976), Joseph Smith and the 1826 Trial: New Evidence and New Difficulties, BYU Studies 12 (2): 1–8 
Journal article with multiple authors and identifier
{{Citation
| last1 = Mandelkern
| first1 = M,
| last2 = Elias
| first2 = J,
| last3 = Eden
| first3 = D,
| last4 = Crothers
| first4 = D
| display-authors = 2
| title = The dimensions of DNA in solution
| journal = J Mol Biol
| volume = 152
| issue = 1
| pages = 153–61
| year = 1981
| pmid = 7338906
| doi = 10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1
}}
Mandelkern, M,; Elias, J, dll. (1981), The dimensions of DNA in solution, J Mol Biol 152 (1): 153–61, doi:10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1, PMID 7338906 
Newspaper article
{{Citation
| last = Smith
| first = Joseph III
| author-link = Joseph Smith III
| title = Last Testimony of Sister Emma
| newspaper = The Saints' Herald
| publication-place = Plano, IL
| volume = 26
| issue = 19
| date = October 1, 1879
| year = 1879
| month = October
| page = 289
| url = http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/
dbroadhu/IL/sain1872.htm#100179
}}
Smith, Joseph III (October 1, 1879), Last Testimony of Sister Emma, The Saints' Herald (Plano, IL) 26 (19): 289 
Conference paper
{{Citation
| last = Sullivan
| first = D.B.
| contribution = Time and frequency measurement
 at NIST: The first 100 years
| year = 2001
| title = 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp.
| publisher = National Institute of Standards and Technology
| url = http://tf.nist.gov/timefreq/
general/pdf/1485.pdf
| format = PDF
}}
Sullivan, D.B. (2001), "Time and frequency measurement at NIST: The first 100 years" (PDF), 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp., National Institute of Standards and Technology 

Parts of books, including encyclopedia articles[sunting | sunting sumber]

Manuscript published in an edited compilation
{{Citation
| last = Bidamon
| first = Emma Smith
| author-link = Emma Hale Smith
| chapter = Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim
| date = March 27, 1876
| year = 1876
| editor-last = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1–56085–072–8
}}
Bidamon, Emma Smith (March 27, 1876), "Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim", dalam Vogel, Dan, Early Mormon Documents 1, Signature Books (Diterbitkan pada 1996), ISBN 1–56085–072–8 Check |isbn= value (bantuan) 
Work with an editor but no author
{{Citation
| editor-last = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1–56085–072–8
}}
Vogel, Dan, pengarang (1996), Early Mormon Documents 1, Signature Books, ISBN 1–56085–072–8 Check |isbn= value (bantuan) 
Encyclopedia article by a named author
{{Citation
| last = Kramer
| first = Martin
| author-link = Martin Kramer
| contribution = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| title = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| place = London
| publication-date = 1999
| contribution-url = http://
www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/
BernardLewis.htm
}}
Kramer, Martin (1999), "Bernard Lewis", dalam Boyd, Kelley, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, ms. 719–720 
Encyclopedia article with no named author
{{Citation
| contribution = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| title = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| place = London
| year = 1999
| contribution-url = http://
www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/
BernardLewis.htm
}}
Boyd, Kelley, pengarang (1999), "Bernard Lewis", Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, ms. 719–720 

Republications, or edited quotations in a periodical article[sunting | sunting sumber]

Manuscript edited and published in a journal
{{Citation
| last = Knight
| first = Joseph, Sr.
| year = 1833
| editor-last = Jessee
| editor-first = Dean
| title = Joseph Knight's Recollection
of Early Mormon History
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume = 17
| issue = 1
| publication-date = 1976
| page = 35
| url = https://byustudies.byu.edu/
shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf
}}
Knight, Joseph, Sr. (1833), Jessee, Dean, pengarang, Joseph Knight's Recollection of Early Mormon History, BYU Studies (1976) 17 (1): 35 
Manuscript written at one date and place, then published in a periodical at a different date and place with commentary by the editor.
{{Citation
| last = Klingensmith
| first = Philip
| contribution = Affidavit
| year = 1872
| date = September 5, 1872
| place = Lincoln County, Nevada
| title = Mountain Meadows Massacre
| editor-last = Toohy
| editor-first = Dennis J.
| journal = Corinne Daily Reporter
| publication-date = September 24, 1872
| publication-place = Corinne, Utah
| volume = 5
| issue = 252
| page = 1
| contribution-url = http://
udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359
}}
Klingensmith, Philip (September 5, 1872), "Affidavit", ditulis pada Lincoln County, Nevada, dalam Toohy, Dennis J., Mountain Meadows Massacre, Corinne Daily Reporter (Corinne, Utah, Diterbitkan pada September 24, 1872) 5 (252): 1 

Press release[sunting | sunting sumber]

Press release with quotation
{{Citation
| url = http://www.apple.com/pr/
library/2010/04/05ipad.html
| title = Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day
| publisher = Apple Inc
| accessdate = April 10, 2010
| quote = in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3}}
Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day, Apple Inc, diperoleh pada April 10, 2010, "in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3" 

Citing patents[sunting | sunting sumber]

Parameters (all are optional)[sunting | sunting sumber]

{{Citation
| inventor-last =
| inventor-first =
| inventorlink =
| inventor2-last =
| inventor2-first =
| inventorlink2 =
| publication-date =
| issue-date =
| title =
| country-code =
| description =
| patent-number =
| ref =
}}
  • inventor-last (or inventor1-last): The inventor's surname or last name.
  • inventor-first (or inventor1-first): The inventor's first or given name(s).
  • inventorlink (or inventorlink1): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first inventor.
  • inventor2-last, inventor3-last, inventor4-last: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • inventor2-first, inventor3-first, inventor4-first: The second, third, and fourth inventors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • inventorlink2, inventorlink3, inventorlink4: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth inventor, if applicable.
  • publication-date: Date of publication or filing.
  • issue-date (or date): Date patent was issued by patent agency.
  • title: Title of the patent. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "[" for "[" and "]" for "]"
  • country-code: Two-letter abbreviation of the country issuing the patent.
  • description: Type of patent; shown between country code and number.
  • patent-number: The number of the patent.
  • ref: Anchor id.

Examples[sunting | sunting sumber]

United States patent with multiple inventors
{{Citation
| inventor1-last = Degermark
| inventor1-first = Mikael
| inventor2-last = Brodnik
| inventor2-first = Andrej
| inventor3-last = Carlsson
| inventor3-first = Svante
| inventor4-last = Pink
| inventor4-first = Stephen
| title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
| issue-date = 2001
| patent-number = 6266706
| country-code = US}}
Degermark, Mikael; Andrej Brodnik & Svante Carlsson et al., "Fast routing lookup system using complete prefix tree, bit vector, and pointers in a routing table for determining where to route IP datagrams", US 6266706, issued 2001

Anchored citations[sunting | sunting sumber]

This template can generate a citation that can be combined with shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing. It does this by creating an HTML anchor containing an ID. The special parameter |ref=harv generates an ID suitable for Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} as specified in the next section; this is the default for the {{citation}} template. If an empty |ref= is given, no anchor is generated; this is the default for the Cite templates such as {{cite book}} and {{cite news}}. You can also specify the ID directly, using the |ref=ID parameter. For example, suppose an article's References section contains the markup:

  • {{Citation |author=Sigmund Freud |title=Civilization and Its Discontents |year=1930 |ref=CivDis}}

which generates the citation:

  • Sigmund Freud (1930), Civilization and Its Discontents 

Then, the markup "([[#CivDis|Freud 1930]])" generates a parenthetical reference "(Freud 1930)" containing a wikilink to the citation (try clicking on the wikilink).

Anchors for Harvard referencing templates[sunting | sunting sumber]

IDs compatible with Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} are computed from the last names of the authors and the year of the cited source. For example, the markup "{{harv|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}" generates the Harvard reference "(Wright & Evans 1851, p. ix)", which wikilinks to the citation whose markup and appearance are shown below:

  • {{Citation |last1=Wright |first1=Thomas |last2=Evans |first2=R. H. |title=Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray |location=London |publisher=Henry G. Bohn |year=1851 |oclc=59510372}}
  • Wright, Thomas; Evans, R. H. (1851), Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray, London: Henry G. Bohn, OCLC 59510372 

In this example the {{citation}} template defines, and the {{harv}} template uses, the HTML ID "CITEREFWrightEvans1851", composed by concatenating the string "CITEREF" with the last names of the authors and the year. The {{harvid}} template can be used to generate such IDs, for example, {{harvid|Wright|Evans|1851}} generates "Templat:Harvid".

Related methods which leave only a number in the text are to use the {{harvnb}} template enclosed in the <ref></ref> html code, or to use the {{sfn}} template alone. The example above would be <ref>{{harvnb|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}</ref> or {{sfn|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}} both of which generate a footnote, such as

17. Wright & Evans 1851, halaman ix

The names of only the first four authors are used; other author names are not concatenated to the ID. If no author names are given, editor names are used instead. For patents, inventor names are used instead of authors or editors. If these names are not given, this template does not generate an anchor.

Last names are used, as specified by the parameters |last1= (or |last=), |last2=, |last3=, and |last4=, and similarly for |editor1-last= etc. and for |inventor1-last= etc. If a full name is given but no last name is specified, this template falls back on the full name, but this usage is not recommended. For example, in "{{Citation | author = Sigmund Freud | title = The Ego and the Id | year = 1923}}" no last name is given, so this citation cannot be combined with the Harvard reference "{{harv|Freud|1923}}". To make these {{citation}} and {{harv}} invocations compatible, either replace "|author=Sigmund Freud" with "|first=Sigmund |last=Freud", or add "|ref={{harvid|Freud|1923}}" to the {{citation}} invocation, or add the same ref parameter (say, "|ref=EgoId") to both the {{citation}} and the {{harv}} invocations.

Similarly, the year is used, as specified by |year=. If no year is given, this template attempts to derive the year from |date= (or, if no date is given, from |publication-date=) by applying the MediaWiki#time function. This heuristic works with many common date formats (American, International and ISO standard format YYYY-MM-DD as listed in WP:MOS), but may not work as expected with other formats, so when in doubt it may be safer to use |year=. Note that if only a year, say 2005, is known you must use |year=2005 rather than |date=2005.

IDs must be unique[sunting | sunting sumber]

Names, years, and hand-specified IDs must be chosen so that the IDs are unique within a page; otherwise the HTML will not conform to the W3C standards, and any references to the citations will not work reliably. For example, suppose a page contains the following two citations with {{harv}}-compatible IDs:

If these citations were altered to say "2008" rather than "2008a" and "2008b", the resulting page would not work, because the two different citations would both attempt to use the ID "CITEREFMontesHalterman2008". To avoid this problem, distinguish the citations by appending suffixes to the years, e.g., "|year=2008a" and "|year=2008b", as was done above. Any Harvard references to these citations should use years with the same suffixes.

It is good practice to verify that a page does not contain duplicate IDs by using the W3C Markup Validation Service; see External links.

Dates[sunting | sunting sumber]

    • The format of dates in the references of an article should use a consistent and unambiguous style. Example formats used in Wikipedia citations include:
      • 2009
      • 2009-09-14 (ISO standard format: YYYY-MM-DD)
      • 14 September 2009
      • September 14, 2009 (with comma)
      • September 2009
    • Dates should not be linked in references.
    • Please see Wikipedia:Manual of Style (dates and numbers)#Dates for more guidance about formatting dates.

Tools[sunting | sunting sumber]

See Wikipedia:Citing sources#Citation templates and tools for a list of tools that can help create a reference in the "citation" format.

Templat ini menghasilkan COinS metadata; lihat COinS di Wikipedia untuk maklumat latarbelakang.Templat:Wikipedia referencing