William Wallace

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Sir William Wallace
William Wallace.jpg
Kelahiran 1272
Elderslie atau Ellerslie, Scotland
Meninggal dunia 23 Ogos 1305
Smithfield, London, England
Pekerjaan Pemilik tanah, kemudian seorang pejuang dan komander dalam Perang Kemerdekaan Scotland
Anak Tiada rekod
Ibu bapa Alan Wallace (bapa), identiti ibunya tidak dapat disahkan, kemungkinan adalah Margaret Crawford

Sir William Wallace (Bahasa Gaelic Scotland: Uilleam Uallas; 1272 – 23 Ogos 1305) adalah seorang kesatria dan pemilik tanah berbangsa Scotland yang terkenal kerana peranan beliau dalam mengetuai penentangan ke atas England semasa Perang Kemerdekaan Scotland. Pada hari ini, beliau diingati sebagai seorang setia negarawan and wira negara.[1]

Bersama-sama dengan Andrew Moray, beliau berjaya mengalahkan tentera England di dalam Pertempuran Jambatan Stirling, dan menjadi Pelindung Scotland, sehingga kekalahan beliau di dalam Pertempuran Falkirk. Beberapa tahun kemudian, Wallace telah ditangkap di Robroyston, berdekatan Glasgow dan diserahkan kepada Raja Edward I, yang mana kemudian menjatuhkan hukuman mati kerana menderhaka.

Wallace menjadi inspirasi dalam sajak, The Acts and Deeds of Sir William Wallace, Knight of Elderslie, oleh seorang penyanyi kembara pada kurun ke-15, Blind Harry. Sajak ini juga digunakan sebagai asas dalam lakon layar Randall Wallace untuk sebuah filem pada tahun 1995, iaitu Braveheart.

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Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Barrow, G. W. S. (1989), Kingship and Unity: Scotland 1000–1306, The New History of Scotland, 2 (edisi 2nd), Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 0-7486-0104-X 
  • Barrow, G. W. S. (1976), Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland (edisi 2nd), Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 0-85224-307-3 
  • Barrow, G. W. S. (2003), The Kingdom of the Scots: Government, Church and Society from the eleventh to the fourteenth century (edisi 2nd), Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 0-7486-1803-1 
  • Brown, Michael (2004), The Wars of Scotland 1214–1371, The New Edinburgh History of Scotland, 4, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 0-7486-1238-6 
  • Cowan, Edward J. (2003), 'For Freedom Alone': The Declaration of Arbroath, 1320, West Linton: Tuckwell Press, ISBN 1-84158-632-3 
  • Cowan, Edward J.; Finlay, Richard J., eds. (2002), Scottish History: The Power of the Past, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 0-7486-1420-6 
  • Cowan, Edward J., ed. (2007), The Wallace Book, Edinburgh: John Donald, ISBN 0-85976-652-4 
  • Cowan, Edward J. (2007), "William Wallace: 'The Choice of the Estates'", in Cowan, Edward J., The Wallace Book, Edinburgh: John Donald, pp. 9–25, ISBN 0-85976-652-4 
  • Duncan, A. A. M. (2007), "William, Son of Alan Wallace: The Documents", in Cowan, Edward J., The Wallace Book, Edinburgh: John Donald, pp. 42–63, ISBN 0-85976-652-4 
  • Fisher, Andrew (2002), William Wallace (edisi 2nd), Edinburgh: Birlinn, ISBN 1-84158-593-9 
  • Fraser, James E. (2002), "'A Swan from a Raven': William Wallace, Brucean Propaganda and Gesta Annalia II", The Scottish Historical Review (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press) LXXXI (1): 1–22, ISSN 0036-9241 
  • Grant, Alexander (2007), "Bravehearts and Coronets: Images of William Wallace and the Scottish Nobility", in Cowan, Edward J., The Wallace Book, Edinburgh: John Donald, pp. 86–106, ISBN 0-85976-652-4 
  • King, Elspeth (2007), "The Material Culture of William Wallace", in Cowan, Edward J., The Wallace Book, Edinburgh: John Donald, pp. 117–135, ISBN 0-85976-652-4 
  • Prestwich, Michael (2007), "The Battle of Stirling Bridge: An English Perspective", in Cowan, Edward J., The Wallace Book, Edinburgh: John Donald, pp. 64–76, ISBN 0-85976-652-4 
  • Riddy, Felicity (2007), "Unmapping the Territory: Blind Hary's Wallace", in Cowan, Edward J., The Wallace Book, Edinburgh: John Donald, pp. 107–116, ISBN 0-85976-652-4 
  • Watson, Fiona (2002), "The Demonisation of King John", in Cowan, Edward J.; Finlay, Richard J., Scottish History: The Power of the Past, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 29–46, ISBN 0-7486-1420-6 
  • Watson, Fiona (2007), "Sir William Wallace: What We Do — and Don't — Know", in Cowan, Edward J., The Wallace Book, Edinburgh: John Donald, pp. 26–41, ISBN 0-85976-652-4 
  • Young, Alan (1997), Robert the Bruce's Rivals: The Comyns, 1212–1314, East Linton: Tuckwell Press, ISBN 1-86232-053-5 
  • Brown, Chris. William Wallace. The True Story of Braveheart. Stroud: Tempus Publishing Ltd, 2005. ISBN 0-7524-3432-2.
  • "The Chronicle of Lanercost 1272 - 1346", ed. H. Maxwell, 1913;
  • Clater-Roszak, Christine. "Sir William Wallace ignited a flame." Military History 14 (1997): 12–15.
  • Harris, Nathaniel. Heritage of Scotland: A Cultural History of Scotland & Its People. London: Hamlyn, 2000. ISBN 0-600-59834-9.
  • Loudoun, Darren John. Scotland's Brave. Sydney: Paragon Books, 2007.
  • MacLean, Fitzroy. Scotland: A Concise History. London: Thames & Hudson, 1997. ISBN 0-500-27706-0.
  • Morton, Graeme. William Wallace. London: Sutton, 2004. ISBN 0-7509-3523-5.
  • Reese, Peter. William Wallace: A Biography. Edinburgh: Canongate, 1998. ISBN 0-86241-607-8.
  • Scott, Sir Walter. Exploits and death of William Wallace, the 'Hero of Scotland'
  • Stead, Michael J., and Alan Young. In the Footsteps of William Wallace. London: Sutton, 2002.
  • Tranter, Nigel. The Wallace: The Compelling 13th century Story of William Wallace. McArthur & Co., 1997. ISBN 0-340-21237-3.
  • Wallace, Margaret. William Wallace: Champion of Scotland. Musselborough: Goblinshead, 1999. ISBN 1-899874-19-4.
  • Folklore, Myths and Legends of Britain. London: The Reader’s Digest Association, 1973, 519-20.

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