Antifa (Amerika Syarikat)

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Pelekat antifa, berdasarkan logo gerakan Antifa Jerman.

Antifa (/ænˈtfə, ˈæntiˌfɑː/)[1] ialah gerakan di Amerika Syarikat yang sebahagian besarnya didominasi oleh sayap kiri, aktivis politik anti-fasis yang militan,[7][11] terdiri dari pelbagai kumpulan aktivis tanpa pemimpin yang bertujuan untuk mencapai tujuan politik mereka dengan menggunakan tindakan secara langsung melalui reformasi dasar.[12][13][14][15] Aktivis ini terlibat dalam pelbagai taktik protes, termasuk aktivis digital, merosakkan harta benda dan keganasan fizikal, serta gangguan terhadap mereka yang dikenal pasti sebagai fasis, rasis, atau kanan.[16][17][8][18][15][19][20]

Individu yang terlibat dalam gerakan ini cenderung memiliki pandangan anti-autoritarian dan anti-kapitalis[21] serta menganut pelbagai ideologi sayap kiri seperti anarkisme, komunisme, marxisme, demokrasi sosial dan sosialisme.[22][23][21][24][25][26][27] Baik nama "antifa" mahupun logo dua bendera yang melambangkan anarkisme dan komunisme berasal dari gerakan Antifa Jerman.[28]

Pada 1 Jun 2020, Presiden Donald Trump menggemakan kenyataan yang sebelum ini dilontarkan oleh Penasihat Keselamatan Negara, Robert O'Brien,[29] dengan menyalahkan antifa dan para "anarkis profesional", kerana telah melakukan tindakan kekerasan.[30]

Etimologi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Perkataan antifa dalam bahasa Inggeris merupakan kata serapan dari bahasa Jerman, diambil sebagai bentuk singkatan dari perkataan antifaschistisch ("anti-fasis") dan nama Antifaschistische Aktion yang mengilhamkan Gerakan Antifa menjadi lebih luas di Jerman.[31][32][33][34] Kamus Oxford, mencantumkan perkataan "antifa" dalam senarai pendeknya sebagai "perkataan tahun ini" pada 2017, ditulis bahawa perkataan antifa itu "muncul dari ketidakjelasan relatif untuk menjadi sebahagian dari kosakata bahasa Inggeris yang mapan sepanjang 2017".[33] Liga Anti-Pencemaran Nama Baik menyatakan bahwa label "antifa" harus dihadkan untuk "mereka yang secara proaktif berkonfrontasi secara fizikal dengan musuh-musuh mereka yang dianggap fasis "dan tidak disalahgunakan untuk memasukkan semua kontra-demonstran anti-fasis.[17]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Language Log » Ask Language Log: How to pronounce "Antifa"?". languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu. Dicapai pada September 23, 2017.
  2. ^ Alcorn, Chauncey (August 15, 2017). "A timeline of major 2017 pro-Trump, anti-Trump clashes before Charlottesville". Mic. Dicapai pada October 30, 2017. The alt-right demonstrators are frequently confronted by anti-Trump progressive groups, including militant antifa and anarchist factions.
  3. ^ Miller, Michael E. (September 14, 2017). "Antifa: Guardians against fascism or lawless thrill-seekers?". Washington Post. Dicapai pada October 13, 2017. It was a call to arms for militant anti-fascists, or "antifa" – and Hines was heeding it.
  4. ^ "An Inside Look at the Antifa Movement". KNTV. September 27, 2017. Dicapai pada October 13, 2017. NBC Bay Area sat down with several militant Antifa protesters...
  5. ^ Blow, Ashli (September 18, 2017). "Man with swastika armband gets punched in downtown Seattle while yelling at people". KIRO-TV. Dicapai pada October 13, 2017. Antifa, a militant anti-fascist political movement...
  6. ^ Cummings, Ian; Rice, Glenn E. (September 14, 2017). "Confused about antifa, protests and KC guns laws? Here's the deal". The Kansas City Star. Dicapai pada October 13, 2017. Antifa ... is a movement of militant leftist activists promoting direct action against white supremacists and fascists.
  7. ^ [2][3][4][5][6]
  8. ^ a b Seurth, Jessica (August 14, 2017). "What is Antifa?". CNN. Dicapai pada August 15, 2017.
  9. ^ Savage, Charlie (August 16, 2017). "Justice Dept. Demands Data on Visitors to Anti-Trump Website, Sparking Fight". The New York Times. Dicapai pada August 16, 2017.
  10. ^ "Who Are Antifa?". Anti Defamation League.
  11. ^ [8][9][10]
  12. ^ Bogel-Burroughs, Nicholas (2 July 2019). "What Is Antifa? Explaining the Movement to Confront the Far Right". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Dicapai pada 13 July 2019.
  13. ^ Beinart, Peter (August 16, 2017). "What Trump Gets Wrong About Antifa". The Atlantic. Dicapai pada August 16, 2017.
  14. ^ February 25, Lily Rothman; 2019. "What the Artist Behind a Comics-Style History of Anti-Fascist Resistance Thinks You Should Know About Antifa". Time (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Dicapai pada 2019-07-22.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  15. ^ a b Cammeron, Brenna (August 14, 2017). "Antifa: Left-wing militants on the rise". BBC News. Dicapai pada November 7, 2017.
  16. ^ "Meet Antifa's Secret Weapon Against Far-Right Extremists". Wired (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Dicapai pada 2018-11-13.
  17. ^ a b "Who are the Antifa?". Anti-Defamation League. 2017. Dicapai pada July 2, 2019.
  18. ^ Steakin, William (May 4, 2017). "What is Antifa? Controversial far-left group defends use of violence". AOL. Dicapai pada August 15, 2017.
  19. ^ Kaste, Martin; Siegler, Kirk (June 16, 2017). "Fact Check: Is Left-Wing Violence Rising?". National Public Radio. Dicapai pada August 15, 2017.
  20. ^ Mattoni, Alice. "Voices of dissent: activists' engagements in the creation of alternative, autonomous, radical and independent media". CiteSeerX 10.1.1.459.6366. Cite journal requires |journal= (bantuan)
  21. ^ a b Cammeron, Brenna (August 14, 2017). "Antifa: Left-wing militants on the rise". BBC News. Dicapai pada November 7, 2017. Antifa is anti-government and anti-capitalist, and their methodologies are often perceived as more closely aligned with anarchists than the mainstream left.
  22. ^ "What is Antifa?". www.aljazeera.com. 1 June 2020. Dicapai pada 2020-06-02. Anti-facists of the movement tend to be grouped on the leftward fringes of the US political spectrum, many describing themselves as socialists, anarchists, communists or anti-capitalists.
  23. ^ Fuller, Thomas; Feuer, Alan; Kovaleski, Serge F. (August 17, 2017). "'Antifa' Grows as Left-Wing Faction Set to, Literally, Fight the Far Right". The New York Times. Dicapai pada September 10, 2017. [...] the diverse collection of anarchists, communists and socialists has found common cause in opposing right-wing extremists and white supremacists
  24. ^ Illing, Sean (August 25, 2017). "'They have no allegiance to liberal democracy': an expert on antifa explains the group". Vox. Dicapai pada August 27, 2017. For the most part, these are pan-leftist groups composed of leftists of different stripes. They all seem to have different views of what they think the ideal social order looks like. Some of them are Marxists, some are Leninists, some are social democrats or anarchists.
  25. ^ Lozada, Carlos (September 1, 2017). "The history, theory and contradictions of antifa". The Washington Post. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2017-09-01. Dicapai pada September 1, 2017. And its politics are not just negatory — they also aim to adapt “preexisting socialist, anarchist, and communist currents to a sudden need to react to the fascist menace.”
  26. ^ "What is Antifa?". The Economist. July 29, 2017. Dicapai pada August 15, 2017.
  27. ^ "Unmasking the leftist Antifa movement". CNN. August 17, 2017. Dicapai pada November 7, 2017.
  28. ^ Bray, Mark (2017). Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Handbook. Melville House. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-61219-703-6.
  29. ^ Smith, Allan (May 31, 2020). "Trump says he will designate antifa a terrorist organization as GOP points fingers at extremists". NBC News. Dicapai pada May 31, 2020.
  30. ^ Samuels, Brett; Chalfant, Morgan (June 1, 2020). "Trump mobilizes military in DC to quell protests as tear gas fired into crowds". The Hill. Dicapai pada June 1, 2020.
  31. ^ "Words We're Watching: 'Antifa'". Merriam-Webster (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Dicapai pada 2018-11-13.
  32. ^ "antifa". Merriam-Webster. Dicapai pada July 21, 2019.
  33. ^ a b "Word of the Year 2017: shortlist". Oxford Dictionaries. Dicapai pada July 21, 2019.
  34. ^ "antifa". Collins English Dictionary. Dicapai pada July 21, 2019.

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Cannistraro, Philip V. (1985). "Luigi Antonini and the Italian Anti-Fascist Movement in the United States, 1940-1943". Journal of American Ethnic History. 5 (1): 21–40. ISSN 0278-5927. JSTOR 27500414.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

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