Blackface

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Replika poster sebuah pertunjukan minstrel bertarikh 1900 yang menunjukkan perubahan watak kulit putih kepada watak "kulit hitam".

Blackface merupakan suatu solekan teater yang digunakan pementas bukan kulit putih untuk menggambarkan seorang kulit hitam secara karikatur menghinanya; ia menjadi begitu popular sepanjang abad ke-19 melalui pertunjukan minstrel yang mengalihkan bentuk persembahan yang formal seperti opera kepada tema-tema yang lebih digemari masyarakat umum Amerika Syarikat ketika itu.[1] Seni ini wujud secara berlanjutan sebagai genre teater yang tersendiri sehingga berlakunya Pergerakan Hak Asasi Amerika pada tahun 1960-an.[2]

Bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Abbott, Lynn, & Seroff, Doug (2008). Ragged but Right: Black Traveling Shows, "Coon Songs," and the Dark Pathway to Blues and Jazz. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.
  • Armstron-De Vreeze, Pamela (1997). "Surviving Zwarte Piet — a Black mother in the Netherlands copes with a racist institution in Dutch culture". Essence magazine. Tanda italik atau tebal tidak dibenarkan dalam: |publisher= (bantuan)[pautan putus]
  • Bas, Marcel (2013). Zwarte Piet: discriminerend of fascinerend?. Aspekt Uitgeverij. ISBN 9789461534095.
  • Chude-Sokei, Louis (2005). The Last Darky: Bert Williams, Black-on-Black Minstrelsy and the African Diaspora. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3643-X.
  • Cockrell, Dale (1997). Demons of Disorder: Early Blackface Minstrels and their World. Cambridge Studies in American Theatre and Drama. ISBN 0-521-56828-5.
  • Levinthal, David (1999). Blackface. Arena. ISBN 1-892041-06-5.
  • Lhamon, Jr., W.T. (1998). Raising Cain: Blackface Performance from Jim Crow to Hip Hop. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-74711-9.
  • Hughes, Langston; Meltzer, Milton (1967). Black Magic: A Pictorial History of Black Entertainers in America. New York: Bonanza Books. ISBN 0-306-80406-9.
  • Lott, Eric (1993). Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507832-2.
  • Malik, Sarita. "The Black and White Minstrel Show". Museum of Broadcast Communications. Dicapai pada 2007-01-08.
  • Rogin, Michael (1998). Blackface, White Noise: Jewish Immigrants in the Hollywood Melting Pot. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21380-7.
  • Sacks, Howard L., and Sacks, Judith (1993). Way up North in Dixie: A Black Family's Claim to the Confederate Anthem. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Sammond, Nicholas (2015). Birth of an Industry: Blackface Minstrelsy and the Rise of American Animation. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
  • Strausbaugh, John (2006). Black Like You: Blackface, Whiteface, Insult and Imitation in American Popular Culture. Jeremy P. Tarcher / Penguin. ISBN 1-58542-498-6.
  • Toll, Robert C. (1974). Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Nineteenth-century America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-8195-6300-5.
  • Twain, Mark (1924). "XIX, dictated 1906-11-30". Mark Twain's Autobiography. New York: Albert Bigelow Paine. LCCN 24025122.
  • Watkins, Mel (1999). On the Real Side: A History of African American Comedy from Slavery to Chris Rock. Chicago, Illinois: Lawrence Hill Books. ISBN 1-55652-351-3.

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