Falsafah analitik

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Falsafah analitik ialah cabang dan tradisi falsafah menggunakan analisis yang popular di Dunia Barat dan khususnya Anglosfera, yang bermula sekitar pergantian abad ke-20 pada era kontemporari di United Kingdom, Amerika Syarikat, Kanada, Australia, New Zealand dan Scandinavia dan berterusan hari ini. Menulis pada tahun 2003, John Searle mendakwa bahawa "jabatan falsafah terbaik di Amerika Syarikat didominasi oleh falsafah analitik."[1]

Tokoh utama dalam perkembangan sejarah falsafah analitik ini ialah Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, GE Moore, dan Ludwig Wittgenstein. Tokoh penting lain dalam sejarahnya termasuk positivis logik (terutamanya Rudolf Carnap), WVO Quine, Saul Kripke, dan Karl Popper.

Falsafah analitik dicirikan oleh penekanan pada bahasa, yang dikenali sebagai giliran linguistik, dan untuk kejelasan dan ketegasan dalam hujah, menggunakan logik dan matematik formal, dan, pada tahap yang lebih rendah, sains semula jadi.[2][3][4] Ia juga mengambil perkara sedikit demi sedikit, dalam "percubaan untuk memfokuskan refleksi falsafah pada masalah yang lebih kecil yang membawa kepada jawapan kepada soalan yang lebih besar." [5][6]

Falsafah analitik sering difahami berbeza dengan tradisi falsafah lain, terutamanya falsafah benua seperti eksistensialisme, fenomenologi, dan Hegelianisme.[7]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Without exception, the best philosophy departments in the United States are dominated by analytic philosophy, and among the leading philosophers in the United States, all but a tiny handful would be classified as analytic philosophers. Practitioners of types of philosophizing that are not in the analytic tradition—such as phenomenology, classical pragmatism, existentialism, or Marxism—feel it necessary to define their position in relation to analytic philosophy." John Searle (2003), Contemporary Philosophy in the United States in N. Bunnin and E. P. Tsui-James (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy, 2nd ed., (Blackwell, 2003), p. 1.
  2. ^ Brian Leiter (2006) webpage "Analytic" and "Continental" Philosophy. Quote on the definition: "'Analytic' philosophy today names a style of doing philosophy, not a philosophical program or a set of substantive views. Analytic philosophers, crudely speaking, aim for argumentative clarity and precision; draw freely on the tools of logic; and often identify, professionally and intellectually, more closely with the sciences and mathematics, than with the humanities."
  3. ^ Glock, H.J. (2004). "Was Wittgenstein an Analytic Philosopher?". Metaphilosophy. 35 (4): 419–444. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9973.2004.00329.x.
  4. ^ Colin McGinn, The Making of a Philosopher: My Journey through Twentieth-Century Philosophy (HarperCollins, 2002), p. xi.: "analytical philosophy [is] too narrow a label, since [it] is not generally a matter of taking a word or concept and analyzing it (whatever exactly that might be). [...] This tradition emphasizes clarity, rigor, argument, theory, truth. It is not a tradition that aims primarily for inspiration or consolation or ideology. Nor is it particularly concerned with 'philosophy of life,' though parts of it are. This kind of philosophy is more like science than religion, more like mathematics than poetry—though it is neither science nor mathematics."
  5. ^ See, e.g., Avrum Stroll, Twentieth-Century Analytic Philosophy (Columbia University Press, 2000), p. 5: "[I]t is difficult to give a precise definition of 'analytic philosophy' since it is not so much a specific doctrine as a loose concatenation of approaches to problems." Also, see Stroll (2000), p. 7: "I think Sluga is right in saying 'it may be hopeless to try to determine the essence of analytic philosophy.' Nearly every proposed definition has been challenged by some scholar. [...] [W]e are dealing with a family resemblance concept."
  6. ^ See Hans-Johann Glock, What Is Analytic Philosophy (Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 205: "The answer to the title question, then, is that analytic philosophy is a tradition held together both by ties of mutual influence and by family resemblances."
  7. ^ A.C. Grayling (ed.), Philosophy 2: Further through the Subject (Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 2: "Analytic philosophy is mainly associated with the contemporary English-speaking world, but it is by no means the only important philosophical tradition. In this volume two other immensely rich and important such traditions are introduced: Indian philosophy, and philosophical thought in Europe from the time of Hegel." L.J. Cohen, The Dialogue of Reason: An Analysis of Analytical Philosophy (Oxford University Press, 1986), p. 5: "So, despite a few overlaps, analytical philosophy is not difficult to distinguish broadly [...] from other modern movements, like phenomenology, say, or existentialism, or from the large amount of philosophizing that has also gone on in the present century within frameworks deriving from other influential thinkers like Aquinas, Hegel, or Marx." H.-J. Glock, What Is Analytic Philosophy? (Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 86: "Most non-analytic philosophers of the twentieth century do not belong to continental philosophy."

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • The London Philosophy Study Guide offers many suggestions on what to read, depending on the student's familiarity with the subject: Frege, Russell, and Wittgenstein
  • Dummett, Michael. The Origins of Analytical Philosophy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993.
  • Hirschberger, Johannes. A Short History of Western Philosophy, ed. Clare Hay. Short History of Western Philosophy, A. ISBN 978-0-7188-3092-2
  • Hylton, Peter. Russell, Idealism, and the Emergence of Analytic Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.
  • Soames, Scott. Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century: Volume 1, The Dawn of Analysis. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003.
  • Passmore, John. A Hundred Years of Philosophy, revised ed. New York: Basic Books, 1966.
  • Weitz, Morris, ed. Twentieth Century Philosophy: The Analytic Tradition. New York: Free Press, 1966.

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]