Kerubut Emas California

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.
Lompat ke: pandu arah, cari

Koordinat: 38°48′09″N 120°53′41″W / 38.80250°N 120.89472°W / 38.80250; -120.89472

Kerubut Emas California
کروبوت امس کاليفورنيا
California Clipper 500.jpg
Pelayaran ke California ketika permulaan kerubut emas
Kawasan emas Sierra Nevada dan Utara California
Penemuan 24 Januari 1848 di Coloma
Durasi 1848–55
Pencari gali 300,000
Legasi 49ers

Kerubut Emas California (1848–1855) bermula pada 24 Januari apabila emas telah dijumpai oleh James W. Marshall dekat Kilang Sutter di Coloma, California, Amerika Syarikat.[1] Pada keseluruhannya, berita mengenai emas tersebut telah membawa lebih kurang 300,000 orang ke California dari seluruh Amerika Syarikat dan luar negara.[2] Dianggarkan mereka yang tiba itu sebahagiannya datang melalui jalan laut manakala sebahagian lagi melalui jalan darat dari timur, di Rintisan California dan Rintisan Sungai Gila.

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "[E]vents from January 1848 through December 1855 [are] generally acknowledged as the 'Gold Rush'. After 1855, California gold mining changed and is outside the 'rush' era.""The Gold Rush of California: A Bibliography of Periodical Articles". California State University, Stanislaus. 2002. Dicapai pada 23 Januari 2008. 
  2. ^ "California Gold Rush, 1848–1864". Setiausaha Negeri California. Dicapai pada 22 Ogos 2011. 

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bancroft, Hubert Howe (1884–1890) History of California, vols. 18–24.
Brands, H. W. (2003). The age of gold: the California Gold Rush and the new American dream. New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 978-0-385-72088-5. 
Clappe, Louise Amelia Knapp Smith (2001) [1922]. The Shirley Letters from the California Mines, 1851–1852. Heyday Books, Berkeley, California. m/s. 109. ISBN 1-890771-00-7. 
Clay, Karen; Gavin Wright (April 2005). "Order Without Law? Property Rights During the California Gold Rush". Explorations in Economic History. 42 (2): 155–183. doi:10.1016/j.eeh.2004.05.003. 
Dillon, Richard (1975). Siskiyou Trail: the Hudson's Bay Company route to California. New York: McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-016980-2. 
Gaither, Chris; Chmielewski, Dawn C. (2006-10-10). "Google Bets Big on Videos" (PDF). Los Angeles Times. Dicapai pada 2006-10-10. 
Harper's New Monthly Magazine March 1855, volume 10, issue 58, p. 543, complete text online.
Heizer, Robert F. (1974). The destruction of California Indians. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-7262-6. 
Hill, Mary (1999). Gold: the California story. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21547-8. 
Holliday, J. S. (1999). Rush for riches: Gold fever and the making of California. Oakland, California, Berkeley and Los Angeles: Oakland Museum of California and University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21401-3. 
Johnson, Susan Lee (2001). Roaring Camp: the social world of the California Gold Rush. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-32099-5. 
Levy, JoAnn (1992) [1990]. They saw the elephant: women in the California Gold Rush. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2473-3. 
Miller, Joaquin (1873). Life amongst the Modocs: unwritten history. Berkeley: Heyday Books; reprint edition (January 1996). ISBN 0-930588-79-7. 
Moynihan, Ruth B.; Armitage, Susan; Dichamp, Christiane Fischer, ed. (1990). So much to be done: Women settlers on the mining and ranching frontier, 2d ed. (Women in the West). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-8248-6. 
Rawls, James, J.; Bean, Walton (2003). California: An interpretive history. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-255255-7. 
Rawls, James, J. and Richard J. Orsi (eds.) (1999). A golden state: mining and economic development in Gold Rush California. California History Sesquicentennial, 2. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21771-3. 
Starr, Kevin (1973). Americans and the California dream: 1850–1915. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504233-6. 
Starr, Kevin (2005). California: a history. New York: Modern Library. ISBN 0-679-64240-4. 
Starr, Kevin and Richard J. Orsi (eds.) (2000). Rooted in barbarous soil: people, culture, and community in Gold Rush California. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22496-5. 
Thornton, Russel (1987). American Indian Holocaust and Survival: ˜a Population History Since 1492. Norman : University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-2074-4. 
Wells, Harry L. (1971) [1881]. History of Siskiyou County, California. Siskiyou Historical Society. OCLC 6150902. ASIN B0006YP8IE,. 

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]