Keseimbangan termodinamik

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Keseimbangan termodinamik ialah konsep aksiomatik termodinamik. Ia merupakan keadaan dalaman untuk satu sistem termodinamik, atau hubungan antara beberapa sistem termodinamik dihubungkan oleh lebih kurang telap atau telap dinding. Dalam keseimbangan termodinamik tidak ada aliran makroskopik bersih jirim atau tenaga, sama ada dalam sistem atau antara sistem.

Bibliografi dipetik[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Adkins, C.J. (1968/1983). Equilibrium Thermodynamics, third edition, McGraw-Hill, London, ISBN 0-521-25445-0.
  • Bailyn, M. (1994). A Survey of Thermodynamics, American Institute of Physics Press, New York, ISBN 0-88318-797-3.
  • Beattie, J.A., Oppenheim, I. (1979). Principles of Thermodynamics, Elsevier Scientific Publishing, Amsterdam, ISBN 0-444-41806-7.
  • Boltzmann, L. (1896/1964). Lectures on Gas Theory, translated by S.G. Brush, University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Buchdahl, H.A. (1966). The Concepts of Classical Thermodynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK.
  • Callen, H.B. (1960/1985). Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics, (1st edition 1960) 2nd edition 1985, Wiley, New York, ISBN 0-471-86256-8.
  • Carathéodory, C. (1909). Untersuchungen über die Grundlagen der Thermodynamik, Mathematische Annalen, 67: 355–386. A translation may be found here. Also a mostly reliable translation is to be found at Kestin, J. (1976). The Second Law of Thermodynamics, Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg PA.
  • Chapman, S., Cowling, T.G. (1939/1970). The Mathematical Theory of Non-uniform gases. An Account of the Kinetic Theory of Viscosity, Thermal Conduction and Diffusion in Gases, third edition 1970, Cambridge University Press, London.
  • Crawford, F.H. (1963). Heat, Thermodynamics, and Statistical Physics, Rupert Hart-Davis, London, Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.
  • de Groot, S.R., Mazur, P. (1962). Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics, North-Holland, Amsterdam. Reprinted (1984), Dover Publications Inc., New York, ISBN 0486647412.
  • Denbigh, K.G. (1951). Thermodynamics of the Steady State, Methuen, London.
  • Eu, B.C. (2002). Generalized Thermodynamics. The Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes and Generalized Hydrodynamics, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, ISBN 1-4020-0788-4.
  • Fitts, D.D. (1962). Nonequilibrium thermodynamics. A Phenomenological Theory of Irreversible Processes in Fluid Systems, McGraw-Hill, New York.
  • Gibbs, J.W. (1876/1878). On the equilibrium of heterogeneous substances, Trans. Conn. Acad., 3: 108–248, 343–524, reprinted in The Collected Works of J. Willard Gibbs, Ph.D, LL. D., edited by W.R. Longley, R.G. Van Name, Longmans, Green & Co., New York, 1928, volume 1, pp. 55–353.
  • Griem, H.R. (2005). Principles of Plasma Spectroscopy (Cambridge Monographs on Plasma Physics), Cambridge University Press, New York ISBN 0-521-61941-6.
  • Guggenheim, E.A. (1949/1967). Thermodynamics. An Advanced Treatment for Chemists and Physicists, fifth revised edition, North-Holland, Amsterdam.
  • Haase, R. (1971). Survey of Fundamental Laws, chapter 1 of Thermodynamics, pages 1–97 of volume 1, ed. W. Jost, of Physical Chemistry. An Advanced Treatise, ed. H. Eyring, D. Henderson, W. Jost, Academic Press, New York, lcn 73–117081.
  • Kirkwood, J.G., Oppenheim, I. (1961). Chemical Thermodynamics, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
  • Landsberg, P.T. (1961). Thermodynamics with Quantum Statistical Illustrations, Interscience, New York.
  • Lieb, E. H.; Yngvason, J. (1999). "The Physics and Mathematics of the Second Law of Thermodynamics". Phys. Rep. 310 (1): 1–96. arXiv:cond-mat/9708200. Bibcode:1999PhR...310....1L. doi:10.1016/S0370-1573(98)00082-9.
  • Levine, I.N. (1983), Physical Chemistry, second edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, ISBN 978-0072538625.
  • Maxwell, J.C. (1867). "On the dynamical theory of gases". Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. 157: 49–88.
  • Morse, P.M. (1969). Thermal Physics, second edition, W.A. Benjamin, Inc, New York.
  • Münster, A. (1970). Classical Thermodynamics, translated by E.S. Halberstadt, Wiley–Interscience, London.
  • Partington, J.R. (1949). An Advanced Treatise on Physical Chemistry, volume 1, Fundamental Principles. The Properties of Gases, Longmans, Green and Co., London.
  • Pippard, A.B. (1957/1966). The Elements of Classical Thermodynamics, reprinted with corrections 1966, Cambridge University Press, London.
  • Planck. M. (1914). The Theory of Heat Radiation, a translation by Masius, M. of the second German edition, P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Philadelphia.
  • Prigogine, I. (1947). Étude Thermodynamique des Phénomènes irréversibles, Dunod, Paris, and Desoers, Liège.
  • Prigogine, I., Defay, R. (1950/1954). Chemical Thermodynamics, Longmans, Green & Co, London.
  • Silbey, R.J., Alberty, R.A., Bawendi, M.G. (1955/2005). Physical Chemistry, fourth edition, Wiley, Hoboken NJ.
  • ter Haar, D., Wergeland, H. (1966). Elements of Thermodynamics, Addison-Wesley Publishing, Reading MA.
  • Thomson, W. (March 1851). "On the Dynamical Theory of Heat, with numerical results deduced from Mr Joule's equivalent of a Thermal Unit, and M. Regnault's Observations on Steam". Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. XX (part II): 261–268, 289–298. Also published in Thomson, W. (December 1852). "On the Dynamical Theory of Heat, with numerical results deduced from Mr Joule's equivalent of a Thermal Unit, and M. Regnault's Observations on Steam". Phil. Mag. 4. IV (22): 8–21. Dicapai pada 25 June 2012.
  • Tisza, L. (1966). Generalized Thermodynamics, M.I.T Press, Cambridge MA.
  • Uhlenbeck, G.E., Ford, G.W. (1963). Lectures in Statistical Mechanics, American Mathematical Society, Providence RI.
  • Waldram, J.R. (1985). The Theory of Thermodynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, ISBN 0-521-24575-3.
  • Zemansky, M. (1937/1968). Heat and Thermodynamics. An Intermediate Textbook, fifth edition 1967, McGraw–Hill Book Company, New York.

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