Perang Kemerdekaan Algeria

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Perang Algeria
الثورة الجزائرية
Tagrawla Tadzayrit
Guerre d'Algérie
Sebahagian daripada Perang Dingin dan penyahjajahan Afrika
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Collage of the French war in Algeria
Tarikh 1 November 1954 – 19 Mac 1962
(7 tahun, 4 bulan, 2 minggu dan 4 hari)
Lokasi Algeria
Hasil Buntu perang,[1][2][3][4]
kemenangan politik bagi FLN,
Perjanjian Évian,
negara Algeria merdeka,
Berakhirnya empayar jajahan Perancis[5][6][7]
Runtuhnya Republik Perancis Keempat kemudiannya pembentukan Republik Perancis Kelima
Casus belli Serangan pengganas Toussaint Rouge di Algeria Perancis oleh FLN, 1 November 1954.
Perubahan
wilayah
Independence of Algeria
Pihak yang terlibat
Variant flag of the GPRA (1958-1962).svg FLN
Variant flag of the GPRA (1958-1962).svg MNA
Flag of Parti communiste algérien.gif PCA
 France FAF
(1960–61)
OAS
(1961–62)
Komandan
Mourad Didouche 
Mustapha Benboulaïd 
Larbi Ben M'HidiTemplat:Executed
Ali La Pointe 
Ahmed ZabanaTemplat:Executed
Youcef Zighoud 
Benali Boudghène 
Bachir Chihani (ar; fr) 
Ali Mallah (ar) 
Colonel Amirouche 
Saadi Yacef
Ahli politik:
Abane Ramdane 
Ferhat Abbas
Houari Boumedienne
Hocine Aït Ahmed
Ahmed Ben Bella
Krim Belkacem
Frantz Fanon
Rabah Bitat
Mohamed Boudiaf
Ali Kafi
Ahmed Tewfik El Madani
Ahmed Francis
Mohamed Khider
Benyoucef Benkhedda
Abdelhamid Mehri
Mohamed Lamine Debaghine
Saad Dahlab
Mohammed Seddik Benyahia
Amar Ouamrane (ar; de; fa; fr)
Lakhdar Ben Tobbal
Abdelhafid Boussouf
Saïd Mohammedi
Ibrahim Mazhoudi
Alphonse Djamate (1955–62)
Paul Cherrière (1954–55)
Henri Lorillot (1955–56)
Raoul Salan (1956–58)
Jacques Massu (1956–60)
Paul Aussaresses
Maurice Challe (1958–60)
Jean Crepin (1960–61)
Fernand Gambiez (1961)
Said Boualam
Pierre Lagaillarde
Raoul Salan
Edmond Jouhaud
Jean-Jacques Susini
Kekuatan
300,000 dikenalpasti 40,000 orang awam 470,000 (maksimum dicapai dan dikekalkan dari 1956 hingga 1962)[8]
1.5 million total mobilized[9]
more than 90,000 Harkis
3,000 (OAS)
Korban
140,000[10] hingga 152,863 anggota FLN[11][12] termasuk 12,000 hukuman buang[13] 25,600 terkorban[14]
  • 19,600 terkorban dalam pertempuran
  • 6,000 mati di luar medan perang

65,000 cedera

*100 terkorban (OAS)
2,000 dipenjarakan (OAS)

Perang Kemerdekaan Algeria, juga dikenali sebagai Perang Algeria ataupun Revolusi Algeria (Bahasa Arab: الثورة الجزائريةAth-Thawra Al-Jazā’iriyya; Bahasa Perancis: Guerre d'Algérie) ialah peperangan antara Perancis dan gerakan-gerakan kemerdekaan Algeria dari tahun 1954 hingga 1962 yang membawa kepada kemerdekaan Algeria daripada pemerintahan Perancis. Sebuah perang pembebasan yang penting, perang ini merupakan sebuah konflik yang kompleks yang ditandai peperangan gerila, pertempuran maquis, terorisme, penggunaan penyiksaan oleh kedua-dua pihak, dan operasi anti-pengganas. Konflik ini juga merupakan perang saudara antara orang Algeria yang setai dengan Algeria Perancis dan lawan mereka, para pemberontak Muslim Algeria.[15]

Latar belakang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Strategi perang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kesan terhadap politik Algeria[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ The Algerian War 1954–62, By Martin Windrow, Mike Chappell, page 11
  2. ^ Introduction to Comparative Politics, By Mark Kesselman, Joel Krieger, William Joseph, page 108
  3. ^ Contracting States: Sovereign Transfers in International Relations, By Alexander Cooley, Hendrik Spruyt, page 63
  4. ^ Christian A. Herter: The American Secretaries of State and Their Diplomacy By George Bernard Noble, page 155
  5. ^ Alec G. Hargreaves (2005). Memory, Empire, and Postcolonialism: Legacies of French Colonialism. Lexington Books. m/s. 1. ISBN 978-0-7391-0821-5. The death knell of the French empire was sounded by the bitterly fought Algerian war of independence, which ended in 1962. 
  6. ^ "The French defeat in the war effectively signaled the end of the French Empire" Collective Memory: France and the Algerian War (1954–1962) Jo McCormack – 2010 [1]
    Paul Allatson; Jo McCormack (2008). Exile Cultures, Misplaced Identities. Rodopi. m/s. 117. ISBN 978-90-420-2406-9. The Algerian War came to an end in 1962, and with it closed some 130 years of French colonial presence in Algeria (and North Africa). With this outcome, the French Empire, celebrated in pomp in Paris in the Exposition coloniale of 1931 and exalted in de Gaulle's description of “la France de Dunkerque à Tlemcen” [Greater France stretching from Dunkerque to Tlemcen], received its decisive death blow. 
  7. ^ Yves Beigbeder (2006). Judging War Crimes And Torture: French Justice And International Criminal Tribunals And Commissions (1940-2005). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. m/s. 35. ISBN 978-90-04-15329-5. The independence of Algeria in 1962, after a long and bitter war, marked the end of the French empire are just some of the reasons why France has preferred to look towards a Eurocentric future, rather than confront the painful aspects of its colonial past. 
  8. ^ Martin Windrow, The Algerian War 1954–62. p. 17
  9. ^ http://www.lefigaro.fr/mon-figaro/2012/03/19/10001-20120319ARTFIG00743-algerie-une-guerre-d-appeles.php
  10. ^ Travis, Hannibal (2013). Genocide, Ethnonationalism, and the United Nations: Exploring the Causes of Mass Killing Since 1945. Routledge. m/s. 137. 
  11. ^ [2] Page 6 "The Algerian Ministry of War Veterans gives the figure of 152,863 FLN killed"
  12. ^ [3] "The Algerian Ministry of War Veterans calculates 152,863 Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) deaths(french sources), and although the death toll among Algerian civilians may never be accurately known estimate of 1500000 to 2000000 were killed Page 576
  13. ^ A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954–1962 – Alistair Horne – P358 (4,300 Algerian from the FLN and MNA killed in metropolitan France)
  14. ^ Stapleton, T.J. (2013). A Military History of Africa [3 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. m/s. 1–272. ISBN 9780313395703. Dicapai 2017-01-13. 
  15. ^ Guy Pervillé, Pour une histoire de la guerre d´Algérie, chap. "Une double guerre civile", Picard, 2002, pp.132–139

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]


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