Subhas Chandra Bose

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Subhas Chandra Bose
সুভাষচন্দ্র বসু
Subhas Chandra Bose NRB.jpg
Ketua Tentera Kebangsaan India[d]
Dalam jawatan
4 Julai 1943 – 18 Ogos 1945
Didahului olehMohan Singh
Digantikan olehJawatan dimansuhkan
Presiden Kongres Kebangsaan India
Dalam jawatan
18 Januari 1938 – 29 April 1939
Didahului olehJawaharlal Nehru
Digantikan olehRajendra Prasad
Dalam jawatan
22 Jun 1939 – 16 Januari 1941
Didahului olehJawatan ditubuhkan
Datuk Bandar Calcutta Ke-5
Dalam jawatan
22 Ogos 1930 – 15 April 1931
Didahului olehJatindra Mohan Sengupta
Digantikan olehBidhan Chandra Roy
Butiran peribadi
LahirSubhas Chandra Bose
(1897-01-23)23 Januari 1897
Cuttack, Divisi Orissa, Provinsi Bengal, India British (kini Cuttack, Odisha, India)
Meninggal dunia18 Ogos 1945(1945-08-18) (umur 48)
Hospital Tentera Nanmon, Taihoku, Taiwan Jepun (kini Taipei City Hospital Heping Fuyou Branch, Taipei, Taiwan)
Sebab kematianLuka kebakaran tahap ketiga susulan kemalangan pesawat
KewarganegaraanRaj British
Pasangan(atau teman)[4] Emilie Schenkl
(kahwin rahsia/tanpa saksi tahun 1937, bahkan tidak dinyatakan Bose sendiri.[5])
Anak-anakAnita Bose Pfaff
IbuPrabhavati Dutt
BapaJanakinath Bose (Janaki Nath Bose)
Pendidikan
Alma mater
Dikenali keranaNasionalisme India
TandatanganTandatangan Subhas Chandra Bose dalam bahasa Inggeris dan Benggali

Subhas Chandra Bose (Bahasa Benggali: সুভাষচন্দ্র বসু, 23 Januari 1897 – 18 Ogos 1945)[h] merupakan seorang aktivis melibatkan diri dalam gerakan nasionalisme India daripada kekuasaan British; beliau melibatkan diri dalam Kongres Kebangsaan India sebagai presiden parti mengikuti jejak Mahatma Gandhi, tetapi lama-kelamaan perselisihan fahaman antara beliau dan Gandhi mendorong banyak pemimpin parti berpaling tadah dan membuang Subash dari partinya.

Penggiatan beliau disanjung sehingga diamati sebagai seorang pahlawan kepada negara India,[12][i][j][k] namun kerjasamanya dengan pihak Jerman dan Jepun ada memalit namanya.[l][m][n]

Awal hidup dan pendidikan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Subhas Chandra Bose lahir pada 23 Januari 1897 jam 12.10 tengahari di Cuttack, Divisi Orissa, Provinsi Bengal. Beliau anak kesembilan dari empat belas adik beradik hasil perkahwinan Prabhavati Devi dan Janakinath Bose, seorang peguam.[17]

Beliau mengikuti adik-beradik lagi tuanya memasuki Sekolah Eropah Protestan pada Januari 1902.

Keanggotaan dalam politik India[sunting | sunting sumber]

1921–1932: Kemasukan dalam Kongres Kebangsaan India[sunting | sunting sumber]

1921–1932: Kembalinya di Kongres[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pada 22 Jun 1939, Bose mendirikan suatu blok menggalang semua yang berfahaman kiri dalam parti INC iaitu All India Forward Bloc.

Dengan kebarangkalian peperangan yang semakin mengena India, Bose memulakan suatu kempen pengingkaran beramai-ramai bertindak balas terhadap keputusan Wizurai Lord Linlithgow membawa India berperang bagi pihak British tanpa mendapatkan nasihat Kongres terlebih dahulu. Subhas pada mulanya mengajak Gandhi bekerjasama namun tidak diendahkan kata-katanya. Tidak lama lepas itu, Bose mengadakan tunjuk besar-besaran di Calcutta mendesak penurunan suatu tugu memperingati penahanan dan penyeksaan askar-askar British oleh Siraj ud-Daulah penguasa Subah Bengal di Dalhousie Square.[18] Beliau diberkas polis British namun dibebaskan berikutan suatu mogok lapar dilakukannya selama seminggu.

Penglibatan dalam peperangan[sunting | sunting sumber]

1941–1943: Perlindungan di Jerman[sunting | sunting sumber]

1943–1945: Kerjasama dengan Jepun[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kemalangan dan kematian[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pada 18 Ogos 1945, Subhas menaiki sebuah pesawat pengebom dari Taihoku, Taiwan dalam suatu penerbangan menuju ke kota Dairen, Manchukuo. Keadaan pesawat pengebom yang sarat melebihi tampungan berat angkutan menyebabkan enjin kiri dan baling-baling hadapan pesawat tercabut;[19][20] pesawat tersebut belok menganan dan menjunam terhempas menybabkan suatu letupan dahsyat.[19][20]

Dua penerbang pesawat dan Timbalan Ketua Turus Tentera Kwantung Lef. Jen. Tsunamasa Shidei yang bertanggungjawab merunding dengan pihak Soviet di Manchuria segera terkorban.[21][19][22] Pembantu Subhas, Habibur Rahman terselamat namun pitam seketika; Subhas pula disimbah minyak gasoline[19] Keduadua mereka cuba meloloskan diri dari bangkai pesawat namun laluan mereka dihalang bagasi[22] memaksa diri mengharungi api yang membakar di pintu keluar hadapan pesawat.[22] Subhas segera terbakar seluruh badannya[19][22] sebaik mereka keluar disaksikan pihak penyelamat di daratan; api berjaya dipadamkan namun meninggalkan luka parah pada kepala dan muka Subhas.[22] Sebuah trak ambulans membawa Subhas segera ke Hospital Tentera Nanmon di selatan Taihoku.[19] Di sana, Bose didapat mengalami luka kebakaran tahap ketiga[23] tetapi masih dalam keadaan sedar.[23] Doktor yang bertanggungjawab iaitu Dr. Yoshimi meragui kemampuan Subhas terselamat,[23] tetapi pasukannya tetap merawatnya sebaiknya. Subhas jatuh koma tidak lama kemudian;[24][19] beliau meninggal dunia akibat komplikasi luka parah dialami antara jam 9 dan 10 malam waktu tempatan tanggal 18 Ogos 1945 ketika berusia 48 tahun.[24][19]

Berita ini dilihat terlalu luar biasa dalam kalangan penyokongnya yang mendapat berita ini terutamanya di Bengal sehinggakan menafikan keadaan ini mahupun persekitaran yang membawa kepada kemalangan ini.[11][25][26] Banyak teori konspirasi yang ditimbulkan daripada rasa tidak percaya ini bagi menjelaskan kehilangannya yang dianggap "tersembunyi" ini.

Peninggalan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "the Provisional Government of Azad Hind (or Free India Provisional Government, FIPG) was announced on 21 October. It was based at Singapore and consisted, in the first instance, of five ministers, eight representatives of the INA, and eight civilian advisers representing the Indians of Southeast and East Asia. Bose was head of state, prime minister and minister for war and foreign affairs.[1]
  2. ^ "Hideki Tojo turned over all Japan's Indian POWs to Bose's command, and in October 1943 Bose announced the creation of a Provisional Government of Free India, of which he became head of state, prime minister, minister of war, and minister of foreign affairs."[2]
  3. ^ "Bose was especially keen to have some Indian territory over which the provisional government might claim sovereignty. Since the Japanese had stopped east of the Chindwin River in Burma and not entered India on that front, the only Indian territories they held were the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Indian Ocean. The Japanese navy was unwilling to transfer administration of these strategic islands to Bose’s forces, but a face-saving agreement was worked out so that the provisional government was given a ‘jurisdiction’, while actual control remained throughout with the Japanese military. Bose eventually made a visit to Port Blair in the Andamans in December and a ceremonial transfer took place. Renaming them the Shahid (Martyr) and Swaraj (Self-rule) Islands, Bose raised the Indian national flag and appointed Lieutenant-Colonel Loganadhan, a medical officer, as chief commissioner. Bose continued to lobby for complete transfer, but did not succeed."[3]
  4. ^ His formal title after 21 October 1943 was: Head of State, Prime Minister, Minister of War, and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Provisional Government of Free India, which was based in Japanese-occupied Singapore.[a][b] with jurisdiction, but without sovereignty of Japanese-occupied Andaman Islands.[c]
  5. ^ Expelled from the college and rusticated from the university, 15 February 1916;[8] reinstated in the university 20 July 1917.[9]
  6. ^ "When another run-in between Professor Oaten and some students took place on February 15 (1916), a group of students including Subhas Bose, ... decided to take the law in their own hands. Coming down the broad staircase from the second floor, Oaten was surrounded (the) students who beat him with their sandals—and fled. Although Oaten himself was not able to identify any of the attackers, a bearer said he saw Subhas Bose and Ananga Dam among those fleeing. Rumors in student circles also placed Subhas among the group. An investigation was carried out by the college authorities, and these two were expelled from the college and rusticated from the university.[8]
  7. ^ "Upon arriving in Britain, Bose went up to Cambridge to gain admission. He managed to gain entry to Fitzwilliam Hall, a body for non-collegiate members of the University. Bose took the Mental and Moral Sciences Tripos."
  8. ^ "If all else failed (Bose) wanted to become a prisoner of the Soviets: 'They are the only ones who will resist the British. My fate is with them. But as the Japanese plane took off from Taipei airport its engines faltered and then failed. Bose was badly burned in the crash. According to several witnesses, he died on 18 August in a Japanese military hospital, talking to the very last of India's freedom. British and Indian commissions later established convincingly that Bose had died in Taiwan. These were legendary and apocalyptic times, however. Having witnessed the first Indian leader to fight against the British since the great mutiny of 1857, many in both Southeast Asia and India refused to accept the loss of their hero. Rumours that Bose had survived and was waiting to come out of hiding and begin the final struggle for independence were rampant by the end of 1945.[11]
  9. ^ "His romantic saga, coupled with his defiant nationalism, has made Bose a near-mythic figure, not only in his native Bengal, but across India."[12]
  10. ^ "Bose's heroic endeavor still fires the imagination of many of his countrymen. But like a meteor which enters the earth's atmosphere, he burned brightly on the horizon for a brief moment only."[13]
  11. ^ "Subhas Bose might have been a renegade leader who had challenged the authority of the Congress leadership and their principles. But in death he was a martyred patriot whose memory could be an ideal tool for political mobilization."[14]
  12. ^ "The most troubling aspect of Bose's presence in Nazi Germany is not military or political but rather ethical. His alliance with the most genocidal regime in history poses serious dilemmas precisely because of his popularity and his having made a lifelong career of fighting the 'good cause'. How did a man who started his political career at the feet of Gandhi end up with Hitler, Mussolini, and Tojo? Even in the case of Mussolini and Tojo, the gravity of the dilemma pales in comparison to that posed by his association with Hitler and the Nazi leadership. The most disturbing issue, all too often ignored, is that in the many articles, minutes, memorandums, telegrams, letters, plans, and broadcasts Bose left behind in Germany, he did not express the slightest concern or sympathy for the millions who died in the concentration camps. Not one of his Berlin wartime associates or colleagues ever quotes him expressing any indignation. Not even when the horrors of Auschwitz and its satellite camps were exposed to the world upon being liberated by Soviet troops in early 1945, revealing publicly for the first time the genocidal nature of the Nazi regime, did Bose react."[15]
  13. ^ "To many (Congress leaders), Bose's programme resembled that of the Japanese fascists, who were in the process of losing their gamble to achieve Asian ascendancy through war. Nevertheless, the success of his soldiers in Burma had stirred as much patriotic sentiment among Indians as the sacrifices of imprisoned Congress leaders.[16]
  14. ^ "Marginalized within Congress and a target for British surveillance, Bose chose to embrace the fascist powers as allies against the British and fled India, first to Hitler's Germany, then, on a German submarine, to a Japanese-occupied Singapore. The force that he put together ... known as the Indian National Army (INA) and thus claiming to represent free India, saw action against the British in Burma but accomplished little toward the goal of a march on Delhi. ... Bose himself died in an aeroplane crash trying to reach Japanese-occupied territory in the last months of the war. ... It is this heroic, martial myth that is today remembered, rather than Bose's wartime vision of a free India under the authoritarian rule of someone like himself."[12]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Gordon 1990, m/s. 502.
  2. ^ Wolpert 2000, m/s. 339.
  3. ^ Gordon 1990, m/s. 502–503.
  4. ^ Gordon 1990, m/s. 344–345.
  5. ^ Hayes 2011, m/s. 15.
  6. ^ Gordon 1990, m/s. 32.
  7. ^ Gordon 1990, m/s. 33.
  8. ^ a b Gordon 1990, m/s. 48.
  9. ^ Gordon 1990, m/s. 52.
  10. ^ a b The_Open_University.
  11. ^ a b Bayly & Harper 2007, m/s. 2.
  12. ^ a b c Metcalf & Metcalf 2012, m/s. 210.
  13. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 2004, m/s. 311.
  14. ^ Bandyopādhyāẏa 2004, m/s. 427.
  15. ^ Hayes 2011, m/s. 165.
  16. ^ Stein 2010, m/s. 345.
  17. ^ Marshall J. Getz (2002). Subhas Chandra Bose: A Biography. McFarland. m/s. 7–. ISBN 978-0-7864-1265-5. Dicapai pada 13 Jun 2012.
  18. ^ Sen 1999.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h Lebra 2008a, m/s. 196–197.
  20. ^ a b Gordon 1990, m/s. 540.
  21. ^ Lebra 2008a, m/s. 195–196.
  22. ^ a b c d e Gordon 1990, m/s. 541.
  23. ^ a b c Gordon 1990, m/s. 541–542.
  24. ^ a b Gordon 1990, m/s. 542.
  25. ^ Bayly & Harper 2007, m/s. 22.
  26. ^ Wolpert 2000, m/s. 339–340.
Sumber utama

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