Telepati

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Eksperimen Ganzfeld yang bertujuan untuk menunjukkan telepati telah dikritik kerana kekurangan replikasi dan kawalan yang lemah.[1][2]

Telepati (dari Greek τῆλε, tele bermaksud "jauh" dan πάθος, rasa kesedihan atau makna -patheia" perasaan, persepsi, semangat, penderitaan, pengalaman")[3][4] adalah yang dikatakan yang mewakili penghantaran maklumat dari seseorang kepada orang lain tanpa menggunakan saluran deria manusia yang diketahui atau interaksi fizikal. Istilah ini dicipta pada tahun 1882 oleh ulama klasik Frederic WH Myers,[5] seorang pengasas Society for Research Psychical,[6] dan tetap lebih popular daripada ekspresi pemikiran-transparan sebelumnya.[7]

Eksperimen telepati secara kritikal telah dikritik kerana kurangnya kawalan dan pengulangan yang tepat. Tidak ada bukti yang meyakinkan bahawa telepati wujud, dan topik ini umumnya dipertimbangkan oleh masyarakat saintifik untuk menjadi pseudosains.[8][9][10][11]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ arks, David; Kammann, Richard. (2000). The Psychology of the Psychic. Prometheus Books. pp. 97-106.
  2. ^ Hyman, Ray. Evaluating Parapsychological Claims. In Robert J. Sternberg, Henry L. Roediger, Diane F. Halpern. (2007). Critical Thinking in Psychology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 216-231. ISBN 978-0521608343
  3. ^ Telepathy. CollinsDictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved December 06, 2012.
  4. ^ Following the model of sympathy and empathy.
  5. ^ Hamilton, Trevor (2009). Immortal Longings: F.W.H. Myers and the Victorian search for life after death. Imprint Academic. m/s. 121. ISBN 978-1-84540-248-8. 
  6. ^ Carroll, Robert Todd (2005). "The Skeptic's Dictionary; Telepathy". Skepdic.com. Dicapai 2006-09-13. 
  7. ^ Glossary of Parapsychological terms - Telepathy — Parapsychological Association. Retrieved December 19, 2006.
  8. ^ Felix Planer. (1980). Superstition. Cassell. p. 218. ISBN 0-304-30691-6 "Many experiments have attempted to bring scientific methods to bear on the investigation of the subject. Their results based on literally millions of tests, have made it abundantly clear that there exists no such phenomenon as telepathy, and that the seemingly successful scores have relied either on illusion, or on deception."
  9. ^ Jan Dalkvist (1994). Telepathic Group Communication of Emotions as a Function of Belief in Telepathy. Dept. of Psychology, Stockholm University. Dicapai 5 October 2011. Within the scientific community however, the claim that psi anomalies exist or may exist is in general regarded with skepticism. One reason for this difference between the scientist and the non scientist is that the former relies on his own experiences and anecdotal reports of psi phenomena, whereas the scientist at least officially requires replicable results from well controlled experiments to believe in such phenomena - results which according to the prevailing view among scientists, do not exist. 
  10. ^ Willem B. Drees (28 November 1998). Religion, Science and Naturalism. Cambridge University Press. m/s. 242–. ISBN 978-0-521-64562-1. Dicapai 5 October 2011. Let me take the example of claims in parapsychology regarding telepathy across spatial or temporal distances, apparently without a mediating physical process. Such claims are at odds with the scientific consensus. 
  11. ^ Spencer Rathus. (2011). Psychology: Concepts and Connections. Cengage Learning. p. 143. ISBN 978-1111344856 "There is no adequate scientific evidence that people can read other people's minds. Research has not identified one single indisputable telepath or clairvoyant."

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • James Alcock. (1981). Parapsychology: Science or Magic? A Psychological Perspective. Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-025772-0
  • Bergen Evans. (1954). The Spoor of Spooks: And Other Nonsense. Knopf.
  • C. E. M. Hansel. (1989). The Search for Psychic Power: ESP and Parapsychology Revisited. Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-516-4
  • Walter Mann. (1919). The Follies and Frauds of Spiritualism. Rationalist Association. London: Watts & Co. Chapter XII. pp. 131–191.
  • David Marks. (2000). The Psychology of the Psychic (2nd Edition). Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-798-8
  • Kenneth Wilcox Payne. (1928). Is Telepathy All Bunk? Popular Science.
  • Felix Planer. (1980). Superstition. Cassell. ISBN 0-304-30691-6
  • Graham Reed. (1988). The Psychology of Anomalous Experience. Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-435-4
  • Stuart Sutherland. (1994). Irrationality: The Enemy Within. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-016726-9

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