Bahasa-bahasa Dravidia

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.
Lompat ke: pandu arah, cari

Templat:Otheruses2

Bahasa-bahasa Dravidia
Taburan geografi: Asia Selatan
Subahagian:
Utara
Tengah
Tengah Selatan
Selatan
ISO 639-2 and 639-5: dra
[[File:Dravidische Sprachen.png|350px]]

Bahasa-bahasa Dravidia mengandungi sekurang-kurangnya 73 buah bahasa[1] yang dituturkan di Selatan India dan timur laut Sri Lanka, serta sesetangah kawasan di Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, timur India, dan tangah India, serta bahagian di Afghanistan dan Iran, dan negara-negara seperti UK, AS, Kanada, Malaysia, dan Singapura.

Nombor[sunting | sunting sumber]

Number Bahasa Tamil Bahasa Telugu Bahasa Kannada Bahasa Tulu Bahasa Malayalam Bahasa Kurukh Bahasa Kolami Bahasa Brahui Bahasa Proto-Dravidia
1 onru okai ondu onji onnu oa okkod asi *oru(1)
2 irau renu erau rau randu indiŋ irā irā *iru(2)
3 nru u ru mūji nnu mūnd mūndiŋ musi *muC
4 nālu, nālku, nānku nālugu nālku nālu nālu kh nāliŋ čār (II) *nāl
5 aintu ayidu aidu ainu añcu pancē (II) ayd(3) panč (II) *cayN
6 āru āru āru āji āru soyyē (II) ār(3) šaš (II) *caru
7 ēu ēu ēlu ēlu ēu sattē (II) ē(3) haft (II) *eu
8 eu enimidi eu ēma eu ahē (II) enumadī (3) hašt (II) *eu
9 onpatu tommidi ombattu ormba onpatu naiyē (II) tomdī (3) nōh (II) *to
10 pattu padi hattu pattu pathu dassē (II) padī (3) dah (II) *pat(tu)
  1. This is the same as another word meaning "one" in another sense in Tamil and Malayalam - the distinction is as between Spanish "un" and "uno".
  2. This is still found in compound words, and has taken on a meaning of "double" in Tamil and Malayalam. For example, irupatu (20, literally meaning "double-ten") or "irai" ("double") or Iruvar (meaning two people).
  3. Kolami numbers 5-10 are borrowed from Telugu

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]


Templat:LangSA

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Caldwell, R., A comparative grammar of the Dravidian, or, South-Indian family of languages, London: Harrison, 1856.; Reprinted London, K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & co., ltd., 1913; rev. ed. by J.L. Wyatt and T. Ramakrishna Pillai, Madras, University of Madras, 1961, reprint Asian Educational Services, 1998. ISBN 81-206-0117-3
  • Campbell, A.D., A grammar of the Teloogoo language, commonly termed the Gentoo, peculiar to the Hindoos inhabiting the northeastern provinces of the Indian peninsula, 3d ed. Madras, Printed at the Hindu Press, 1849.
  • Krishnamurti, B., The Dravidian Languages, Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-521-77111-0
  • Subrahmanyam, P.S., Dravidian Comparative Phonology, Annamalai University, 1983.
  • Zvelebil, Kamil., Dravidian Linguistics: An Introduction", PILC (Pondicherry Institute of Linguistics and Culture), 1990
  • Zvelebil, Kamil., Tamil Literature, E.J. Brill, Leiden, 1975, ISBN 90-04-04190-7
  • Kuiper, F.B.J., Aryans in the Rig Veda", Rodopi, 1991, ISBN 90-5183-307-5 (CIP)
  • Witzel, Michael, Early Sources for South Asian Substrate Languages.Boston, "Mother Tongue", extra number 1999[1]
  • Trask, Robert Lawrence (2000). The Dictionary of Historical and Comparative Linguistics. Routledge. ISBN 1579582184. 

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]