Bahasa Palau

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Palauan
asli ke  Palau
 Guam
asli penutur sekitar 15,000[1]  (tiada tarikh)
keluarga bahasa
Austronesia
Sistem penulisan Huruf Latin
status rasmi
Bahasa rasmi di  Palau
kod bahasa
ISO 639-2 pau
ISO 639-3 pau

Bahasa Palau (juga dieja Bahasa Belau) ialah salah satu daripada dua bahasa rasmi yang ditutrkan di Republik Palau (bahasa kedua ialah Bahasa Inggeris). Bahasa ini tergolong dalam bahasa Austronesia dan ia juga dianggap sebagai bahasa kedua di Micronesia. (yang lain adalah bahasa Chamorro) tergolong dalam kumpulan bahasa Melayu-Polynesia Barat, semua bahasa yang lain di anggap ahli samaada bahasa Micronesian atau pinggir (outlier) Polynesian kumpulan kecil kepada bahasa Melayu-Polynesia Timur.

Bunyian[sunting | sunting sumber]

The phonemic inventory of Palauan consists of 10 consonants and 6 vowels.[2] Phonetic charts of the vowel and consonant phonemes are provided below, utilizing the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).

Vowel Phonemes
  Front Central Back
High i   u
Mid ε ə o
Low   a  
Consonant Phonemes
  Labial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Voiceless
stops
  t k ʔ
Voiced
stops
b d    
Voiceless
fricatives
  s    
Nasals m   ŋ  
Liquids   l, ɾ    

While the phonemic inventory of Palauan is relatively small, comparatively, many phonemes contain at least two allophones that surface as the result of various phonological processes within the language. The full phonetic inventory of consonants is given below in IPA (the phonemic inventory of vowels, above, is complete).

Surface Consonants
  Labial Interdental Alveolar Post-Alveolar Velar Glottal
Voiceless
stops
p
  t
  k
ʔ
Voiced
stops
b   d   g  
Voiceless
fricatives
  θ s      
Voiced
fricatives
  ð        
Nasals m   n   ŋ  
Liquids     l, ɾ, r      
Approximants w     j    

Diphthongs[sunting | sunting sumber]

Palauan contains several diphthongs (sequences of vowels within a single syllable). A list of diphthongs and corresponding Palauan words containing them are given below, adapted from Templat:Harvard citation.

Diphthongs
IPA Example English Translation
/iε/ babier "paper" (German loan)
/εi/ mei "come"
/iu/ chiukl "(singing) voice"
/ui/ tuich "torch"
/io/ kikiongel "dirty"
/oi/ tekoi "language"
/ia/ diall "ship"
/ai/ chais "news"
/εu/ teu "width"
/uε/ sueleb "afternoon"
/εo/ Oreor "Koror" (former capital of Palau)
/oε/ beroel "spear"
/εa/ beached "tin"
/aε/ baeb "pipe" (English loan)
/uo/ uos "horse"
/ou/ merous "distribute"
/ua/ tuangel "door"
/au/ mesaul "tired"
/oa/ omoachel "river"
/ao/ taod "fork"

The extent to which it is accurate to characterize each of these vowel sequences as diphthongs has been a matter of debate, as in Templat:Harvard citation, Templat:Harvard citation, Templat:Harvard citation, Templat:Harvard citation. Nevertheless, a number of the sequences above, such as /ui/, clearly behave as diphthongs given their interaction with other aspects of Palauan phonology like stress shift and vowel reduction. Others do not behave as clearly like monosyllabic diphthongs.

Sistem Penulisan[sunting | sunting sumber]

In the early 1970s, the Palau Orthography Committee worked with linguists from the University of Hawaii to devise a common writing system based on the Latin alphabet.[3] The resulting orthography was largely based on the "one sound/one symbol" notion of the pre-Chomskyan structuralists, yielding an alphabet of ten native Palauan consonants (plus two double consonants), five consonants used exclusively in borrowed words, and five vowels (plus four double vowels). The 20 vowel sequences listed above under the heading Diphthongs are also all officially recognized in the orthography.

On May 10, 2007, the Palauan Senate passed Bill No. 7-79, which mandates that educational institutions recognize the Palauan orthography laid out in Templat:Harvard citation and Templat:Harvard citation. The bill also establishes an Orthography Commission to maintain the language as it develops as well as to oversee and regulate any additions or modifications to the current official orthography.

Konsonan Tempatan
Huruf Bahasa Palau Penyebutan IPA Perkataan Contoh
b [b], [p], [pʰ] bai "rumah komuniti"
ch [ʔ] charm "haiwan"
d [d], [t], [ð], [θ] diall "kapal"
k [k], [g], [kʰ] ker "soalan"
l [l] lius "kelapa"
ll [l:] llel "daun"
m [m] mad "mata"
ng [ŋ], [n] ngau "api"
r [ɾ] rekas "nyamuk"
s [s] sechelei "kawan"
t [t], [tʰ] tuu "pisang"
Konsonan Asing
Huruf Bahasa Palau Penyebutan IPA Perkataan contoh
f [f] fenda "fender (Eng.)"
h [h] haibio "tuberculosis (Jap. haibyoo)"
n [n] sensei "teacher (Jap. sensei)"
p [p] Papa "the Pope (Span. Papa)"
ts [ts] tsuingam "chewing gum (Eng.)"
z [z] miuzium "museum (Eng.)"
Vowels
Huruf Bahasa Palau penyebutan IPA Perkataan Contoh
a [a] chad "orang"
e ε, ə sers "kebun"
ee [ε:] kmeed "berdekatan"
i [i] sils "matahari"
ii [i:], [ji], [ij] iis "hidung"
o [o] ngor "mulut"
u [u] bung "bunga"

Sintaksis[sunting | sunting sumber]

Susunan Perkataan[sunting | sunting sumber]

The word order of Palauan is usually thought to be Verb-Object-Subject (VOS), but this has been a matter of some debate in the linguistic literature.[4] Those who accept the VOS analysis of Palauan word order generally treat Palauan as a pro-drop language with preverbal subject agreement morphemes, final pronominal subjects are deleted (or null).

Example 1: Ak milenga er a ringngo pro. (means: "I ate the apple.")

In the preceding example, the null pronoun pro is the subject "I," while the clause-initial ak is the first person singular subject agreement morpheme.

On the other hand, those who have analyzed Palauan as SVO necessarily reject the pro-drop analysis, instead analyzing the subject agreement morphemes as subject pronouns. In the preceding example, SVO-advocates assume that there is no pro and that the morpheme ak is simply an overt subject pronoun meaning "I." One potential problem with this analysis is that it fails to explain why overt (3rd person) subjects occur clause-finally in the presence of a co-referring 3rd person "subject pronoun" --- treating the subject pronouns as agreement morphemes circumvents this weakness. Consider the following example.

Example 2: Ng milenga er a ringngo a Alan. (means: "Alan ate the apple.")

Proponents of the SVO analysis must assume a shifting of the subject a Alan "Alan" from clause-initial to clause-final position, a movement operation that has not received acceptance cross-linguistically, but see Templat:Harvard citation for discussion.

Frasa[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sebahagian perkataan dan frasa biasa dan berguna Bahasa Palau disenaraikan seperti dibawah dengan terjemahan Bahasa Melayu dan Bahasa Inggeris

Bahasa Palau Bahasa Inggeris Bahasa Melayu
Alii! Hello! Helo!
Ungil tutau. Good morning. Selamat pagi.
Ungil sueleb. Good afternoon. Selamat tengah hari.
Ungil kebesengei. Good evening. Selamat petang.
A ngkek a ___. My name is ___. Nama saya ialah ___.
Ng techa ngkem? What's your name? Siapakah nama kamu?
Ke ua ngerang? How are you? Kamu apa Khabar?
Ak mesisiich. I'm fine. Saya/aku sihat.
Ak chad er a ___. I'm from ___. Aku/saya dari ___.
Belau Palau Palau
Merikel U.S.A. Amerika
Ingklis England England
Siabal Japan Jepun
Sina China China
Ke chad er ker el beluu? Where are you from? Kamu daripada mana?
Ke mlechell er ker el beluu? Where were you born? Dimanakah kamu dilahirkan?
Ak mlechell er a ___. I was born in____ Saya dilahirkan di __ ?
Ng tela rekim? How old are you? Berapakah umur kamu?
Ng ___ a rekik. I am ___ years old. Saya berusia ___ tahun.
Ng tela a dengua er kau? What's your phone number? Apakah nombor telefon kamu?
A dengua er ngak a ___. My phone number is ___. Nombor telefon saya ialah___.
Ke kiei er ker? Where do you live? Dimanakah kamu tinggal?
Ak kiei er a ___. I live in __. Saya tinggal di ___
Chochoi. Yes Ya
Ng diak. No tidak
Alang. Please. Tolong
Sulang. Thank you. Terima Kasih
Ke mo er ker? Where are you going? Ke manakah kamu hendak pergi?
Mechikung. Goodbye. Selamat Tinggal

Nota Kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Menurut Sensus 2005 Palau, terdapat 18,544 penduduk berusia 5 tahun atau lebih mendiami Republik Palau, dari mana 4,718 tidak bertutur bahasa Palau. Dengan itu terdapat 13,826 penutur bahasa Palau di Palau. Juml;ah ini tidak merangkumi penutur Palau asli yang duduk di luar Palau.
  2. Only 5 vowel phonemes are listed in Templat:Harvard citation because she avoids the issue of how to treat indeterminate underlying vowels. The vowel chart here tentatively reflects the analysis of Templat:Harvard citation, who treats indeterminate vowels as instances of underlying ə. Furthermore, the analysis of Palauan [w] in Templat:Harvard citation treats it as a phoneme distinct from /u/, while [w] is merely an allophone of /u/ according Templat:Harvard citation. The consonant chart tentatively reflects Wilson's analysis.
  3. The final report of the Palau Orthography Committee was released in 1972.
  4. See Templat:Harvard citation, Templat:Harvard citation, and Templat:Harvard citation for arguments in favor of treating Palauan as VOS. cf. Templat:Harvard citation and Templat:Harvard citation, which assume an SVO order for Palauan.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Flora, Jo-Ann (1974), Palauan Phonology and Morphology, PhD Dissertation: University of California, San Diego.
  • Georgopoulos, Carol (1986), "Palauan as a VOS Language", in Paul Geraghty, Lois Carrington, and Stephen A. Wurm (eds.), FOCAL I: Papers from the Fourth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, C-93, 187-198.
  • Georgopoulos, Carol (1991), Syntactic Variables: Resumptive Pronouns and A' Binding in Palauan, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  • Josephs, Lewis (1975), Palauan Reference Grammar, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  • Josephs, Lewis (1990), New Palauan-English Dictionary, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  • Josephs, Lewis (1997), Handbook of Palauan Grammar (Vol. 1), Koror: Palau Ministry of Education.
  • Josephs, Lewis (1999), Handbook of Palauan Grammar (Vol. 2), Koror: Palau Ministry of Education.
  • Waters, Richard C. (1980), Topicalization and Passive in Palauan, Ms., MIT, <http://frodo.ucsc.edu/~jnuger/waters_richard_1980.pdf>.
  • Wilson, Helen (1972), "The Phonology and Syntax of Palauan Verb Affixes", University of Hawaii Working Papers in Linguistics 4 (5).
  • Zuraw, Kie (2003), "Vowel Reduction in Palauan Reduplicants", in Andrea Rackowski and Norvin Richards (eds.), Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Meeting of the Austronesian Formal Linguistics Association, Cambridge: MITWPL #44, 385-398.

Pautan Luar[sunting | sunting sumber]