Panthay

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Panthay merupakan kumpulan orang Islam di Myanmar. Sesetengah orang merujuk Panthay sebagai kumpulan orang Islam yang tertua di Myanmar. Namun disebabkan oleh percampuran antara kaum dan budaya, Panthay kini bukanlah kumpulan unik seperti dulu.

Etimologi[sunting | sunting sumber]



Panthay (Bahasa Burma: ပန်းသေးလူမျိုး; MLCTS: pan: se: lu myui: merupakan istilah yang merujuk kepada Orang Hui Muslim di China yang berhijrah ke Burma. Mereka merupakan antara kumpulan Orang Cina Burma yang terbesar, dan kebanyakannya tinggal di utara Burma (dulu dikenali sebagai Hulu Burma), terutamanya di kawasan Mandalay-Taunggyi dan Negeri-negeri Shan.

Nama Panthay merupakan sebuah perkataan Bahasa Burma, yang dikatakan sama dengan perkataan Bahasa Shan Pang hse.[1] Perkataan ini merupakan nama yang Orang Burma memanggil Orang Cina Muslim yang datang dengan karavan ke Burma dari Yunnan di China. Nama ini tidak dikenali di Yunnan.[2][3]

Beberapa teori menyarankan asal-usulnya, tetapi tiada satupun antara teori-teori tersebut yang cukup kuat untuk menyangkal teori lainnya. Perkataan Burma Pathi adalah satu pencemaran dari perkataan dalam bahasa Parsi. Orang Burma dalam Burma Lama menggelar orang Islam asli sebagai Pathi. Ia digunapakai kepada seluruh orang Islam selain orang Cina Islam. Nama Panthay masih digunapakai khususnya kepada orang Cina Islam. Bagaimana pun, orang Cina Islam di Yunnan tidak menggelar diri mereka sebagai Panthay. Mereka menggelar diri mereka sebagai Huizu (回族) yang bererti orang Islam dalam bahasa Cina. Orang Cina bukan Islam dan orang Barat merujuk mereka sebagai Huihui (回回).

Setakat yang dapat dipastikan, penggunaan istilah "Panthay" terhadap orang Islam Yunnan (dan seterusnya terhadap orang Islam Burma yang berasal daripada Yunnan) bertarikh dari masa ini; jelas bahawa ia digunakan secara meluas oleh pengembara-pengembara dan diplomat-diplomat British di kawasan tersebut sejak dari tahun 1875, dan kelihatannya muncul hasil pencemaran dari perkataan Burma pa-the yang mudahnya bererti "orang Islam". Sejumlah besar kesusasteraan wujud menyelubungi etimologi istilah ini namun kenyataan muktamad (yang masih belum diterbitkan) menunjukkan bahawa ia diperkenalkan oleh Sladen pada masa ekspedisinya dalam tahun 1868 ke Teng-yueh, dan bahawa ia mewakili versi keinggerisan dan kependekan bagi perkataan Burma tarup pase, atau "orang Islam Cina". Hakikatnya, istilah "Panthay" tidak pernah digunapakai oleh orang Islam Yunnan (samada di China mahupun di Burma) yang hanya menggelarkan diri mereka sebagai Hui-min atau Hui-hui; penggunaannya tidak pula meluas di kalangan orang Burma, Shan, Karen, atau orang-orang Burma lain. Namun begitu, -dan gelaran tersebut hampir-hampir tidak digunakan dalam Burma hari ini - istilah "Panthay" digunakan secara meluas semasa tempoh pemerintahan British, dan mengekalkan nama yang digunakan umumnya untuk membezakan masyarakat Islam Cina di Burma dalam sumber-sumber berbahasa Inggeris hingga ke hari ini.

The origin of Panthay was - the families of some loyal lieutenants led by Ma Lin-Gi(馬靈驥) of the reputable late Hui General Du Wen-Xio who committed suicide after his perilous fight against the Ching Empire jointly with its Christian ally Taipin-Tinkuo failed, and to escape from being massacred by the Ching Empire, they had no choice but had to flee to Burma for refuge. Settled down in Wa region at Northern Shan State, Ma Lin-Gi divorced with his wife of family name Yuan and married a widow of family name Ting. They later had two sons, the elder named Ma Mei-Ting (馬美廷) was born in 1878 and the second son named Ma Shen-Ting (馬陞廷) was born in 1879. The elder son later became the leader of the Panthay community there who accomplished in making it toward prosperity and the second son, a handsome man was a reputable skillful gentlemen of high dignity. Their future generations later resettled in Burma's Maymyo, Mandalay and many of them immigrated to US, Australia and Taiwan up to the current status.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. (Scott, 1900, 607)
  2. (Yule & Burnell, 1968, 669)
  3. Walaupun istilah Panthay digunakan untuk merujuk kepada Muslim di China, penggunaan ini adalah moden dan datang dari Burma.

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Anderson, John, Mandalay to Momien: A Narrative of the Two Expeditions to Western China of 1868 and 1875 (London: Macmillan, 1876).
  2. Ba Shin, Lt. Colonel, "Coming of Islam to Burma Down to l700 AD.," Asian History Congress (New Delhi: Azad Bhavan, 1961).
  3. Forbes, D.W., "The Role of Hui Muslims in the Traditional Caravan Trade between Yunnan and Thailand," Asian Merchants and Businessmen in the Indian Ocean and the China sea: 13-20 Centuries(French Journal published under the direction of Denys Lombard & Jean Aubin), (Paris: School of Higher Studies in Social Sciences, 1987).
  4. Kaye, J.W., Major Sladen’s Report on the Bhamo Route, (In Continuation of' Parliamentary Paper No. 251, of Session 1868-9), (London: India Office, 1871), Microfilm copy.
  5. Scott, J. George, GUBSS, 1, i ( Rangoon Government Printing, 1900).
  6. ibid GUBSS, ii, ii (Rangoon- Government Printing, 1901).
  7. Thaung, Dr., “Panthay Interlude in Yunnan: A Study in Vicissitudes Through the Burmese Kaleidoscope,” JBRS Fifth Anniversary Publications No. 1 (Rangoon Sarpy Beikman, 1961).
  8. Yule, Col. Henry & Burnell, A. C., Hobson-Jobson- A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, and of Kindred Terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical And Discursive (Delhi-.Munshiran Manoharlal, 1968), Reprint.
  9. Than Tun, Dr. (Professor of History), History on Tour, 111, (In Burma) (Yangon Nantha House, August 1968).
  10. Parabaik dated 13 November, 1868 containing a short account of' Mah Too-tu's purchase of land and house from Khunit Ywa-sa Princess (a family parabaik of the writer).
  11. Interview with U Aung Myint (aged 75), a higher grade pleader, before the war, and building contractor after the war, on 11 December, 1987. Although a Burma Buddhist, U Aung Myint was very friendly with Khala Kyawt, a Burma Muslim who had lived in the Panthay Compound formany years in the pre-war days and who had in her possession a parabaik manuscript on the Tayoktan quarrel between the Chinese and the Panthays, and the circumstances leading to the granting of land by King Mindon for the residence of Panthays and the construction of the Parithay Mosque. U Aung Myint had personally read this parabaik, which, unfortunately was destroyed by fire during the war. U Aung Myint had lived close to the Panthay Compound before the war and the house in which he had lived is said to have been inside the Panthay Compound at one time.

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Myanmar Muslim Information Centre (MMIC)-[1]
  • Burma Digest Bo Aung Din’s Letter 11- About Myanmar Muslims. and Myanmar Indian Muslims. [2]
  • Burma Digest Bo Aung Din’s Letter 10- Myanmar Muslims, Myanmar Chinese Muslims and Migrants. [3]
  • Burma Digest Bo Aung Din’s Letter 9- Myanmar Muslims.[4]
  • Burmese Muslims Network- [5]
  • Islamic Unity Brotherhood [6]
  • Myanmar Muslim political Awareness Organization- [7]
  • Panthay on line community- [8]
  • Office of UN High Commissioner for Human Rights [9]
  • US Department of State, International Religious Freedom Report 2005 on Burma [10]
  • US Department of State, Burma, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2005
  • Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor [11]
  • Amnesty International’s report on Burma [12]
  • UK Conservatives’ Human Rights [13]
  • Refusal of Identity Cards for Burmese Muslims [14][15]
  • Refusal of Identity Cards for Burmese Muslims [16]
  • Racial Discriminations on Burmese Muslims [17][18]
  • Human Rights issues in Burma [19]
  • PRAYERS FOR BURMA [20]
  • Priestly, Harry (2006-01). "The Outsiders". The Irrawaddy. Diperolehi pada 2006-07-07. 
  • Butkaew, Samart (2005-02). "Burmese Indians: The Forgotten Lives". Burma Issues. Diperolehi pada 2006-07-07. 
  • The Persecution of Muslims in Burma, by Karen Human Rights Group