Queensland

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Queensland
Flag of  Queensland Coat of Arms of  Queensland
Bendera Jata
Slogan atau nama samaran: Sunshine State, Smart State
Moto(s): "Audax at Fidelis" (Bold but Faithful)
Map of Australia with  Queensland highlighted
Negeri dan wilayah Australia lain
Ibu negeri Brisbane
Kerajaan Perlembagaan persekutuan
Governor Penelope Wensley
Premier Anna Bligh (ALP)
Wakil persekutuan
 - House seats 29
 - Senate seats 12
Keluaran Kasar State (2008-09)
 - Produk ($m)  $224,187[1] (3rd)
 - Produk per capita  $50,873 (ke-6)
Penduduk (Jun 2009)
 - Populasi  4,406,800[2] (3rd)
 - Kepadatan  2.55/km² (5th)
6.6 /sq mi
Kawasan  
 - Jumlah  1,852,642 km² (ke-2 terbesar)
715,309 sq mi
 - Tanah 1,730,648 km²
668,207 sq mi
 - Air 121,994 km² (6.58%)
47,102 sq mi
Ketinggian  
 - Tertinggi Mount Bartle Frere
+1,622 m (5,321 ft)
 - Terendah
Zon waktu AEST UTC+10 tidak memerhati DST
Singkatan  
 - Postal QLD
 - ISO 3166-2 AU-QLD
Lambang  
 - Faunal Koala
(Phascolarctos cinereus)
 - Floral Cooktown orchid
(Dendrobium phalaenopsis)
 - Bird Brolga (Grus rubicunda)
 - Aquatic Barrier Reef Anemonefish
(Amphiprion akindynos)
 - Gem Sapphire
 - Colours Maroon
Laman web www.qld.gov.au

Koordinat: 23°0′S 143°0′E / 23.000°S 143.000°T / -23.000; 143.000 Queensland adalah sebuah negeri Australia yang menduduki bahagian barat laut benua tanah besar. Ia bersempadan Wilayah Utara di barat, Australia Selatan di barat daya dan New South Wales di selatan. Di timur, Queensland bersempadan dengan Coral Sea dan Pacific Ocean. Negeri ini adalah yang kedua terbesar di Australia mengikut kawasan, berikutnya Australia Barat, dan ketiga paling ramai selepas New South Wales dan Victoria.

Kawasan ini pertama diduduki oleh Orang Asli Australia dan Torres Strait Islanders, yang tiba di antara 40,000 dan 65,000 tahun yang lalu, menurut dengan pelbagai kaedah penarikhan.[3] Kemudian, Queensland dijadikan sebuah Crown Colony British yang diasingkan dari New South Wales pada 6 Jun 1859, suatu tarikh kini dirayaikan tahunan sebagai Hari Queensland.

Kawasan yang kini membentuk Brisbane terdahulunya koloni tahanan Moreton Bay, ditujukan sebagai sebuah tempat untuk pada banduan recidivist yang telah membaut salah sementara melakukan hukuman mereka di New South Wales. Negeri ini kemudian mengalakkan perkampungan bebas, dan kini ekonomi Queensland didominasi oleh sektor pertanian, pelancong dan sumber semulajadi.

Penduduk negeri berpadat di Queensland Tenggara, yang termasuk ibu negeri Brisbane, Logan City, Redland City, Ipswich, Toowoomba, dan Gold Coast dan Sunshine Coast. Pusat serantau utama lain termasuk Cairns, Townsville, Mackay, Rockhampton, Bundaberg, Hervey Bay, Ingham dan Mount Isa.

Queensland sering dinamasamarankan Sunshine State, sejak ia menikmati cuaca panas dan bahagian agak banyak dari negeri berada di tropics.

Etimologi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Negeri ini dinamakan dengan mulianya Ratu Victoria,[4] yang pada 6 Jun 1859 menandatangani suatu pengisytiharan mengasingkan negeri dari New South Wales. Pada waktu itu, Victoria telah menjadi sebuah raja masyhur yang umum, dan dia lebih suka sebuah nama eponymous untuk tanah jajahan baru ke atas Cooksland, yang telah dicadangkan oleh menteri Presbyterian tempatan yang berpengaruh John Dunmore Lang dengan mulianya pengendali Inggeris James Cook.[5][6] Negeri Australia selatan Victoria juga dinamakan selepas beliau.

Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Sejarah Queensland

Sejarah Queensland menjangkau beribu-ribu tahun, merangkumi kehadiran indigenous yang berpanjangan, dan juga masa-masa berperistiwa selepas penubuhan Eropah. Dianggarkan telah diduduki oleh Orang Asli Australia lebih kurang 40,000 tahun yang lalu, rantau Australia barat laut telah dijelajahi oleh ahli pelayaran Belanda, Portugis dan Perancis sebelum ditemu oleh Kapten James Cook pada 1770. Jun 2009 menandakan ulang tahun 150 dari penciptaannya sebagai sebuah tanah jajahan terasing dari New South Wales.[7] Negeri ini telah menyaksikan keadaan peperangan perbatasan di antara peneroka Eropah dan penduduk Asli, dan juga penggajian buruh murah Kanaka disumber dari South Pacific.

Geografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bandar, pekan, perkampungan dan rangakaian jalan Queensland
Rencana utama: Geografi Queensland

Queensland disempadan di utara oleh Selat Torres dengan Pulau Boigu di tepi pantai New Guinea mewakili lampau utara keseluruhannya wilayah. The triangular Semenanjung Cape York, which points toward New Guinea is the northernmost part of the state's mainland. The western side of the peninsula is washed by the Gulf of Carpentaria, while its eastern side borders the Coral Sea, an arm of the Pacific Ocean. The eastern border is the Pacific Ocean. To the west, Queensland is bordered by the Northern Territory, at the 138°E longitude, and to the south-west by the north-eastern corner of South Australia.

In the south, there are three sections that comprise its border: the watershed from Point Danger to the Dumaresq River; the river section involving the Dumaresq, the MacIntyre and the Barwon; and 29°S latitude (including some minor historical encroachments below the 29th parallel) over to the South Australian border.

The state capital is Brisbane, located on the coast 100 kilometres (60 mi) by road north of the New South Wales border. The fifth-largest city by area in the world, Mount Isa, is located in Queensland. The city area is in excess of 40,000 square kilometres (15,400 sq mi). The state is divided into several officially recognised regions. Other smaller geographical regions of note include the Atherton Tablelands, the Granite Belt, and the Channel Country in the far south-west.

Queensland has many places of natural beauty, including: the Sunshine Coast and the Gold Coast having some of the state's most popular beaches; the Bunya Mountains and the Great Dividing Range with numerous lookouts, waterfalls and picnic areas; Carnarvon Gorge; Whitsunday Islands and Hinchinbrook Island.

The state contains five World Heritage listed preservation areas: Australian Fossil Mammal Sites at Riversleigh in the Gulf Country, Gondwana Rainforests of Australia, Fraser Island, Great Barrier Reef, and the Wet Tropics of Queensland.

Cuaca[sunting | sunting sumber]

Because of its size, there is significant variation in climate across the state. Low rainfall and hot summers are typical for the inland west, a monsoonal 'wet' season in the far north, and warm temperate conditions along the coastal strip. Inland and in southern ranges low minimum temperatures are experienced. The climate of the coastal strip is influenced by warm ocean waters, keeping the region free from extremes of temperature and providing moisture for rainfall.[8]

State capital and most populous city, Brisbane

There are five predominate climatic zones in Queensland[9], based on temperature and humidity:

  • hot humid summer (far north and coastal)
  • warm humid summer (coastal elevated hinterlands and coastal south-east)
  • hot dry summer, mild winter (central west)
  • hot dry summer, cold winter (southern west)
  • temperate - warm summer, cold winter (inland south-east, e.g. Granite Belt)

However, most of the Queensland populace experience two weather seasons: a "winter" period of rather warm temperatures and minimal rainfall and a sultry summer period of hot, sticky temperatures and higher levels of rainfall.

The annual mean statistics[10] for some Queensland centres is shown below:

Bandar Min. Temp Max. Temp No. Clear days Rainfall
Brisbane 14 °C (57 °F) 26 °C (79 °F) 123 1061mm (42in)
Mackay 18 °C (64 °F) 27 °C (81 °F) 113 1667mm (66in)
Cairns 20 °C (68 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 86 2223mm (88in)
Townsville 18 °C (64 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) n/a 1144mm (45in)

The highest maximum temperature observed in the state is 49.5 °C (121 °F) at Birdsville on 24 December 1972 (The temperature of 53.1 °C (128 °F) at Cloncurry on 16 January 1889 is not considered official; the figure quoted from Birdsville is the next highest, so that record is considered as being official).

The lowest minimum temperature is −10.6 °C (13 °F) at Stanthorpe on 23 June 1961 and at The Hermitage on 12 July 1965. [11]

Demografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

A smaller proportion of Queensland's population lives in the capital city than any other mainland state. As of June 2004 the capital city represented 45.7% of the population; for the whole country, capital cities represented 63.8% of the total population.

Queensland mempunyai penduduk yang kurang berpadat dari negeri lain, dengan penduduk agak ramai di bandar-bandar serantau seperti Townsville.

Pada 9 Disember 2005, the population of Queensland officially reached 4 million. Queensland is the fastest growing state in Australia, with over 1,500 people moving to the state per week; 1,000 in the southern part of the state alone. Predictions show that Queensland will become Australia's second most populous state by the late 2020s. [12] According to Queensland's Office of Economic and Statistical Research the estimated population of the state at the end of 2007 was 4,228,290 which is almost 20% of Australia's total.

In 2007, Queensland recorded a TFR of 2.1, the highest since 1977.[13]

Ekonomi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Queensland's economy has enjoyed a boom in the tourism and mining industries over the past 20 years. A sizeable influx of interstate and overseas migrants, large amounts of federal government investment, increased mining of vast mineral deposits and an expanding aerospace sector have contributed to the state's economic growth. The 2008-09 saw the expansion slow to just 0.8% the state's worst performance in 18 years.[14]

Between 1992 and 2002, the growth in the Gross State Product of Queensland outperformed that of all the other states and territories. In that period Queensland's GSP grew 5.0% each year, while growth in Australia's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) rose on average 3.9% each year. Queensland's contribution to the Australian GDP increased by 10.4% in that period, one of only three states to do so.[15]

In 2003 Brisbane had the lowest cost of living of all Australia's capital cities. In late 2005 Brisbane was the third most expensive capital for housing after Sydney and Canberra and just ahead of Melbourne by $15,000. By 2008, Queensland had the least affordable housing of any state or territory.[16]

Primary industries include: bananas, pineapples, peanuts, a wide variety of other tropical and temperate fruit and vegetables, grain crops, wineries, cattle raising, cotton, sugar cane, wool and a mining industry including bauxite, coal, silver, lead, zinc, gold, and copper. Secondary industries are mostly further processing of the above-mentioned primary produce. For example, bauxite is shipped by sea from Weipa and converted to alumina at Gladstone.[17] There is also copper refining and the refining of sugar cane to sugar at a number of mills along the eastern coastline. Major tertiary industries are the retail trade and tourism.

Pelancongan[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Gold Coast is a major Tourist city
Fail:DSCN1033.JPG
Surfers Paradise Skyline seen from inland

Tourism is Queensland's leading tertiary industry with millions of interstate and overseas visitors flocking to the Sunshine State each year. The industry generates $4.0 billion annually, accounting for 4.5% of Queensland's GSP.[18] Queensland is a state of many landscapes that range from sunny tropical coastal areas, lush rainforests to dry inland areas.

The main tourist destinations of Queensland include, Brisbane, Far North Queensland including Cairns, Port Douglas and the Daintree Rainforest, Gold Coast, the Great Barrier Reef, Hervey Bay and nearby Fraser Island, North Queensland including Townsville and Magnetic Island, North Stradbroke Island and South Stradbroke Island, the Sunshine Coast and the Whitsundays known for Airlie Beach, Whitehaven Beach, Hamilton Island and Daydream Island.

The Gold Coast of Queensland is also sometimes referred to as "Australia's Theme Park Capital", with five major amusement parks. These are Dreamworld, Movie World, Sea World, Wet 'n' Wild and WhiteWater World.

There are also wildlife parks in Queensland, including:

Gold Coast
Sunshine Coast
Brisbane
North of Brisbane

Accommodation in Queensland caters for nearly 22% of the total expenditure, followed by restaurants/meals (15%), airfares (11%), fuel (11%) and shopping/gifts (11%).[19]

Angkutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Queensland is served by a number of National Highways and, particularly in South East Queensland, high quality motorways such as the M1.

Principal rail services are provided by Queensland Rail and Pacific National, predominantly along the coamajor ports including the Port of Brisbane and subsidiary ports at Gladstone and Townsville.

Jet Vehicle services are Provided by Greenhouse Energy, Queensland Transport, Department of Main Roads, Defence Force Reserve of Queensland, Brisbane Jet Taxi and Australian Jetlines, Predominatly along the Airports, including the Brisbane Airport, Gold Coast Airport and Cairns Airport.

Brisbane Airport is the main international and domestic gateway serving the state. Gold Coast Airport and Cairns International Airport are the two next most prominent airports, both with scheduled international flights. Other regional airports, with scheduled domestic flights, include Great Barrier Reef Airport, Hervey Bay Airport, Mackay Airport, Mount Isa Airport, Proserpine / Whitsunday Coast Airport, Rockhampton Airport, Sunshine Coast Airport and Townsville Airport.

South East Queensland is governed by an integrated public transport system, TransLink, which provides bus, rail and ferry services. Regional bus andlong-distance rail services are also provided throughout the State. Local bus services are also available in most regional centres.

Kerajaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Kerajaan Queensland

Executive authority is vested in the Governor, who represents and is appointed by Queen Elizabeth II on the advice of the Premier. The current governor is Ms. Penelope Wensley, AO. The head of government is the Premier, who is appointed by the Governor but must have the support of the Legislative Assembly. The current Premier is Anna Bligh, of the Australian Labor Party. Other ministers, forming the Executive Council, are appointed by the governor from among the members of the Legislative Assembly on the Premier's recommendation.

The Queensland Parliament or the Legislative Assembly, is unicameral. It is the only Australian state with a unicameral legislature. A bicameral system existed until 1922, when the Legislative Council was abolished by the Labor members' "suicide squad," so called because they were appointed for the purpose of voting to abolish their own offices.

The judicial system of Queensland consists of the Supreme Court and the District Court, established by the Queensland Constitution, and various other courts and tribunals established by ordinary Acts of the Queensland Parliament.

In 2001 Queensland adopted a new codified constitution, repealing most of the assorted Acts of Parliament that had previously made up the constitution. The new constitution took effect on 6 June 2002, the anniversary of the formation of the colony of Queensland by the signing of Letters Patent by Queen Victoria in 1859.

Universiti[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Brisbane Broncos are one of the most successful teams in the National Rugby League competition
The Queensland Bulls take part in Australia's domestic cricket tournaments
Rencana utama: Sport in Queensland

The state of Queensland is represented in all of Australia's national sporting competitions and is also host to a number of domestic and international sporting events. The most popular summer and winter team sports are cricket and rugby league, respectively. The annual rugby league State of Origin series is a major event in the Queensland sporting calendar.

Swimming is also a popular sport in Queensland, with a majority of Australian team members and international medalists hailing from the state. At the 2008 Summer Olympics, Queensland swimmers won all six of Australia's gold medals, all swimmers on Australia's three female (finals) relays teams were from Queensland, two of which won gold. This on top of Queensland's State of Origin dominance in which they won the third of four Origin series in succession.

Pasukan profesional utama termasuk:

Peristiwa termasuk:

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Senarai:

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. 5220.0 - Australian National Accounts: State Accounts, 2008-09 (Reissue), Australian Bureau of Statistics, 22 December 2009.
  2. 3101.0 - Australian Demographic Statistics, Jun 2009, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 3 December 2009.
  3. Dreaming Online: Indigenous Australian Timeline
  4. Place Names
  5. Dictionary of Australian Biography
  6. Queensland Government - Q150
  7. Queensland's History
  8. Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology - Climate of Queensland
  9. Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology - Australian climatic zones
  10. Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology - Climate statistics for Australian locations
  11. "Rainfall and Temperature Records: National" (PDF). Bureau of Meteorology. http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/extreme/records/national.pdf. Capaian 14 November 2009. 
  12. ABS Statistics
  13. "3301.0 - Births, Australia, 2008". Australian Bureau of Statistics. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Products/E983752D29870DCBCA25766A0012087F?opendocument. Capaian 10 January 2010. 
  14. Tom Dusevic (17 December 2009). "Queensland falls back with the pack". The Australian. News Limited. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/queensland-falls-back-with-the-pack/story-e6frg6n6-1225811164206. Capaian 10 January 2010. 
  15. "1387.3 - Queensland in Review, 2003". Australian Bureau of Statistics. http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/94713ad445ff1425ca25682000192af2/521bc90dc5faa7faca256dd90080326a!OpenDocument#GROSS%20STATE%20PRODUCT. Capaian 10 January 2010. 
  16. Torny Jensen (28 May 2008). "Queensland housing now the most unaffordable". Courier Mail. Queensland Newspapers. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 1 June 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080601054547/http://www.news.com.au/couriermail/story/0,23739,23777245-3102,00.html. Capaian 9 January 2010. 
  17. "Gladstone". www.comalco.com. Rio Tinto Aluminium. http://www.comalco.com/localcommunities/294.asp. Capaian 11 January 2010. 
  18. "About TQ - Profile". Tourism Queensland. http://www.tq.com.au/about-tq/profile/profile_home.cfm. Capaian 6 January 2010. 
  19. Tourism related information and statistics

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Queensland