Bahasa Mozarab

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Mozarabic
لتن לטן Latinus/Latino
wilayah Iberia
pupus by the Late Middle Ages
keluarga bahasa
Bahasa Indo-Eropah
kod bahasa
ISO 639-2 roa
ISO 639-3 mxi
Ethnic-Linguistic map of southwestern Europe

Bahasa Mozarab adalah kontinum dari erat berkaitan loghat Romawi dituturkan di wilayah Muslim yang didominasi dari Semenanjung Iberia selama tahap awal butang pembangunan Romance Bahasa 'di Iberia. Mozarabic turun dari Bahasa Latin Akhir dan awal Romance dialek dituturkan di Semenanjung Iberia dari 5 ke abad ke-8, dan telah berbicara sehingga abad ke-14.[1] Ini set dialek kemudian dikenali sebagaibahasaMozarabic, walaupun tidak pernah ada standard umum. (Mozarab berasal dari perkataan Arab مستعرب - musta'rab, iaitu "Diarabkan").

Nama asli[sunting | sunting sumber]

Walaupun nama Mozarabic saat ini digunakan untuk bahasa Romance banyak, nama asli (nama asli seorang pengarang atau endonim) bahasa itu bukan "muzarab" atau "mozarab" tetapi latinusatau Latino. Mozarabs sendiri tidak pernah menyebut bahasa mereka sendiri "Mozarabic" tetapi dengan nama yang bermaksud "Latin" (iaitu Romance Bahasa). Mereka tidak menyebut diri oleh nama "mozarab".

Pada masyarakat masa Kristian makmur di Muslim Sepanyol; orang-orang Kristian sekarang biasanya disebut sebagai Mozárabes, walaupun istilah itu tidak digunakan pada waktu (Hitchcock 1978)

Ia hanya pada abad ke-19 sejarawan Sepanyol mula menggunakan kata-kata "mozarab" dan "Mozarabic" untuk merujuk kepada orang-orang Kristian yang tinggal di bawah kekuasaan Islam di Semenanjung Iberia di Abad Pertengahan, dan mereka Bahasa. Lain yang sangat umum Arab exonym untuk bahasa ini adalahal-ajamiya("orang asing / asing") yang mengandungi makna bahasa Romance di Al-Andalus. Jadi kata-kata "Mozarabic" atau "ajamiya" yang exonyms dan bukan nama asli seorang pengarang Bahasa.

Roger Wright, dalam bukunya tentang evolusi Bahasa Roman awal di Perancis dan di Semenanjung IberiaLatin Akhir dan Awal Romance di Sepanyol dan Carolingian Perancis, muka surat 156, menyatakan bahawa:

The Romance Awal Muslim Sepanyol dikenali kepada pengguna sebagai'latinus. Kata ini boleh menyebabkan kekeliruan; para ulama Visigothic menggunakannya untuk kontras dengan Greek atau Ibrani, dan Simonet (1888: XXIII-IV, XXXV-VII) yang ditubuhkan bahawa dalam Islam Sepanyol itu digunakan untuk merujuk kepada bukan bahasa Arab basahan (sebagai adalah perkataan Arab Al-Lathinī)

Juga di dalam buku yang sama, muka surat 158, penulis menyatakan bahawa:

Kegunaan latinus bererti Latin-Romawi, sebagai lawan Arab, juga ditemui di utara sempadan agama

Ini bermakna bahawa kata latinus atau Latin mempunyai makna bahasa cinta diucapkan dan hanya kontras dengan Latin klasik (lingua Latina) beberapa abad kemudian. Untuk speaker romance kontemporari dari Semenanjung Iberia pada waktu itu bahasa vernakular berbicara mereka dipandang sebagai "Latin". Hal ini terjadi kerana Latin klasik dipandang sebagai pidato berpendidikan bukan sebagai bahasa yang berbeza.

Satu masalah penting merujuk dalam bahasa Romance tua adalah nama yang Sephardic Yahudi berikan kepada bahasa Romance berbicara mereka di Iberia - Ladino namadan juga bahawa orang Alp berbicara asmara, yang Ladins, memberi kepada bahasa mereka - Laden .

Di Semenanjung Iberia:

Perkataan Ladino (<LATINUM) selamat dengan linguistik erti tertentu "bahasa Sepanyol yang ditulis oleh orang-orang Yahudi" (Roger Wright 1982, hal 158)

This is one of the main reasons why Iberian Jews (Sephardim) from central and southern regions called their everyday language ladino, because this word had the sense of spoken Romance language (Ladino is today a Romance language more closely related to Spanish, mainly to Old Spanish, spoken by some Jews of Sephardic ancestry).

In the Alps: For the same reason, speakers of ladin, another Romance language (spoken in eastern Switzerland in two valleys in Graubünden and northern Italy in the Trentino Alto-Ádige/Südtirol and Veneto regions), call their own language ladin i.e. "Latin".

This word had the sense of spoken Romance language not only in Iberian Peninsula but also in other Romance language regions in early Middle Ages.

Tulisan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Because Mozarabic was not a language of high culture, it had no official script. Unlike most Romance languages, Mozarabic was primarily written in the Arabic alphabet rather than the Latin alphabet, though it was also written in the Latin alphabet and less so in the Hebrew alphabet. Most documents were in the Arabic alphabet. Mozarab scholars wrote words of the Romance vernacular in alternative scripts in the margins or in the subtitles of Latin language texts (glosses).

The two languages of culture in Medieval Iberia were Latin in the north (although it was also used in the south by Mozarab scholars) and Arabic in the south (which was the principal literary language of Mozarab scholars). These are the languages that constitute the great majority of written documents of the Peninsula at that time.

Mozarabic is first documented in writing in the Peninsula as choruses (kharjas) (9th century) in Arabic lyrics called muwashshahs. As these were written in the Arabic alphabet, the vowels had to be reconstructed when transliterating it into Latin script.

Morfologi and phonetics[sunting | sunting sumber]

In some aspects, it is more archaic than the other Romance languages. Based on the written documents that are identified as Mozarabic, some examples of these more archaic features are the preservation of the Latin consonant clusters CL, FL, PL, and intervocalic P, T and C (K) as voiceless, as in the Mozarabic words lopa (she-wolf), toto (all) and formica (ant).

The morphology of some words is closer to Latin than other Iberian Romance or Romance languages in general. This Romance variety had a significant impact in the formation of Portuguese, Spanish and especially Andalusian Spanish, which explains why these languages have several words of Andalusi Arabic origin (Mozarabic was, understandably, quite influenced by Arabic and vice versa).

It was spoken by Mozarabs (Christians living as dhimmis), Muladis (the native Iberian population converted to Islam) and some layers of the ruling Arabs and Berbers. The cultural language of Mozarabs continued to be Latin, but as time passed, young Mozarabs studied and even excelled at Arabic. Due to the northwards migration of Mozarabs, we can find Arabic placenames in areas where Islamic rule did not last long. With the deepening of Islamization and the advance of the Reconquista, Mozarabic was substituted either by Arabic or by Northern Romance varieties, depending on the area and century.

Documents in Mozarabic (Old Southern Iberian Romance)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Some texts found in manuscripts of poetry in Muslim Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus), although mainly written in Arabic, have however some stanzas in mozarabic (Latino) or in what seems to be Mozarabic. These are important texts because there are few examples of written Mozarabic language.

In Late Latin and Early romance Roger Wright also makes an analysis of these poetry texts known as kharjas:

Muslim Spain has acquired philological interest for a further reason: the kharjas. These are apparently bilingual (Arabic-Romance) or macaronic final stanzas of some verses in the Hispano-Arabic muwashshaha form discovered in some Arabic and Hebrew manuscripts (...). Analyses of these have been hampered in the past by the belief that we know too little about mozárabe Romance to discuss the "Romance" element on a sound basis; but this is not entirely true. (...) The detailed investigations by Galmés de Fuentes (e.g. 1977, 1980) on later documents and toponyms have established the main features of mozárabe phonology, and many features of its morphology (...). The conclusion seems to be that mozárabe Romance is not particularly different from that of other parts of Iberia.

Tulisan contoh (abad ke-11)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bahasa Mozarab: Bahasa Sepanyol: Bahasa Catalan: Bahasa Portugis: Bahasa Latin: Bahasa Arab Piawai Transliterasi bahasa Arab Bahasa Inggeris Bahasa Sepanyol Lama:

Mio sîdî ïbrâhîm
yâ tú, uemme dolge!
Fente mib
de nohte.
In non, si non keris,
irey-me tib,
gari-me a ob
legar-te.

Mi señor Ibrahim,
¡o tú, hombre dulce!
Ven a mí
de noche.
Si no, si no quieres,
yo me iré contigo,
dime dónde
encontrarte.

El meu senyor Ibrahim,
oh tu, home dolç!
Vine't a mi
de nit.
Si no, si no vols,
aniré'm a tu,
digues-me a on
trobar-te.

Meu senhor Ibrahim,
ó tu, homem doce!
Vem a mim
de noite.
Se não, se não quiseres,
ir-me-ei a ti,
diz-me onde
encontrar-te.

O domine mi Ibrahim,
o tu, homo dulcis!
Veni mihi
nocte.
Si non, si non vis,
ibo tibi,
dic mihi ubi
te inveniam.

سيدي إبراهيم،
يا رجلاً حلواً.
تعال اليَّ
باليل.
وإن كنت لا تريد،
سأذهب أنا إليك.
قل لي أين
أجدك.

Sīdi ʾibrāhīm
yā rajulan ħulwan!
taʿāla ʾilay-ya
bi-l-layli
wa-ʾin kunta lā turīdu
sa-ʾaðhabu ʾanā ilay-ka
qul l-ī ʾayna
ʾajidu-ka

My lord Ibrahim,
O you, sweet man!
Come to me
at night.
If not, if you do not want to come,
I shall go to you,
tell me where
to find you.

Mi Sennor Ibrahim,

o te, dolçe omber!
fente a mi
de nogtie.
Se nonn, se nonn gieres,
dezeme obe
incontrarete.

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

References[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Menéndez Pidal, Ramón. (2005). Historia de la Lengua Española (2 Vols.). Madrid: Fundación Ramón Menendez Pidal. ISBN 84-89934-11-8
  • Wright, Roger. (1982). Late Latin and Early Romance in Spain and Carolingian France. Liverpool: University of Liverpool (Francis Cairns, Robin Seager). ISBN 0-905205-12-X

External links[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Romance languages